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Aliases for GHRH Gene

Aliases for GHRH Gene

  • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone 2 3 5
  • Somatocrinin 2 3 4
  • Sermorelin 2 3 4
  • Somatoliberin 2 3
  • Somatorelin 3 4
  • GHRF 3 4
  • GRF 3 4
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone 4
  • Growth Hormone Releasing Factor 3
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor 4
  • INN 3

External Ids for GHRH Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GHRH Gene

  • GHRF

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GHRH Gene

  • GC20M035608
  • GC20M036517
  • GC20M036564
  • GC20M035312
  • GC20M035880
  • GC20M032616

Summaries for GHRH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GHRH Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glucagon family of proteins. The encoded preproprotein is produced in the hypothalamus and cleaved to generate the mature factor, known as somatoliberin, which acts to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary gland. Variant receptors for somatoliberin have been found in several types of tumors, and antagonists of these receptors can inhibit the growth of the tumors. Defects in this gene are a cause of dwarfism, while hypersecretion of the encoded protein is a cause of gigantism. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GHRH Gene

GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GHRH include Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency, Ghrh-Related and Gigantism. Among its related pathways are p70S6K Signaling and G alpha (s) signalling events. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRH Gene

  • GRF is released by the hypothalamus and acts on the adenohypophyse to stimulate the secretion of growth hormone.

Additional gene information for GHRH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GHRH Gene

Genomics for GHRH Gene

Regulatory Elements for GHRH Gene

Enhancers for GHRH Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH20H037335 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10 -74.9 -74850 2.7 HDGF FOXA2 MLX SIN3A ARID4B DMAP1 TCF12 ZNF121 SLC30A9 FOS MANBAL SRC GHRH SAMHD1 CTNNBL1 LOC105372606 GC20M037319
GH20H037307 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 -52.4 -52410 12.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 FEZF1 ZBTB40 BATF SCRT2 ATF7 RCOR1 MANBAL GHRH PIR39095
GH20H037331 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 -70.4 -70402 1.8 ARID4B DMAP1 SLC30A9 SP5 ZHX2 MXD4 MIER2 PPARG KAT8 NFIL3 MANBAL GHRH LOC105372606 GC20M037319
GH20H037393 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -134.5 -134452 4.9 ELF3 PKNOX1 ZSCAN4 ZNF133 KLF17 DMAP1 RAD21 RARA GLIS2 EGR1 GHRH RPL7AP14 GC20M037240
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GHRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for GHRH Gene

Genomic Locations for GHRH Gene
10,814 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GHRH Gene

Genes around GHRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GHRH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GHRH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GHRH Gene

Proteins for GHRH Gene

  • Protein details for GHRH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4KN10
    • Q5JYR1

    Protein attributes for GHRH Gene

    108 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12447 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GHRH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GHRH Gene


neXtProt entry for GHRH Gene

Post-translational modifications for GHRH Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for GHRH Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GHRH Gene

Domains & Families for GHRH Gene

Gene Families for GHRH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GHRH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GHRH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glucagon family.
  • Belongs to the glucagon family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GHRH: view

Function for GHRH Gene

Molecular function for GHRH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
growth hormone releasing factor
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
GRF is released by the hypothalamus and acts on the adenohypophyse to stimulate the secretion of growth hormone.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GHRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016608 growth hormone-releasing hormone activity IDA 8421089
GO:0031770 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor binding IPI 1333056
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GHRH: view

Animal Models for GHRH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GHRH:

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GHRH Gene

Localization for GHRH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRH Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GHRH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GHRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,NAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space ISS --
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0043195 terminal bouton ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRH: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GHRH Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GHRH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GHRH: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GHRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ISS,IDA --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 6192430
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA 12867592
GO:0019933 cAMP-mediated signaling IDA 7680413
GO:0021984 adenohypophysis development ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GHRH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GHRH Gene

(45) Drugs for GHRH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(21) Additional Compounds for GHRH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GHRH: view

Transcripts for GHRH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GHRH Gene

(4) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GHRH Gene

Growth hormone releasing hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GHRH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GHRH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GHRH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GHRH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GHRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x31.8) and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x17.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GHRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GHRH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GHRH Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GHRH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GHRH Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GHRH Gene

  • Nervous system(3.1)
  • Blood(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GHRH: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GHRH Gene

Orthologs for GHRH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GHRH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GHRH 33 34
  • 99.38 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GHRH 34 33
  • 84.91 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GHRH 34 33
  • 83.96 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ghrh 33
  • 76.81 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ghrh 16 34 33
  • 76.56 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GHRH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GHRH Gene

Gene Tree for GHRH (if available)
Gene Tree for GHRH (if available)

Paralogs for GHRH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GHRH Gene

Variants for GHRH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GHRH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000132207 -- 37,260,753(+) CTTCC(C/T)GCAGT intron-variant
rs1000143736 -- 37,251,217(+) TTCAT(C/G)CCTGG reference, missense
rs1000374953 -- 37,254,473(+) AGTAT(A/G)TATAG intron-variant
rs1000495155 -- 37,252,662(+) CTTTG(G/T)GAGGC intron-variant
rs1000565684 -- 37,251,491(+) CCTCT(A/G)ATCCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GHRH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv585953 CNV loss 21841781
nsv524059 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for GHRH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 63.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.22; 24.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GHRH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRH Gene

Disorders for GHRH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(30) MalaCards diseases for GHRH Gene - From: HGMD, GeneTests, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
isolated growth hormone deficiency, ghrh-related
  • isolated growth hormone deficiency due to defect in ghrf
growth hormone deficiency
  • isolated somatotropin deficiency
isolated growth hormone deficiency
  • congenital ighd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GHRH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GHRH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GHRH: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GHRH Gene

Publications for GHRH Gene

  1. Gene encoding human growth hormone-releasing factor precursor: structure, sequence, and chromosomal assignment. (PMID: 3918305) Mayo KE … Evans RM (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1985) 2 3 4 60
  2. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and its agonistic and antagonistic analogs in cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. (PMID: 20372804) Barabutis N … Schally AV (International journal of oncology 2010) 3 22 60
  3. A Large-scale genetic association study of esophageal adenocarcinoma risk. (PMID: 20453000) Liu CY … Christiani DC (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 45 60
  4. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PMID: 20602615) Ruaño G … Wu AH (Pharmacogenomics 2010) 3 45 60
  5. Comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in 61 genes related to steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I metabolism and breast cancer risk in the NCI breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium. (PMID: 20634197) Canzian F … Feigelson HS (Human molecular genetics 2010) 3 45 60

Products for GHRH Gene

Sources for GHRH Gene

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