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Aliases for GGT2 Gene

Aliases for GGT2 Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • GGT 2 3 4
  • Inactive Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3
  • Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3
  • EC 2.3.2.2 61
  • GGT 3

External Ids for GGT2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGT2 Gene

  • GC22M018260
  • GC22M019886
  • GC22M017136
  • GC22M018743
  • GC22M021562

Summaries for GGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GGT2 Gene

GGT2 (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGT2 include Cyclosporiasis and Algoneurodystrophy. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. GO annotations related to this gene include gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and glutathione hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GGT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGT2 Gene

Genomics for GGT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GGT2 Gene

Enhancers for GGT2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22F021255 0.2 Ensembl 0.3 -15.9 -15897 1.4 POLR2A TBL1XR1 ZNF740 TSC22D4 TAF7 ZHX1 ABHD17AP4 E2F6P3 GGT2
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene

Chromosome:
22
Start:
21,207,972 bp from pter
End:
21,239,982 bp from pter
Size:
32,011 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGT2 Gene

Genes around GGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGT2 Gene

Proteins for GGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P36268-GGT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2
    Protein Accession:
    P36268

    Protein attributes for GGT2 Gene

    Size:
    569 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61771 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGT2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GGT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GGT2 Gene

  • Not cleaved by autocatalysis into a large and a small subunit resulting in loss of cell membrane localization and catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 230 and Asn 511
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GGT2 Gene

Gene Families for GGT2 Gene

Protein Domains for GGT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P36268

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GGT2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGT2: view

Function for GGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GGT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gamma-glutamyltransferase 2,expressed in sigmoid,gamma-glutamyl cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003840 gamma-glutamyltransferase activity TAS 18357469
GO:0036374 NOT glutathione hydrolase activity IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGT2: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGT2 Gene

Localization for GGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=Co-localizes with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GGT2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA,IDA 23682772
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0031362 anchored component of external side of plasma membrane TAS 18357469
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA,IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGT2: view

Interacting Proteins for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process TAS 18357469
GO:0006750 glutathione biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0019370 leukotriene biosynthetic process ISS --
GO:0031638 NOT zymogen activation IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGT2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GGT2 Gene - From: ApexBio and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Water Approved Pharma 0
Glutathione Approved Nutra 0
GGsTop Pharma γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible, Inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
cysteinylglycine
  • Cys-Gly
  • L-Cysteinylglycine
  • N-Cysteinyl Glycine
  • N-Cysteinyl-Glycine
  • N-L-Cysteinyl-Glycine
19246-18-5

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GGT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GGsTop γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible 926281-37-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGT2: view

Transcripts for GGT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GGT2 Gene

(21) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGT2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GGT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GGT2

Expression for GGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GGT2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x17.4) and Kidney - Cortex (x16.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (52.4) and Platelet (16.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GGT2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGT2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GGT2 Gene:

GGT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGT2 Gene:

Hs.568255

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGT2 Gene:

P36268-GGT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in fetal and adult kidney and liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for GGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 97 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggt1 35
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 69 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 35
  • 64 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 35
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 35
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggt1a 35
  • 56 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1b 35
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1l2.2 35
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-222h21.12 35
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch73-236c18.3 35
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1l2.1 35
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1492 35
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4829 35
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C53D5.5 35
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
H14N18.4 35
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
Y7A9A.1 35
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
T03D8.6 35
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ECM38 35
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.7538 35
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for GGT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GGT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GGT2: view

Variants for GGT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs103361 -- 21,244,669(+) AAGGA(A/C)AAACA intron-variant
rs1061974 -- 21,208,137(-) ACTGA(G/T)TGCTC downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs111300913 -- 21,221,883(+) GCTCC(A/G)AGCTG reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs111344888 -- 21,209,573(+) CCTGA(G/T)GAGGT intron-variant
rs111459067 -- 21,226,266(+) GGCAG(A/C)CTTCT intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime

Variation tolerance for GGT2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 7.05; 80.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GGT2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGT2 Gene

Disorders for GGT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for GGT2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cyclosporiasis
  • cyclospora infection
algoneurodystrophy
  • reflex sympathetic dystrophy
periampullary adenoma
bile duct disease
  • bile duct disorder nos
biliary tract disease
  • biliary tract diseases
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GGT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GGT2

Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
GGT2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GGT2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGT2 Gene

Publications for GGT2 Gene

  1. Human GGT2 does not autocleave into a functional enzyme: a cautionary tale for interpretation of microarray data on redox signaling. (PMID: 23682772) West M.B. … Hanigan M.H. (Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2013) 3 4 64
  2. The human gamma-glutamyltransferase gene family. (PMID: 18357469) Heisterkamp N. … Sneddon T.P. (Hum. Genet. 2008) 2 3 64
  3. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I. … Wright H. (Nature 1999) 3 4 64
  4. Mapping of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes on chromosome 22 and other human autosomes. (PMID: 8104871) Figlewicz D.A. … Rouleau G.A. (Genomics 1993) 2 3 64
  5. Different gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase mRNAs are expressed in human liver and kidney. (PMID: 2573352) Pawlak A. … Guellaen G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989) 3 4 64

Products for GGT2 Gene

Sources for GGT2 Gene

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