Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 



GHRL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC03M010302

Ghrelin/Obestatin Prepropeptide

(Previous names: ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Ghrelin/Obestatin Prepropeptide1 2     Motilin-Related Peptide2 3
Ghrelin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Ligand1 2     MTLRP2 3
Prepro-Appetite Regulatory Hormone1 2     Appetite-Regulating Hormone2
Growth Hormone Secretagogue2 3     Ghrelin/Obestatin Preprohormone2
Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide2 3     Protein M463

External Ids:    HGNC: 181291   Entrez Gene: 517382   Ensembl: ENSG000001570177   OMIM: 6053535   UniProtKB: Q9UBU33   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for GHRL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC03M010256


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Entrez Gene summary for GHRL Gene:
This gene encodes ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein, which generates ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an endogenous
ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and is involved in regulating growth hormone release.
Obestatin was initially reported to be an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 and
was involved in satiety and decreased food intake; however, these findings are controversial. Recent reports show
that obestatin is involved in inhibiting thirst and anxiety, improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell
proliferation, and increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes. Alternative promoters and alternative
splicing result in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode different protein isoforms and some of
which do not encode a protein but may regulate the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. In addition,
antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may also function in regulation of the
ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. (provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GHRL Gene:
GHRL (ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GHRL include gastroparesis, and gastric endocrine tumor. GO annotations related to this gene include growth hormone-releasing hormone activity and G-protein coupled receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3
Function: Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of
growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric
acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation
Function: Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food
intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for GHRL (Ghrelin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000003.12  NC_018914.2  NT_022517.19  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GHRL gene promoter:
         CREB   AP-1   ATF-2   deltaCREB   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGHRL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GHRL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GHRL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 3p26-p25   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  3p25.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 3p26-p25

GHRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GHRL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 3         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC03M010302:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
10,327,359 bp from pter      End:
10,334,631 bp from pter
Size:
7,273 bases      Orientation:
minus strand
ORGUL member locations:
Legend (see complete legend)

ORGUL Member Locations for GHRL

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Appetite-regulating hormone precursor  
Size: 117 amino acids; 12911 Da
Mass spectrometry: Mass=3398.9; Mass_error=0.3; Method=Electrospray; Range=24-51; Note=Ghrelin-28-C10,
O-decanoylated form; Source=PubMed:12414809;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=3397.2; Mass_error=0.5; Method=Electrospray; Range=24-51; Note=Ghrelin-28-C10:1,
O-decenoylated form; Source=PubMed:12414809;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=3371.3; Mass_error=0.1; Method=Electrospray; Range=24-51; Note=Ghrelin-28-C8,
O-octanoylated form; Source=PubMed:12414809;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=3243.6; Mass_error=0.4; Method=Electrospray; Range=24-50; Note=Ghrelin-27-C10,
O-decanoylated form; Source=PubMed:12414809;
Mass spectrometry: Mass=3214.6; Mass_error=0.6; Method=Electrospray; Range=24-50; Note=Ghrelin-27-C8,
O-octanoylated form; Source=PubMed:12414809;
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for GHRL:
1P7X (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8CF34 A8CF38 A8CF42 A8DN29 A8DN30 Q86YP8 Q8TAT9 Q9H3R3
Alternative splicing: 6 isoforms:  Q9UBU3-1   Q9UBU3-2   Q9UBU3-3   Q9UBU3-4   Q9UBU3-5   Q9UBU3-6   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GHRL: NX_Q9UBU3

Explore proteomics data for GHRL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • O-octanoylation or O-decanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The O-decanoylated forms Ghrelin-27-C10 and
    Ghrelin-28-C10 differ in the length of the carbon backbone of the carboxylic acid bound to Ser-26. A small
    fraction of ghrelin, ghrelin-28-C10:1, may be modified with a singly unsaturated carboxylic acid1
  • Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity (By similarity)1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GHRL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001128413.1  NP_001128416.1  NP_001128417.1  NP_001128418.1  NP_057446.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000335074   ENSP00000399922   ENSP00000405464   ENSP00000388145   ENSP00000416768  
     ENSP00000287656   ENSP00000391406   ENSP00000403725   ENSP00000394923   ENSP00000414819  
     ENSP00000405031   ENSP00000389192   ENSP00000415521  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9UBU3

