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Aliases for GGT2 Gene

Aliases for GGT2 Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2 2 3 4
  • Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • GGT 2 3 4
  • Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3
  • EC 63
  • GGT 3

External Ids for GGT2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGT2 Gene

  • GC22M018260
  • GC22M019886
  • GC22M017136
  • GC22M018743
  • GC22M021562

Summaries for GGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GGT2 Gene

GGT2 (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGT2 include algoneurodystrophy and periampullary adenoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and glutathione hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GGT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGT2 Gene

Genomics for GGT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GGT2 Gene

Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene

21,207,972 bp from pter
21,239,982 bp from pter
32,011 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGT2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGT2 Gene

Proteins for GGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for GGT2 Gene

    569 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61771 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGT2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GGT2 Gene

Proteomics data for GGT2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GGT2 Gene

  • Not cleaved by autocatalysis into a large and a small subunit resulting in loss of cell membrane localization and catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 230 and Asn 511
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GGT2 Gene

Domains & Families for GGT2 Gene

Gene Families for GGT2 Gene

Protein Domains for GGT2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGT2: view

Function for GGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GGT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gamma-glutamyltransferase 2,expressed in sigmoid,gamma-glutamyl cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003840 gamma-glutamyltransferase activity TAS 18357469
GO:0036374 NOT glutathione hydrolase activity IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

Phenotypes for GGT2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GGT2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGT2: view

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGT2 Gene

Localization for GGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=Co-localizes with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GGT2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 23682772
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0031362 anchored component of external side of plasma membrane TAS 18357469
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA 23682772
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGT2: view

Interacting Proteins for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process TAS 18357469
GO:0006750 glutathione biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0019370 leukotriene biosynthetic process ISS --
GO:0031638 NOT zymogen activation IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGT2 Gene

(2) Drugs for GGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0

(2) Additional Compounds for GGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Cys-Gly
  • L-Cysteinylglycine
  • N-Cysteinyl Glycine
  • N-Cysteinyl-Glycine
  • N-L-Cysteinyl-Glycine
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGT2: view

Transcripts for GGT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GGT2 Gene

(25) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGT2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GGT2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x17.4) and Kidney - Cortex (x16.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (52.4) and Platelet (16.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GGT2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGT2 Gene Hs.568255

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGT2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in fetal and adult kidney and liver
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGT2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGT2 Gene

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for GGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggt1 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 64 (a)
-- 36
  • 32 (a)
-- 36
  • 69 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 97 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 64 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 59 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggt1a 36
  • 56 (a)
ggt1b 36
  • 53 (a)
ggt1l2.1 36
  • 39 (a)
ggt1l2.2 36
  • 48 (a)
si:ch73-236c18.3 36
  • 42 (a)
si:dkey-222h21.12 36
  • 46 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1492 36
  • 32 (a)
CG4829 36
  • 25 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C53D5.5 36
  • 34 (a)
H14N18.4 36
  • 32 (a)
T03D8.6 36
  • 27 (a)
Y7A9A.1 36
  • 32 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ECM38 36
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 47 (a)
CSA.7538 36
  • 46 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GGT2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GGT2 Gene

Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GGT2: view

Variants for GGT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs243426 -- 21,226,316(+) ACAGC(C/T)CAGAC upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime, intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant
rs243432 -- 21,228,059(+) TATGT(A/G)TATTA upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs243433 -- 21,228,658(+) GTTTT(C/G)GGATT upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs243435 -- 21,230,233(-) CTAAA(A/G)CGTTC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs367269 -- 21,239,259(+) ATAGC(C/T)GCACA intron-variant

Variation tolerance for GGT2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 7.05; 80.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGT2 Gene

Disorders for GGT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for GGT2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • reflex sympathetic dystrophy
periampullary adenoma
ethmoid sinus adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus
ethmoid sinus cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of ethmoidal sinus
pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma
  • cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas
- elite association
Search GGT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GGT2

Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGT2 Gene

Publications for GGT2 Gene

  1. The human gamma-glutamyltransferase gene family. (PMID: 18357469) Heisterkamp N. … Sneddon T.P. (Hum. Genet. 2008) 2 67
  2. Mapping of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes on chromosome 22 and other human autosomes. (PMID: 8104871) Figlewicz D.A. … Rouleau G.A. (Genomics 1993) 2 67
  3. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 67
  4. Association between serum I^-glutamyltranspeptidase and atherosclerosis: a population-based cross-sectional study. (PMID: 25280803) Fukuda T. … Fukui M. (BMJ Open 2014) 67
  5. Human GGT2 does not autocleave into a functional enzyme: a cautionary tale for interpretation of microarray data on redox signaling. (PMID: 23682772) West M.B. … Hanigan M.H. (Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2013) 67

Products for GGT2 Gene

Sources for GGT2 Gene

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