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GJA10 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 49
GCID: GC06P090604

Gap Junction Protein, Alpha 10, 62kDa

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at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Gap Junction Protein, Alpha 10, 62kDa1 2     Gap Junction Alpha-10 Protein2
CX622 3 5     Connexin-623
Connexin 621 2     Cx623
connexin-622     

External Ids:    HGNC: 169951   Entrez Gene: 846942   Ensembl: ENSG000001353557   OMIM: 6119245   UniProtKB: Q969M23   

Export aliases for GJA10 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M039264 GC01M038347 GC01M038803 GC01M038742 GC01M038743 GC01M038998 GC01M039009 GC01M039102 GC06P090661 GC06P087823


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GJA10 Gene:
Connexins, such as GJA10, are involved in the formation of gap junctions, intercellular conduits that directly
connect the cytoplasms of contacting cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of 2 hemichannels,
each of which contains 6 connexin subunits (Sohl et al., 2003 (PubMed 12881038)).(supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GJA10 Gene:
GJA10 (gap junction protein, alpha 10, 62kDa) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include gap junction channel activity. An important paralog of this gene is GJB3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2
Function: One gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons,
through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. Involved in tracer coupling
between horizontal cells of the retina. May play a role in the regulation of horizontal cell patterning (By
similarity)

summary for GJA10 Gene:
Gap channels (also known as gap junctions) are specalized cell-cell contacts between almost all eukaryotic
cells that provide direct intracellular communication. Generally, gap channels allow the passive diffusion
of molecules up to 1 kDa which includes nutrients, small metabolites (e.g. glucose), ions (K+, Ca2+) and
second messengers (IP3, cAMP and cGMP). Gap channels allow electrical and biochemical coupling between cells
and in excitable tissues, such as neurons and the heart, enables the generation of synchronized and rapid
responses. Structurally, gap channels are composed of two hemichannels called 'connexons', which themselves
are formed from six connexin molecules. Homo- and heteromeric combinations are seen, which exhibit distinct
permeability, selectivity and functional properties. Pannexins are related to connexins and can also form
gap junctions. However, their expression is limited to the brain. Furthermore, in nonchordate animals a
family of proteins called innexins form these channels. Gap channels are regulated through
post-translational modifications of the C'-terminal cytoplasmic tail and phosphorylation modulates assembly
and their physiological properties. They are continuously synthesized and degraded, allowing tissues to
rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Connexins play a key role in many physiological
processes including cardiac and smooth muscle contraction, regulation of neuronal excitability, epithelial
electrolyte transport and keratinocyte differentiation. Mutations in connexin genes are associated with
human diseases including sensorineural deafness, a variety of skin disorders, peripheral neuropathy and
cardiovascular disease.

Gene Wiki entry for GJA10 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_025741.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GJA10 gene promoter:
         AP-1   Pbx1a   Nkx2-2   STAT5A   Egr-4   Egr-2   IRF-2   IRF-7A   ZID   Pax-4a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGJA10 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GJA10

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GJA10


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6q15-q16   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6q15   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6q15-q16

GJA10 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GJA10 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P090604:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
90,604,188 bp from pter      End:
90,605,839 bp from pter
Size:
1,652 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gap junction alpha-10 protein  
Size: 543 amino acids; 61872 Da
Subunit: A connexon is composed of a hexamer of connexins (By similarity)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GJA10: NX_Q969M2

Explore proteomics data for GJA10 at MOPED


See GJA10 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins: NP_115991.1  
ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000358358  
Reactome Protein details: Q969M2

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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HGNC Gene Families:
GJ: Ion channels / Gap junction proteins (connexins)

IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Cx62
Connexins and Pannexins

4 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR000500 Connexin
 IPR019570 Connexin_CCC
 IPR013092 Connexin_N
 IPR017990 Connexin_CS

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q969M2

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q969M2

1 Blocks protein domain: IPB013092 Connexin

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2
Similarity: Belongs to the connexin family. Alpha-type (group II) subfamily