    GHRL Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant GHRL Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GHRL
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GHRL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GHRL
    Novus Biologicals GHRL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GHRL Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GHRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GHRL

    GHRL Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GHRL
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GHRL (Ghrelin/Obestatin, Obestatin, Ghrelin)
    OriGene Antibodies for GHRL
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GHRL
    Novus Biologicals GHRL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GHRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GHRL
    ThermoFisher Antibody for GHRL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GHRL

    GHRL Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of GHRL
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GHRL
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GHRL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GHRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GHRL


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006738 Motilin_ghrelin
     IPR006737 Motilin_assoc
     IPR005441 Preproghrelin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9UBU3

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9UBU3

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB005441 Preproghrelin peptide signature
    IPB006738 Motilin/ghrelin
    IPB011070 Globular protein


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3
    Similarity: Belongs to the motilin family


    GHRL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3
    Function: Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of
    growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric
    acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation
    Function: Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food
    intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001664G-protein coupled receptor binding ISS10604470
    GO:0005179hormone activity ----
    GO:0016608growth hormone-releasing hormone activity TAS16511605
    GO:0030296protein tyrosine kinase activator activity IMP15350694
    GO:0031768ghrelin receptor binding TAS16511605
         
    GHRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Ghrl):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  homeostasis/metabolism 
     normal 

    GHRL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GHRL: Ghrltm1Mko Ghrltm1Lex

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GHRL
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GHRL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GHRL
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GHRL

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GHRL using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GHRL
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GHRL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GHRL

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GHRL

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GHRL (see all 22)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GHRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): GHRL (NM_016362)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GHRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GHRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GHRL

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GHRL
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GHRL 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GHRL


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    endoplasmic reticulum4
    nucleus3
    plasma membrane2
    cytosol1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA15039149
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005788endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS--
    GO:0030424axon IDA17113048

    GHRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    SuperPaths for GHRL About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    2Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    3Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK0.90
    G alpha (q) signalling events0.90
    4Peptide hormone metabolism
    Peptide hormone metabolism0.30
    Synthesis, Secretion, and Deacylation of Ghrelin0.00
    5Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein
    Metabolism of proteins0.30

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Reactome Pathway for GHRL
        Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin



    GHRL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GHRL: 
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Obesity in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GHRL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 7)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GHRL (Q9UBU33 ENSP000003350744) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 7)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ACE2Q9BYF13, ENSP000002525194I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000252519
    AGRPO002533, ENSP000002909534I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000290953
    GHRHRQ026433, ENSP000003201804I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000320180
    NPYP013033, ENSP000002421524I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000242152
    GHSRQ928473, ENSP000002412564I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000241256
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 40):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000187activation of MAPK activity IMP15350694
    GO:0001696gastric acid secretion IEA--
    GO:0001937negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA15572208
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process NAS17392603
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS16511605

    GHRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GHRL
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GHRL

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GHRL gene (see all 122)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hexarelin 88.7 68 11238504 (12), 12379504 (4), 11227737 (3), 11297611 (2) (see all 34)
    ghrp 86.8 32 14610296 (3), 19931584 (2), 17537842 (2), 17686882 (2) (see all 21)
    oxyntomodulin 79.6 26 19359390 (3), 15358278 (1), 18054740 (1), 17542673 (1) (see all 21)
    glucose 75 834 17061019 (9), 15473884 (8), 15055473 (7), 12970297 (7) (see all 99)
    prepromotilin 73.2 1 18342799 (1)
    ghrp-6 73 5 10750044 (1), 17405826 (1), 8378260 (1)
    ipamorelin 71 5 10496658 (1), 19289567 (1), 16648303 (1), 15556068 (1) (see all 5)
    pegvisomant 64.4 2 11834429 (1)
    acth 60.6 131 17280594 (7), 15860925 (5), 17566099 (5), 16832586 (5) (see all 51)
    cinacalcet 53.7 1 18045826 (1)



