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Aliases for GGPS1 Gene

Aliases for GGPS1 Gene

  • Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase 1 2 3 5
  • (2E,6E)-Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase 3 4
  • Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase 3 4
  • Dimethylallyltranstransferase 3 4
  • Farnesyltranstransferase 3 4
  • Geranyltranstransferase 3 4
  • GGPP Synthase 3 4
  • GGPPSase 3 4
  • Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 2.5.1.- 4
  • EC 4
  • GGPPS1 3
  • GGPPS 3

External Ids for GGPS1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGPS1 Gene

  • GC01P233624
  • GC01P230945
  • GC01P231787
  • GC01P232533
  • GC01P231816
  • GC01P233558
  • GC01P235490
  • GC01P205940

Summaries for GGPS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGPS1 Gene

  • This gene is a member of the prenyltransferase family and encodes a protein with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase activity. The enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of GGPP from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. GGPP is an important molecule responsible for the C20-prenylation of proteins and for the regulation of a nuclear hormone receptor. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, both protein-coding and non-protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GGPS1 Gene

GGPS1 (Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis by SREBP (SREBF) and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include dimethylallyltranstransferase activity and geranyltranstransferase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGPS1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the trans-addition of the three molecules of IPP onto DMAPP to form geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, an important precursor of carotenoids and geranylated proteins.

Gene Wiki entry for GGPS1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGPS1 Gene

Genomics for GGPS1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GGPS1 Gene

Enhancers for GGPS1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GGPS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GGPS1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GGPS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GGPS1 Gene

235,327,350 bp from pter
235,344,532 bp from pter
17,183 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GGPS1 Gene

Genes around GGPS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGPS1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGPS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGPS1 Gene

Proteins for GGPS1 Gene

  • Protein details for GGPS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MVQ8
    • Q5T2C8
    • Q6NW19

    Protein attributes for GGPS1 Gene

    300 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34871 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homohexamer; trimer of homodimers.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GGPS1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGPS1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GGPS1 Gene

Proteomics data for GGPS1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GGPS1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 17 and Lys 113
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GGPS1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GGPS1 Gene

Domains & Families for GGPS1 Gene

Gene Families for GGPS1 Gene

Protein Domains for GGPS1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGPS1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FPP/GGPP synthase family.
  • Belongs to the FPP/GGPP synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGPS1: view

Function for GGPS1 Gene

Molecular function for GGPS1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1,with two isoforms,ubiquitously expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=3 uM for isopentenyl diphosphate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16698791}; KM=4.2 uM for farnesyl diphosphate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16698791};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranyl diphosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Subject to product inhibition by geranylgeranyl diphosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the trans-addition of the three molecules of IPP onto DMAPP to form geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, an important precursor of carotenoids and geranylated proteins.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGPS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGPS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004161 dimethylallyltranstransferase activity TAS --
GO:0004311 farnesyltranstransferase activity IDA 9741684
GO:0004337 geranyltranstransferase activity IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGPS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGPS1: view

Animal Models for GGPS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GGPS1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GGPS1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGPS1 Gene

Localization for GGPS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGPS1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GGPS1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGPS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
chloroplast 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGPS1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GGPS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGPS1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O95749-GGPPS_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Isoprenoid biosynthesis; farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis; farnesyl diphosphate from geranyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate: step 1/1.
  • Pathway: Isoprenoid biosynthesis; geranyl diphosphate biosynthesis; geranyl diphosphate from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate: step 1/1.
  • Pathway: Isoprenoid biosynthesis; geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis; geranylgeranyl diphosphate from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGPS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0033386 geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0045337 farnesyl diphosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGPS1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGPS1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGPS1 Gene

(31) Drugs for GGPS1 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zoledronate Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, inhibitor, Target Osteoclast function modifiers (important in bone metastasis) 0
Zometa Approved August 2001/ Approved February 2002 Pharma 0
GERANYLGERANYL DIPHOSPHATE Experimental Pharma Feedback inhibition, Inhibitor, Target 0
farnesyl diphosphate Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Target 0
Geranyl-PP Experimental Pharma Feedback inhibition, Inhibitor, Target 0