Find genes that share domains with GJA10           About GenesLikeMe


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2
Function: One gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons,
through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. Involved in tracer coupling
between horizontal cells of the retina. May play a role in the regulation of horizontal cell patterning (By
similarity)

     Genatlas biochemistry entry for GJA10:
gap junction protein alpha 10,31.1kB,(connexin 31.1),expressed in epidermis,mouse Cx 31.1 homolog,monomer of the
connexon (six subunits)

     Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005243gap junction channel activity TAS--
     
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Phenotypes:
     3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Gja10):
 nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  vision/eye 

Find genes that share phenotypes with GJA10           About GenesLikeMe

Animal Models:
   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GJA10
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   genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GJA10
   genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GJA10

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Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GJA10

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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (By similarity). Cell junction, gap junction (By
similarity)
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

CompartmentConfidence
plasma membrane5

Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
GO:0005921gap junction ----
GO:0005922connexon complex IEA--
GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

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(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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SuperPaths for GJA10 About    
See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1Gap junction trafficking
Gap junction trafficking0.93
Gap junction assembly0.00
Gap junction trafficking and regulation0.93
2Electric Transmission Across Gap Junctions
Electric Transmission Across Gap Junctions
Transmission across Electrical Synapses0.00
3Transmission across Chemical Synapses
Neuronal System0.68
4Clathrin derived vesicle budding
Membrane Trafficking0.32


Find genes that share SuperPaths with GJA10           About GenesLikeMe

Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
Show all pathways


2 Reactome Pathways for GJA10
    Gap junction assembly
Electric Transmission Across Gap Junctions


    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for GJA10
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GJA10

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 19)

Selected Interacting proteins for GJA10 (ENSP000003583584) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 19)
InteractantInteraction Details
GeneCardExternal ID(s)
GJA1ENSP000002825614STRING: ENSP00000282561
GJA3ENSP000002411254STRING: ENSP00000241125
GJA4ENSP000003436764STRING: ENSP00000343676
GJA5ENSP000002713484STRING: ENSP00000271348
GJA8ENSP000002409864STRING: ENSP00000240986
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Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 6):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0007268synaptic transmission TAS--
GO:0007276gamete generation IEA--
GO:0007416synapse assembly IEA--
GO:0009416response to light stimulus ----
GO:0050908detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception IEA--

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(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Compounds for GJA10 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
CompoundAction CAS #
Gap 27Selective gap junction blocker[198284-64-9]
Scrambled 10Panx Scrambled version of 10Panx (Cat. No. 3348), Panx-1 mimetic inhibitory peptide [1315378-72-3]
Carbenoxolone disodiumGap junction blocker. Also inhibitor of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase[7421-40-1]
10PanxPanx-1 mimetic inhibitory peptide; blocks pannexin-1 gap junctions[955091-53-9]

4 IUPHAR Ligands for GJA10 (Cx62)    About this table
LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
flufenamic acid
InhibitorNone--
octanol
InhibitorNone--
Ca2+
InhibitorNone--
carbenoxolone
InhibitorNone--



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for GJA10 gene: 
NM_032602.1  

Unigene Cluster for GJA10:

Gap junction protein, alpha 10, 62kDa
Hs.334499
Unigene Representative Sequence: AF296766
1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000369352(uc011eaa.2)
miRNA
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OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GJA10 (NM_032602)
DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GJA10
Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GJA10
Primer
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  QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GJA10

Additional mRNA sequence: AF296766.1 

1 DOTS entry:

DT.95232530 

2 AceView cDNA sequences:

NM_032602 AF296766 

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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GJA10 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: GAACTATCAC
GJA10 Expression
About this image


GJA10 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
 selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
 
 Neurons
         Mature Horizontal Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
 
 Eye (Sensory Organs)
         Mature Horizontal Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
GJA10 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

GJA10 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.334499

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: CXA10_HUMAN, Q969M2
Tissue specificity: Expressed in skeletal muscle and heart

