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Aliases for GK Gene

Aliases for GK Gene

  • Glycerol Kinase 2 3 5
  • ATP:Glycerol 3-Phosphotransferase 3 4
  • Glycerokinase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GK1 3
  • GKD 3

External Ids for GK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GK Gene

  • GC0XP029171
  • GC0XP029355
  • GC0XP029873
  • GC0XP030032
  • GC0XP030431
  • GC0XP030581
  • GC0XP028409

Summaries for GK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GK Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the FGGY kinase family. This protein is a key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of glycerol by ATP, yielding ADP and glycerol-3-phosphate. Mutations in this gene are associated with glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GK Gene

GK (Glycerol Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GK include Glycerol Kinase Deficiency and Glycerol Kinase Deficiency, Adult Form. Among its related pathways are glycerol degradation and Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). GO annotations related to this gene include kinase activity and glycerol kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

  • Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GK Gene

Genomics for GK Gene

Regulatory Elements for GK Gene

Enhancers for GK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GK Gene

30,653,359 bp from pter
30,731,462 bp from pter
78,104 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GK Gene

Genes around GK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GK Gene

Proteins for GK Gene

  • Protein details for GK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycerol kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NJP5
    • B2R833
    • Q6IQ27
    • Q8IVR5
    • Q9UMP0
    • Q9UMP1

    Protein attributes for GK Gene

    559 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61245 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA48346.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=201, 210, 459; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for GK Gene


neXtProt entry for GK Gene

Proteomics data for GK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GK Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 31 and Lys 86
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GK Gene

Gene Families for GK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GK: view

Function for GK Gene

Molecular function for GK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glycerol kinase,cytosolic
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042393 histone binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GK: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GK Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

miRNA for GK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GK

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GK Gene

Localization for GK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm. Note=In sperm and fetal tissues, the majority of the enzyme is bound to mitochondria, but in adult tissues, such as liver found in the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GK gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
plasma membrane 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GK Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GK: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P32189-GLPK_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Polyol metabolism; glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway; sn-glycerol 3-phosphate from glycerol: step 1/1.

SIGNOR curated interactions for GK Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006072 glycerol-3-phosphate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0019217 regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042593 glucose homeostasis IEA --
GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK: view

Drugs & Compounds for GK Gene

(9) Drugs for GK Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Norepinephrine Approved Pharma 654
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Glycerol Experimental Pharma 205

(13) Additional Compounds for GK Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
glycerol 3-phosphate
  • 1-(Dihydrogen phosphate) Glycerol
  • 1-Glycerophosphate
  • 1-Glycerophosphorate
  • 1-Glycerophosphoric acid
  • 3-Glycerophosphate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GK: view

Transcripts for GK Gene

Unigene Clusters for GK Gene

Glycerol kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x13.9) and Liver (x9.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (20.6), Lung (7.6), and Kidney (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GK Gene Hs.1466

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GK Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the liver, kidney and testis. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 are expressed specifically in testis and fetal liver, but not in the adult liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GK: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GK Gene

Orthologs for GK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 92.96 (n)
  • 96.42 (a)
-- 36
  • 94 (a)
GK 36
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 93.8 (n)
  • 96.78 (a)
GK 36
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gykl1 35
  • 82.7 (n)
  • 82.33 (a)
Gykl1 16
Gyk 36
  • 97 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 99.76 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GK 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gykl1 35
  • 82.57 (n)
  • 83.24 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
-- 36
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GK 35
  • 79.17 (n)
  • 84.92 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gk 35
  • 76.51 (n)
  • 85.69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.15006 35
zgc:172295 35
  • 72.35 (n)
  • 80.27 (a)
GK2 36
  • 78 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2723 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1271 37
  • 25 (a)
CG7995 37
  • 49 (a)
CG8298 37
  • 38 (a)
Gyk 37
  • 52 (a)
Gk 35
  • 51.24 (n)
  • 48.7 (a)
CG8298 36
  • 37 (a)
Gk 36
  • 45 (a)
Gyk 36
  • 52 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001563 35
  • 51.46 (n)
  • 52.7 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C55B6.1 37
  • 24 (a)
R11F4.1 37
  • 49 (a)
R11F4.1 35
  • 54.14 (n)
  • 51.11 (a)
R11F4.1 36
  • 50 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACL069C 35
  • 50.19 (n)
  • 50.34 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E00595g 35
  • 53.35 (n)
  • 51.57 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GUT1 35
  • 51.43 (n)
  • 48.72 (a)
GUT1 36
  • 33 (a)
GUT1 38
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.9384 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11967 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06005 35
  • 52.02 (n)
  • 51.49 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4742 36
  • 63 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GK:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for GK Gene

Gene Tree for GK (if available)
Gene Tree for GK (if available)

Paralogs for GK Gene

Paralogs for GK Gene Pseudogenes for GK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GK: view

Variants for GK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_001374 -
VAR_001375 -
VAR_001376 -
VAR_001377 Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD)
VAR_010138 Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2740053 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for GK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 11.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.15; 3.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GK Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

Disorders for GK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for GK Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards


  • Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) [MIM:307030]: A metabolic disorder manifesting as 3 clinically distinct forms: infantile, juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is the most severe and is associated with severe developmental delay and adrenal insufficiency. Patients with the adult form have no symptoms and are often detected fortuitously. GKD results in hyperglycerolemia, a condition characterized by the accumulation of glycerol in the blood and urine. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10736265, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8651297, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9719371}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for GK Gene

hyperglycerolemia,pseudohypertriglyceridemia,sometimes presenting with hypoglycemia,ketoacidosis and recurrent convulsions in infancy

Relevant External Links for GK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GK: view

Publications for GK Gene

  1. The glycerol kinase gene family: structure of the Xp gene, and related intronless retroposons. (PMID: 7987308) Sargent C.A. … Affara N.A. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1994) 2 3 4 67
  2. Asymptomatic isolated human glycerol kinase deficiency associated with splice-site mutations and nonsense-mediated decay of mutant RNA. (PMID: 16549535) Zhang Y.H. … Dipple K.M. (Pediatr. Res. 2006) 3 23
  3. Human and murine glycerol kinase: influence of exon 18 alternative splicing on function. (PMID: 15845384) Ohira R.H. … McCabe E.R. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 3 23
  4. Glycerol metabolism and the determination of triglycerides--clinical, biochemical and molecular findings in six subjects. (PMID: 12636049) Hellerud C. … Lindstedt S. (Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2003) 3 23
  5. Characterization of the human glycerol kinase promoter: identification of a functional HNF-4alpha binding site and evidence for transcriptional activation. (PMID: 14654354) Stepanian S.V. … Dipple K.M. (Mol. Genet. Metab. 2003) 3 23

Products for GK Gene

Sources for GK Gene