(4) Additional Compounds for GGPS1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2-trans,6-trans,10-trans-Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
  • 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl diphosphate
  • All-trans-geranyl-geranyl-pp
  • Geranylgeranyl-diphosphate
  • Geranylgeranyl-PP
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGPS1: view

Transcripts for GGPS1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GGPS1 Gene

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGPS1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e · 8f
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for GGPS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GGPS1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GGPS1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGPS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin (11.3), Lymph node (7.4), and Uterus (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GGPS1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGPS1 Gene Hs.730768

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGPS1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Abundantly expressed in testis. Found in other tissues to a lower extent.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGPS1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGPS1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for GGPS1 Gene

Orthologs for GGPS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GGPS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GGPS1 35
  • 93.67 (n)
  • 98.33 (a)
GGPS1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GGPS1 35
  • 94.11 (n)
  • 98 (a)
GGPS1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggps1 35
  • 88.56 (n)
  • 93.67 (a)
Ggps1 16
Ggps1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GGPS1 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GGPS1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ggps1 35
  • 88.56 (n)
  • 95 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GGPS1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GGPS1 36
  • 92 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GGPS1 35
  • 81.32 (n)
  • 90.57 (a)
GGPS1 36
  • 90 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GGPS1 36
  • 88 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ggps1 35
  • 76.91 (n)
  • 86.15 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.7664 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
ggps1 35
  • 71.17 (n)
  • 84.46 (a)
ggps1 36
  • 72 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta qm 37
  • 56 (a)
qm 35
  • 54.83 (n)
  • 59.31 (a)
qm 36
  • 51 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006894 35
  • 55.63 (n)
  • 60.34 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL238C 35
  • 51.74 (n)
  • 47.49 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E23299g 35
  • 53.18 (n)
  • 45.8 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BTS1 35
  • 52.77 (n)
  • 46.72 (a)
BTS1 36
  • 37 (a)
BTS1 38
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01427 35
  • 53.77 (n)
  • 54.01 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GGPS1:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GGPS1 Gene

Gene Tree for GGPS1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GGPS1 (if available)

Paralogs for GGPS1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GGPS1 Gene

Variants for GGPS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGPS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1048269 -- 235,343,030(+) TTGCC(A/C)CCAAC nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1987092 -- 235,330,920(+) GAGAT(C/G)CTTTT intron-variant
rs2789366 -- 235,344,955(-) gggtg(C/T)ggtgg downstream-variant-500B
rs2789367 -- 235,343,603(-) AAAAC(C/G)TAAGA nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs2789368 -- 235,341,492(-) TTCTA(A/G)AATTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGPS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv30n21 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv873321 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for GGPS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 48.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.90; 18.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GGPS1 Gene

Disorders for GGPS1 Gene

Relevant External Links for GGPS1

Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for GGPS1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGPS1 Gene

Publications for GGPS1 Gene

  1. Identification of the GGPS1 genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from mouse and human. (PMID: 10101267) Kainou T. … Kawamukai M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Bisphosphonates target multiple sites in both cis- and trans-prenyltransferases. (PMID: 17535895) Guo R.T. … Wang A.H. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007) 23 25 26
  3. Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase: isolation of the cDNA, chromosomal mapping and tissue expression. (PMID: 9741684) Ericsson J. … Edwards P.A. (J. Lipid Res. 1998) 2 3 23
  4. Genetic polymorphism of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGSP1) predicts bone density response to bisphosphonate therapy in Korean women. (PMID: 20191015) Choi H.J. … Shin C.S. (Yonsei Med. J. 2010) 3 23
  5. Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase is an octamer in solution. (PMID: 17646172) Miyagi Y. … Sagami H. (J. Biochem. 2007) 3 23

Products for GGPS1 Gene

Sources for GGPS1 Gene