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In Situ
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(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GJA10 gene from Selected species (see all 9)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gja101 , 5 gap junction protein, alpha 101, 5 83.85(n)1
81.44(a)1
  4 (14.25 cM)5
146101  NM_010289.21  NP_034419.21 
 326006445 
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GJA101 gap junction protein, alpha 10, 62kDa 62.31(n)
62.31(a)
  771878  XM_001235096.1  XP_001235097.1 
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GJA106
gap junction protein, alpha 10, 62kDa
79(a)
1 ↔ 1
1(174622429-174623154)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cx52.66
cx52.76
(see all 3)
connexin 52.7
(see all 3)
48(a)
44(a)
(see all 3)
many ↔ many
many ↔ many
(see all 3)
20(23942624-23946482) ENSDARG00000034930
17(15585329-15588535) ENSDARG00000057792


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GJA10 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for GJA10 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for GJA10 gene
GJB32  GJD32  GJB62  GJB42  GJB22  GJB72  GJA42  GJB52  
GJA12  GJC12  GJC22  GJA52  GJD22  GJA32  GJA92  GJA82  
GJB12  
11 SIMAP similar genes for GJA10 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     CXA10_HUMAN:
GJA3    GJA4    GJA1    GJA9    GJA5    GJB5
GJB4    GJC1    GJA8    GJB7    GJB3

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(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for GJA10 (see all 129)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 6 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
rs177643081,2
C,F,H--90602268(+) TTTTAT/CAGGTT 1 -- us2k113Minor allele frequency- C:0.09NA NS EA CSA 1103
rs1149284431,2
C,F--90602455(+) GCATGA/TCCTTG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.10WA NA 238
rs77747231,2
C,F--90602535(+) ataggC/Tgcaca 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.07WA 120
rs77746041,2
C,F--90602556(+) tggctA/Catttt 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.23WA NA 122
rs2922431,2
C,F,A--90602625(-) gatgaC/Tgaggt 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.29WA NA CSA 7
rs2922421,2
C,A--90602631(-) CGGGCA/GGATGA 1 -- us2k10--------
rs93626971,2
C--90602680(+) CACTGC/TGCCCA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
rs177077381,2
C,F,H--90602735(+) TGGAAG/AGAGAG 1 -- us2k1 tfbs3 trp320Minor allele frequency- A:0.10NA NS EA WA 2368
rs1385104081,2
--90602739(+) AGGAGA/GGAATT 1 -- us2k10--------
rs803195011,2
F--90602766(+) TTTTTA/G/TGAAAC 1 -- us2k11NA 2

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GJA10 (90604188 - 90605839 bp)

Structural Variations
      Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for GJA10: --
Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GJA10
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GJA10

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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OMIM gene information: 611924    OMIM disorders: --


Find genes that share disorders with GJA10           About GenesLikeMe

Genetic Association Database (GAD): GJA10
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GJA10 (3 documents)

Export disorders for GJA10 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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PubMed articles for GJA10 gene integrated from 10 sources:
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GJA10)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity. (PubMed id 19773279)1, 4 Hosgood H.D....Lan Q. (Occup Environ Med 2009)
  2. Expression profiles of the novel human connexin genes hCx30.2, hCx40.1, and hCx62 differ from their putative mouse orthologues. (PubMed id 12881038)1, 2 Soehl G.... Willecke K. (Cell Commun. Adhes. 2003)
  3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. (PubMed id 14574404)2 Mungall A.J.... Beck S. (Nature 2003)
  4. Structural and functional diversity of connexin genes in the mouse and human genome. (PubMed id 12108537)2 Willecke K.... Soehl G. (Biol. Chem. 2002)
  5. (PubMed id )2 

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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Entrez Gene: 84694 HGNC: 16995 AceView: CX62 Ensembl:ENSG00000135355 euGenes: HUgn84694
ECgene: GJA10 H-InvDB: GJA10

(According to HUGE)
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(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for GJA10 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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Patent Information for GJA10 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving GJA10

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



(Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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