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Aliases for GK Gene

Aliases for GK Gene

  • Glycerol Kinase 2 3
  • ATP:Glycerol 3-Phosphotransferase 3 4
  • Glycerokinase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GK1 3
  • GKD 3

External Ids for GK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GK Gene

  • GC0XP029171
  • GC0XP029355
  • GC0XP029873
  • GC0XP030032
  • GC0XP030431
  • GC0XP030581
  • GC0XP028409

Summaries for GK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GK Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the FGGY kinase family. This protein is a key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of glycerol by ATP, yielding ADP and glycerol-3-phosphate. Mutations in this gene are associated with glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GK Gene

GK (Glycerol Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GK include glycerol kinase deficiency and isolated glycerol kinase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). GO annotations related to this gene include kinase activity and glycerol kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

  • Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GK Gene

Genomics for GK Gene

Regulatory Elements for GK Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GK Gene

30,653,359 bp from pter
30,731,462 bp from pter
78,104 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GK Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GK Gene

Proteins for GK Gene

  • Protein details for GK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycerol kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NJP5
    • B2R833
    • Q6IQ27
    • Q8IVR5
    • Q9UMP0
    • Q9UMP1

    Protein attributes for GK Gene

    559 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61245 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA48346.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=201, 210, 459; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for GK Gene


neXtProt entry for GK Gene

Proteomics data for GK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GK Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 31 and Lys 86
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GK Gene

Gene Families for GK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GK: view

Function for GK Gene

Molecular function for GK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glycerol kinase,cytosolic
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004370 glycerol kinase activity NAS 8401584
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21988832
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016773 phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GK: view

Animal Models for GK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GK:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GK

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GK

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GK Gene

Localization for GK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm. Note=In sperm and fetal tissues, the majority of the enzyme is bound to mitochondria, but in adult tissues, such as liver found in the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GK gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK: view

Pathways & Interactions for GK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GK: view

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P32189-GLPK_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Polyol metabolism; glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway; sn-glycerol 3-phosphate from glycerol: step 1/1

SIGNOR curated interactions for GK Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process --
GO:0006071 glycerol metabolic process IMP 8499898
GO:0006072 glycerol-3-phosphate metabolic process --
GO:0006641 triglyceride metabolic process IMP 8651297
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK: view

Drugs & Compounds for GK Gene

(9) Drugs for GK Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Norepinephrine Approved Pharma 206
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker Potent PPARγ agonist 219
Glycerol Experimental Pharma 176
Dihydroxyacetone Experimental Pharma 0

(13) Additional Compounds for GK Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
glycerol 3-phosphate
  • 1-(Dihydrogen phosphate) Glycerol
  • 1-Glycerophosphate
  • 1-Glycerophosphorate
  • 1-Glycerophosphoric acid
  • 3-Glycerophosphate
  • 1-Methylglycocyamidine
  • 1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide
  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-1,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one
  • 2-Amino-1-methylimidazolin-4-one
  • Creatine anhydride
Fatty acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GK: view

Transcripts for GK Gene

Unigene Clusters for GK Gene

Glycerol kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GK

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GK Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x13.9) and Liver (x9.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (20.6), Lung (7.6), and Kidney (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GK Gene Hs.1466

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GK Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the liver, kidney and testis. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 are expressed specifically in testis and fetal liver, but not in the adult liver
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GK: view

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GK Gene

Orthologs for GK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 92.96 (n)
  • 96.42 (a)
-- 36
  • 94 (a)
GK 36
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 93.8 (n)
  • 96.78 (a)
GK 36
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gykl1 35
  • 82.7 (n)
  • 82.33 (a)
Gyk 16
Gyk 36
  • 97 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GK 35
  • 99.76 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GK 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gykl1 35
  • 82.57 (n)
  • 83.24 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
-- 36
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GK 35
  • 79.17 (n)
  • 84.92 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gk 35
  • 76.51 (n)
  • 85.69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.15006 35
zgc:172295 35
  • 72.35 (n)
  • 80.27 (a)
GK2 36
  • 78 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2723 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1271 37
  • 25 (a)
CG7995 37
  • 49 (a)
CG8298 37
  • 38 (a)
Gyk 37
  • 52 (a)
Gk 35
  • 51.24 (n)
  • 48.7 (a)
CG8298 36
  • 37 (a)
Gk 36
  • 45 (a)
Gyk 36
  • 52 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001563 35
  • 51.46 (n)
  • 52.7 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C55B6.1 37
  • 24 (a)
R11F4.1 37
  • 49 (a)
R11F4.1 35
  • 54.14 (n)
  • 51.11 (a)
R11F4.1 36
  • 50 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACL069C 35
  • 50.19 (n)
  • 50.34 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E00595g 35
  • 53.35 (n)
  • 51.57 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GUT1 35
  • 51.43 (n)
  • 48.72 (a)
GUT1 36
  • 33 (a)
GUT1 38
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.9384 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11967 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06005 35
  • 52.02 (n)
  • 51.49 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4742 36
  • 63 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GK:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for GK Gene

Gene Tree for GK (if available)
Gene Tree for GK (if available)

Paralogs for GK Gene

Paralogs for GK Gene Pseudogenes for GK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GK: view

Variants for GK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs619 -- 30,695,846(+) TTGAA(A/G)CATGA intron-variant
rs620 -- 30,695,940(+) TGTTC(C/T)GTTCT intron-variant
rs728149 -- 30,655,752(+) TCACT(A/G)CAGGT intron-variant
rs931240 -- 30,716,832(+) TATTT(C/G)TTGAA intron-variant
rs967785 -- 30,656,143(+) GAGAG(A/G)TTGCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2740053 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for GK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 11.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.15; 3.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK Gene

Disorders for GK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for GK Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards


  • Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) [MIM:307030]: A metabolic disorder manifesting as 3 clinically distinct forms: infantile, juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is the most severe and is associated with severe developmental delay and adrenal insufficiency. Patients with the adult form have no symptoms and are often detected fortuitously. GKD results in hyperglycerolemia, a condition characterized by the accumulation of glycerol in the blood and urine. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10736265, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8651297, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9719371}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for GK Gene

hyperglycerolemia,pseudohypertriglyceridemia,sometimes presenting with hypoglycemia,ketoacidosis and recurrent convulsions in infancy

Relevant External Links for GK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GK: view

Publications for GK Gene

  1. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense glycerol kinase. (PMID: 20208167) Balogun E.O. … Kita K. (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 2010) 23 67
  2. A case of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, central precocious puberty and absence of the DAX-1 gene: implications for pubertal regulation. (PMID: 19339795) Loke K.Y. … Lai P.S. (Horm. Res. 2009) 23 67
  3. [Contiguous gene deletion syndrome in Xp21: an unusual form of presentation]. (PMID: 19859888) Sanz-Ruiz I. … CodoA+er-Franch P. (Rev Neurol 2009) 23 67
  4. [Hyperglycerolemia, a pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia: a case report]. (PMID: 19423413) Fabiani Romero F. … Cruz C. (An Pediatr (Barc) 2009) 23 67
  5. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identifies biomarkers in glycerol kinase deficient mice. (PMID: 19546021) MacLennan N.K. … McCabe E.R. (Mol. Genet. Metab. 2009) 23 67

Products for GK Gene

Sources for GK Gene

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