    GHRL for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GHRL gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001134941.1  NM_001134944.1  NM_001134945.1  NM_001134946.1  NM_016362.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GHRL:

    Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
    Hs.590080  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NR_024132
    17 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000335542(uc003bvk.3 uc010hdc.2 uc010hdd.2 uc010hde.2 uc010hdf.2 uc010hdi.2 uc010hdh.2 uc010hdj.2 uc010hdk.2)
    ENST00000481287(uc003bvj.1) ENST00000491589 ENST00000430179 ENST00000422159
    ENST00000449238 ENST00000437422 ENST00000287656 ENST00000457360 ENST00000439975
    ENST00000446937 ENST00000429122 ENST00000475759(uc010hdb.1) ENST00000476283(uc010hda.1)
    ENST00000425479 ENST00000450603 ENST00000449554
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GHRL using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GHRL
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GHRL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GHRL
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GHRL (see all 22)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GHRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): GHRL (NM_016362)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GHRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GHRL
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GHRL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GHRL
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GHRL
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB029434.1 AB035700.1 AJ252278.1 AY184207.1 AY359053.1 BC025791.1 EF139854.1 EF139855.1 
    EF139856.1 EF139857.1 EF549557.1 EF549561.1 EF549562.1 EF549563.1 EF549565.1 EF549566.1 
    EF549567.1 EF549569.1 EF549571.1 EF549572.1 EF549573.1 EF549574.1 EF549575.1 EU072083.1 
    EU072084.1 EU072085.1 EU072086.1 EU072087.1 GU942497.1 JN243773.1 NR_024132.1 NR_024133.1 
    NR_024134.1 NR_024135.1 NR_024136.1 NR_024137.1 NR_024138.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.92051456  DT.209390  DT.95176326  DT.40256663  DT.97803965  DT.40281435 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 26):

    NM_016362 AY184207 CA449820 BQ005395 BX093784 BE327561 AB035700 BM982194 
    AI914471 AB029434 BE467043 AW026274 AA923146 AY359053 AI057396 AI368486 
    BC025791 BM854032 BI907288 BX118529 AI914338 AI338429 BF929001 AI702963 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GHRL    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
    SP1:                                    
    SP2:                                    
    SP3:                    -               


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GHRL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    GHRL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCAGGCTCCA
    GHRL Expression
    About this image


    GHRL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Epsilon Cells Islets of Langerhans
             Beta-like cells
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
             Juxtaglomerular Cells Afferent Arteriole
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Juxtaglomerular Cells Afferent Arteriole
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
     
     Stomach (Gastrointestinal Tract)
    GHRL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GHRL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.590080

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GHRL_HUMAN, Q9UBU3
    Tissue specificity: Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for
    the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GHRL: 
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Obesity in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GHRL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GHRL
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GHRL
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GHRL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GHRL gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ghrl1 , 5 ghrelin1, 5 85.47(n)1
    83.76(a)1
      6 (52.84 cM)5
    589911  NM_021488.51  NP_067463.21 
     1137161195 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GHR6
    Gallus gallus ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide (GHR...
    37(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    12(19434378-19437079)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Selected SNPs for GHRL (see all 26)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 3 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs6962171,2,,4
    C,F,A,Hpathogenic110266463(+) TTCCAG/TTTCAT 16 M L nc-transcript-variantmis1 int132Minor allele frequency- T:0.09EA NA NS EU 10399
    rs46846771,2,,4
    C,F,Hother110263460(+) GGTACT/AGAACC 17 /Q /L nc-transcript-variantmis1 ese314Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NS EA NA EU 6855
    rs349113411,2
    C,Fother110266525(+) GAGCTC/TGGGGC 16 Q R nc-transcript-variantmis1 int14Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA EU 5923
    rs26195071,2
    C,F,A,H--10335786(+) TTTCAA/GTTTGG 10 -- us2k1 tfbs327Minor allele frequency- G:0.24NS EA NA WA CSA 2764
    rs1813920691,2
    --10335805(+) TGTTTC/TAAATG 10 -- us2k10--------
    rs1857376591,2
    --10335813(+) ATGCTC/TAGCAG 10 -- us2k10--------
    rs1455676921,2
    --10335844(+) ATAGGC/TGGCCA 10 -- us2k10--------
    rs3718990931,2
    C--10335958(+) GGCCAA/GGCTCT 10 -- us2k10--------
    rs1888840441,2
    --10335963(+) AAGCTC/GTAACA 10 -- us2k10--------
    rs1145328231,2
    C,F--10336053(+) GAAAAC/TGTCTG 10 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 118

