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Aliases for GHRL Gene

Aliases for GHRL Gene

  • Ghrelin/Obestatin Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Ghrelin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Ligand 2 3
  • Prepro-Appetite Regulatory Hormone 2 3
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide 3 4
  • Motilin-Related Peptide 3 4
  • MTLRP 3 4
  • Ghrelin/Obestatin Preprohormone 3
  • Appetite-Regulating Hormone 3
  • Growth Hormone Secretagogue 4
  • Protein M46 4

External Ids for GHRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GHRL Gene

  • GC03M010256
  • GC03M010302

Summaries for GHRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GHRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein that is cleaved to yield two peptides, ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is a powerful appetite stimulant and plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Its secretion is initiated when the stomach is empty, whereupon it binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in the hypothalamus which results in the secretion of growth hormone (somatotropin). Ghrelin is thought to regulate multiple activities, including hunger, reward perception via the mesolimbic pathway, gastric acid secretion, gastrointestinal motility, and pancreatic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. It was initially proposed that obestatin plays an opposing role to ghrelin by promoting satiety and thus decreasing food intake, but this action is still debated. Recent reports suggest multiple metabolic roles for obestatin, including regulating adipocyte function and glucose metabolism. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may potentially regulate ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for GHRL Gene

GHRL (Ghrelin/Obestatin Prepropeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GHRL include gastroparesis and eating disorder. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor binding and growth hormone-releasing hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

  • Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation

  • Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GHRL Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GHRL Gene

Genomics for GHRL Gene

Regulatory Elements for GHRL Gene

Genomic Location for GHRL Gene

Start:
10,285,675 bp from pter
End:
10,292,947 bp from pter
Size:
7,273 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GHRL Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GHRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GHRL Gene

Proteins for GHRL Gene

  • Protein details for GHRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UBU3-GHRL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Appetite-regulating hormone
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UBU3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8CF34
    • A8CF38
    • A8CF42
    • A8DN29
    • A8DN30
    • Q86YP8
    • Q8TAT9
    • Q9H3R3

    Protein attributes for GHRL Gene

    Size:
    117 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12911 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GHRL Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GHRL Gene

neXtProt entry for GHRL Gene

Proteomics data for GHRL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GHRL Gene

  • Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.
  • O-octanoylation or O-decanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The O-decanoylated forms Ghrelin-27-C10 and Ghrelin-28-C10 differ in the length of the carbon backbone of the carboxylic acid bound to Ser-26. A small fraction of ghrelin, ghrelin-28-C10:1, may be modified with a singly unsaturated carboxylic acid (PubMed:10604470).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GHRL Gene

Domains for GHRL Gene

Gene Families for GHRL Gene

HGNC:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GHRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UBU3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GHRL_HUMAN :
  • Q9UBU3
Family:
  • Belongs to the motilin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GHRL: view

Function for GHRL Gene

Molecular function for GHRL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding ISS 10604470
GO:0005179 hormone activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016608 growth hormone-releasing hormone activity TAS 16511605
GO:0030296 protein tyrosine kinase activator activity IMP 15350694
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GHRL: view

Animal Models for GHRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GHRL:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GHRL

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GHRL Gene

Localization for GHRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GHRL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GHRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 15039149
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0030424 axon IDA 17113048
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view

Pathways for GHRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GHRL: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IMP 15350694
GO:0001696 gastric acid secretion IBA --
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 15572208
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process NAS 17392603
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 16511605
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view

Compounds for GHRL Gene

(122) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GHRL Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hexarelin 88.7 57
ghrp 86.8 27
oxyntomodulin 79.6 23
glucose 75 348
prepromotilin 73.2 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GHRL: view

Transcripts for GHRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for GHRL Gene

Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GHRL

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GHRL Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for GHRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GHRL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GHRL

Expression for GHRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GHRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GHRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (40.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GHRL Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GHRL Gene Hs.590080

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GHRL Gene

Q9UBU3-GHRL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GHRL: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GHRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GHRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GHRL 35
  • 99.43 (n)
  • 99.15 (a)
GHRL 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GHRL 35
  • 79.31 (n)
  • 69.83 (a)
GHRL 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GHRL 35
  • 83.48 (n)
  • 77.78 (a)
GHRL 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ghrl 35
  • 85.47 (n)
  • 83.76 (a)
Ghrl 16
Ghrl 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GHRL 36
  • 54 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ghrl 35
  • 84.9 (n)
  • 82.91 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GHR 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GHRL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GHRL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)

Paralogs for GHRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GHRL Gene

Variants for GHRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GHRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1629816 -- 10,294,607(+) ATCTC(A/G)TCTCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs2619507 -- 10,294,102(+) TTTCA(A/G)TTTGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs73030469 -- 10,294,628(+) ACAGA(C/T)CTGTG upstream-variant-2KB
rs112433718 -- 10,294,779(+) AATTA(A/C)CAAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs113509533 -- 10,294,349(+) ACACC(C/T)AGGTT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GHRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv809e201 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv436362 CNV Deletion 17901297
nsv436869 CNV Insertion 17901297
esv4117 CNV Complex 18987735
nsv460420 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv508903 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for GHRL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GHRL
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GHRL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

Disorders for GHRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (20) Diseases for GHRL Gene including...

Search for GHRL Gene in MalaCards »

(1) OMIM Diseases for GHRL Gene (605353)

(98) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GHRL Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
obesity 80.5 204
anorexia nervosa 77.8 84
prader-willi syndrome 72.7 24
insulin sensitivity 71.9 68
insulin resistance 71.3 141

Relevant External Links for GHRL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GHRL
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GHRL
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GHRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

Publications for GHRL Gene

  1. Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans. (PMID: 11502844) Ukkola O. … Bouchard C. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001) 3 23 48
  2. Structural divergence of human ghrelin. Identification of multiple ghrelin-derived molecules produced by post-translational processing. (PMID: 12414809) Hosoda H. … Kangawa K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Ghrelin Arg51Gln mutation is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension in a random sample of middle-aged subjects. (PMID: 12739020) PAPykkAP S. … KesAoniemi Y.A. (Diabetologia 2003) 3 23 48
  4. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity. (PMID: 14724664) Miraglia del Giudice E. … Perrone L. (Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 2004) 3 23 48
  5. Polymorphisms in ghrelin and neuropeptide Y genes are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (PMID: 15894681) Skibola D.R. … Holly E.A. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2005) 3 23 48

Products for GHRL Gene

Sources for GHRL Gene

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