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Aliases for GFAP Gene

Aliases for GFAP Gene

  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein 2 3 5
  • Intermediate Filament Protein 2
  • ALXDRD 3

External Ids for GFAP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GFAP Gene

  • GC17M042501
  • GC17M045160
  • GC17M042993
  • GC17M043458
  • GC17M040338
  • GC17M038748
  • GC17M042982

Summaries for GFAP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GFAP Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the major intermediate filament proteins of mature astrocytes. It is used as a marker to distinguish astrocytes from other glial cells during development. Mutations in this gene cause Alexander disease, a rare disorder of astrocytes in the central nervous system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GFAP Gene

GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GFAP include Alexander Disease and Astroblastoma. Among its related pathways are Jak-STAT signaling pathway (KEGG) and Signaling by ERBB4. GO annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is VIM.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GFAP Gene

  • GFAP, a class-III intermediate filament, is a cell-specific marker that, during the development of the central nervous system, distinguishes astrocytes from other glial cells.

Gene Wiki entry for GFAP Gene

Additional gene information for GFAP Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GFAP Gene

Genomics for GFAP Gene

Regulatory Elements for GFAP Gene

Enhancers for GFAP Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17H045089 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17 -175.3 -175269 4.6 TBP FOXA2 ZSCAN4 ARID4B SIN3A RAD21 RARA YY1 ZNF121 FOS DCAKD PLCD3 GFAP NMT1 ACBD4 HEXIM1 HIGD1B ADAM11 ENSG00000200888 MIR6784
GH17H045020 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.7 -104.5 -104488 2.5 ATF1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF143 ZNF207 ATF7 PAF1 SP5 DCAKD NMT1 C1QL1 GFAP EFTUD2 FAM187A CCDC103 KIF18B HEXIM2 ENSG00000224505
GH17H044977 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -62.9 -62863 5.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX SIN3A YBX1 BRCA1 YY1 ZNF207 ATF7 FOS UBTF LINC02210 GJC1 NMT1 ASB16-AS1 ENSG00000266918 KIF18B FAM171A2 GFAP MAP3K14-AS1
GH17H044957 0.8 FANTOM5 21.7 -40.8 -40849 0.4 SAP130 DMAP1 ZIC2 ZNF644 KAT8 POLR2A GLIS1 NR2F6 KDM1A RCOR1 GFAP HIGD1B ADAM11 ACBD4 DCAKD GC17P044955 C1QL1
GH17H044818 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.7 +96.5 96543 3.4 ARNT ZNF493 ZFP64 FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF121 KLF7 FOS ZNF202 SP3 UBTF ASB16-AS1 TMUB2 GPATCH8 GJC1 MPP2 ENSG00000260793 EFTUD2 HIGD1B ENSG00000224505
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GFAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for GFAP Gene

Genomic Locations for GFAP Gene
13,777 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GFAP Gene

Genes around GFAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GFAP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GFAP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GFAP Gene

Proteins for GFAP Gene

  • Protein details for GFAP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glial fibrillary acidic protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RD44
    • D3DX59
    • E9PAX3
    • Q53H98
    • Q5D055
    • Q6ZQS3
    • Q7Z5J6
    • Q7Z5J7
    • Q96KS4
    • Q96P18
    • Q9UFD0

    Protein attributes for GFAP Gene

    432 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49880 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SYNM (By similarity). Isoform 3 interacts with PSEN1 (via N-terminus).

    Alternative splice isoforms for GFAP Gene


neXtProt entry for GFAP Gene

Post-translational modifications for GFAP Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GFAP (GFAP)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GFAP Gene

Domains & Families for GFAP Gene

Gene Families for GFAP Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the intermediate filament family.
  • Belongs to the intermediate filament family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GFAP: view

Function for GFAP Gene

Molecular function for GFAP Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glial fibrillary acidic protein,49.8kDa,almost exclusively expressed in astrocytes,interacting with S100A1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
GFAP, a class-III intermediate filament, is a cell-specific marker that, during the development of the central nervous system, distinguishes astrocytes from other glial cells.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GFAP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GFAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005178 integrin binding IEA --
GO:0005198 structural molecule activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0019900 kinase binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GFAP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GFAP: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GFAP Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GFAP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GFAP:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GFAP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GFAP

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GFAP

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GFAP Gene

Localization for GFAP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GFAP Gene

Cytoplasm. Note=Associated with intermediate filaments.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GFAP gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Intermediate filaments (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GFAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 12355421
GO:0005764 colocalizes_with lysosome ISS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005882 intermediate filament IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GFAP: view

Pathways & Interactions for GFAP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GFAP: view

Pathways by source for GFAP Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for GFAP Gene
2 BioSystems pathways for GFAP Gene
1 KEGG pathway for GFAP Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GFAP Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for GFAP Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GFAP Gene

Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GFAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0009611 response to wounding IEA --
GO:0010625 positive regulation of Schwann cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0010977 negative regulation of neuron projection development IEA --
GO:0014002 astrocyte development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GFAP: view

Drugs & Compounds for GFAP Gene

(64) Drugs for GFAP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(55) Additional Compounds for GFAP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GFAP: view

Transcripts for GFAP Gene

Unigene Clusters for GFAP Gene

Glial fibrillary acidic protein:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GFAP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GFAP Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13a · 13b ^
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: -
SP9: -
SP10: -
SP11: -
SP12: -

ExUns: 14a · 14b · 14c

Relevant External Links for GFAP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GFAP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GFAP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GFAP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x18.8), Brain - Substantia nigra (x6.1), Brain - Hypothalamus (x5.0), Brain - Hippocampus (x4.3), and Brain - Amygdala (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GFAP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spinal cord (38.5) and Brain (16.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GFAP Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GFAP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GFAP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GFAP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in cells lacking fibronectin.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GFAP Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Kidney(4.8)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Eye(3.7)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Liver(2.1)
  • Lung(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GFAP Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • meninges
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tongue
  • diaphragm
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • stomach
  • pelvis
  • rectum
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GFAP: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GFAP Gene

Orthologs for GFAP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GFAP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GFAP 33 34
  • 99.54 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GFAP 34 33
  • 92.13 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GFAP 33 34
  • 89.71 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gfap 33
  • 87.67 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gfap 33 16 34
  • 87.41 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GFAP 34
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 47 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GFAP 33 34
  • 74.84 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GFAP 34
  • 62 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gfap 33 34
  • 68.77 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GFAP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GFAP Gene

Gene Tree for GFAP (if available)
Gene Tree for GFAP (if available)

Paralogs for GFAP Gene

Variants for GFAP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GFAP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121909717 Pathogenic, Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450] 44,908,075(-) AGATG(A/C/T)GGGAT reference, synonymous-codon
rs121909719 Pathogenic, Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450] 44,911,751(-) GCTCC(G/T)CCAGG reference, missense
rs121909720 Pathogenic, Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450] 44,915,253(-) AATGA(A/C)CGCTT reference, missense
rs267607500 Pathogenic, Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450], Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450] 44,913,430(-) GTCAG(A/C/G)AGGTT reference, missense
rs267607504 Pathogenic, Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450] 44,915,266(-) GATGA(C/T)GGAGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GFAP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833457 CNV loss 17160897
nsv527788 CNV loss 19592680
nsv516758 CNV loss 19592680
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
esv989371 CNV deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for GFAP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.30; 62.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GFAP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GFAP Gene

Disorders for GFAP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(160) MalaCards diseases for GFAP Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alexander disease
  • alexander's disease
  • cerebral astroblastoma
myxopapillary ependymoma
  • ependymoma myxopapillary
gliomatosis cerebri
  • astrocytosis cerebri
central neurocytoma
  • neurolipocytoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GFAP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Alexander disease (ALXDRD) [MIM:203450]: A rare disorder of the central nervous system. The most common form affects infants and young children, and is characterized by progressive failure of central myelination, usually leading to death within the first decade. Infants with Alexander disease develop a leukodystrophy with macrocephaly, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. Patients with juvenile or adult forms typically experience ataxia, bulbar signs and spasticity, and a more slowly progressive course. Histologically, Alexander disease is characterized by Rosenthal fibers, homogeneous eosinophilic inclusions in astrocytes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11138011, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11567214, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11595337, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12034785, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12034796, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12581808, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12944715, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12975300, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15030911, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15732097, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17043438, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17805552, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17894839, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17934883, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17960815, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18004641, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18079314, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19412928, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20359319, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21917775, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23364391, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23743246, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24742911}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for GFAP

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GFAP: view

No data available for Genatlas for GFAP Gene

Publications for GFAP Gene

  1. Molecular genetic study in Japanese patients with Alexander disease: a novel mutation, R79L. (PMID: 12581808) Shiroma N … Tsujino S (Brain & development 2003) 3 4 22 60
  2. Infantile Alexander disease: spectrum of GFAP mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation. (PMID: 11567214) Rodriguez D … Boespflug-Tanguy O (American journal of human genetics 2001) 3 4 22 60
  3. Determination of the gene structure of human GFAP and absence of coding region mutations associated with frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. (PMID: 9693047) Isaacs A … Hutton M (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 60
  4. Human glial fibrillary acidic protein: complementary DNA cloning, chromosome localization, and messenger RNA expression in human glioma cell lines of various phenotypes. (PMID: 1847665) Bongcam-Rudloff E … Westermark B (Cancer research 1991) 3 4 22 60
  5. Characterization of human cDNA and genomic clones for glial fibrillary acidic protein. (PMID: 2163003) Brenner M … Freese E (Brain research. Molecular brain research 1990) 3 4 22 60

Products for GFAP Gene

Sources for GFAP Gene

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