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GHRL (10327359 - 10334631 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for GHRL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv809e201CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv436362CNV Deletion17901297
    nsv508903CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv436869CNV Insertion17901297
    nsv460420CNV Loss19166990
    esv4117CNV Complex18987735

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GHRL
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GHRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GHRL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    OMIM gene information: 605353   
    OMIM disorders: 601665  
    Selected diseases for GHRL (see all 166):    
    About MalaCards
    gastroparesis    gastric endocrine tumor    stomach disease    gastritis
    atrophic gastritis    dyspepsia    eating disorder    autoimmune atrophic gastritis
    bulimia nervosa    obesity    anorexia nervosa    gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumor
    fetal adenoma    prader-willi syndrome    anovulation    neuroendocrine tumor
    intestinal disease    adenohypophysitis    acth-secreting pituitary adenoma    polycystic ovary syndrome

    13 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GHRL:
    Prader-Willi syndrome     Gastroparesis     Diabetes mellitus     Morbid obesity
    Eating disorder     Dyspepsia     Ileus     Vascular disease
    Hyperinsulinism     Polycystic ovary syndrome     Gastritis     Hyperglycemia
    Kidney failure

    GHRL for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GHRL gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    obesity 80.5 389 17113660 (6), 15769982 (5), 19883981 (5), 17299069 (5) (see all 99)
    anorexia nervosa 77.8 113 15104562 (5), 18380540 (4), 15998770 (2), 17395395 (2) (see all 61)
    prader-willi syndrome 72.7 26 16887433 (2), 18603572 (2), 17047025 (2), 12466337 (1) (see all 21)
    insulin sensitivity 71.9 90 15728212 (5), 16381992 (4), 15472202 (3), 15240647 (3) (see all 52)
    insulin resistance 71.3 183 18350633 (5), 15994748 (4), 15070922 (4), 15538935 (4) (see all 96)
    eating disorders 62.1 34 17616759 (4), 15682922 (3), 16131812 (2), 11720888 (2) (see all 22)
    obesity morbid 59.2 8 17443025 (1), 19628651 (1), 15057669 (1), 16687021 (1) (see all 8)
    polycystic ovary syndrome 55.2 33 17276431 (2), 18756827 (2), 18075283 (2), 18973889 (2) (see all 22)
    hyperinsulinemia 54.4 30 15070922 (3), 15538935 (3), 15855322 (2), 17347858 (2) (see all 17)
    gastroparesis 52.9 25 16868831 (6), 16225494 (3), 19082715 (2), 18946177 (2) (see all 13)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GHRL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GHRL (79 documents)

    Export disorders for GHRL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    PubMed articles for GHRL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1953):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GHRL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification and characterization of a novel gastric peptide hormone: the motilin-related peptide. (PubMed id 10930375)1, 2, 3 Tomasetto C.... Rio M.-C. (Gastroenterology 2000)
    2. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. (PubMed id 10604470)1, 2, 3 Kojima M.... Kangawa K. (Nature 1999)
    3. Structural divergence of human ghrelin. Identification of multiple ghrelin-derived molecules produced by post-translational processing. (PubMed id 12414809)1, 2, 9 Hosoda H.... Kangawa K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    4. A genetic study of the ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) genes and stature. (PubMed id 18945286)1, 4, 9 Gueorguiev M....Korbonits M. (Ann. Hum. Genet. 2009)
    5. Epistatic interaction between haplotypes of the ghrelin ligand and receptor genes influence susceptibility to myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. (PubMed id 17324965)1, 4, 9 Baessler A....Hengstenberg C. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2007)
    6. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). (PubMed id 18375957)1, 4, 9 Dossus L....Kaaks R. (Carcinogenesis 2008)
    7. Family trios analysis of common polymorphisms in the obestatin/ghrelin, BDNF and AGRP genes in patients with Anorexia nervosa: association with subtype, body-mass index, severity and age of onset. (PubMed id 17197106)1, 4, 9 Dardennes R.M....Epelbaum J. (Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007)
    8. Polymorphisms in ghrelin and neuropeptide Y genes are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (PubMed id 15894681)1, 4, 9 Skibola D.R....Holly E.A. (amp 2005)
    9. Are genes associated with energy metabolism important in asthma and BMI? (PubMed id 19191138)1, 4, 9 Szczepankiewicz A....Popiel A. (J Asthma 2009)
    10. Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles. (PubMed id 18239581)1, 4, 9 Martin G.R....Sun G. (Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Entrez Gene: 51738 HGNC: 18129 AceView: GHRL Ensembl:ENSG00000157017 euGenes: HUgn51738
    ECgene: GHRL H-InvDB: GHRL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GHRL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GHRL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Protein Spotlighthttp://web.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/066
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghrelin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Patent Information for GHRL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GHRL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

     EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GHRL
     Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
     EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant GHRL Protein
     EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of GHRL
     
     EMD Millipore genomic analysis products

      
     Antibodies for GHRL (Ghrelin/Obestatin)   Browse Cell Culture Products  
     Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
     Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Enzyme Activity Assays/Reagents  
     Browse ELISpot/FluoroSpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
     Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Luminex Assays  
     Browse Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
     Browse Recombinant/Natural Proteins   Browse Stem Cell Products  
     Browse cDNA Clones   Browse Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays  
     OriGene Antibodies for GHRL   OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GHRL  
     OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GHRL   OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GHRL  
     OriGene Custom Mass Spec   OriGene clones in human, mouse for GHRL  
     OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GHRL   Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells  
     OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GHRL   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
     OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GHRL   OriGene Custom Protein Services for GHRL  

     
     
     Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GHRL using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GHRL
     DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GHRL Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GHRL
     QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GHRL
     PCR Arrays including human, mouse, rat GHRL Search Chromatin IP Primers for GHRL
     Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GHRL  GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GHRL
     Regulatory tfbs in GHRL promoter
     GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GHRL GenScript cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector for GHRL
     GenScript Custom Assay Services for GHRL GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GHRL
     CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes  Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector
     Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11
     Plasmid Preparation Custom Peptide Services
     Search for Antibodies & Assays

     Search Tocris compounds for GHRL
     Browse Sino Biological Proteins
     Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
     cDNA Clones for GHRL
     4000+ Proteins
     Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
     Protein Production Services
     Transfection Reagents
     Protein A/G/L resins
     Isotyping reagents
     Drugs for GHRL
     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

     Novus Tissue Slides
     GHRL antibodies
     GHRL proteins
     GHRL lysates
     Antibodies for GHRL
     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for GHRL
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
     Bulk Purchasing
     Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Recombinant Protein for GHRL
     Proteins for GHRL
     Antibodies for GHRL
     ELISAs for GHRL
     CLIAs for GHRL



     Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GHRL
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GHRL
     Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for GHRL
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for GHRL
     ThermoFisher Antibody for GHRL
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GHRL
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GHRL
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GHRL
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GHRL
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
     Browse compounds at ApexBio
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014

    View Random Gene

    Category
    (GIFtS: )
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

    Hot genes      Disease genes      GHRL gene at Home site.
    Version: 3.12.158 12 Aug 2014
    hostname: 356977-web1.xennexinc.com index build: 126 solr: 1.4