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Aliases for GDF15 Gene

Aliases for GDF15 Gene

  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 2 3
  • Prostate Differentiation Factor 2 3 4
  • PLAB 3 4 6
  • MIC1 3 4 6
  • PDF 3 4 6
  • Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 4
  • Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 3 4
  • NSAID-Activated Gene 1 Protein 3 4
  • NSAID-Regulated Gene 1 Protein 3 4
  • Placental TGF-Beta 3 4
  • GDF-15 3 4
  • Mic-1 3 4
  • NAG-1 3 4
  • NRG-1 3 4
  • PTGFB 3 4
  • NSAID (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug)-Activated Protein 1 3
  • Growth/Differentiation Factor 15 3
  • PTGF-Beta 3

External Ids for GDF15 Gene

Summaries for GDF15 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GDF15 Gene

  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (e.g., BMP9; MIM 605120) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (see TGFB1; MIM 190180) superfamily and regulate tissue differentiation and maintenance. They are synthesized as precursor molecules that are processed at a dibasic cleavage site to release C-terminal domains containing a characteristic motif of 7 conserved cysteines in the mature protein.[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GDF15 Gene

GDF15 (Growth Differentiation Factor 15) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GDF15 include estrogen resistance and oral cavity cancer. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is NODAL.

Gene Wiki entry for GDF15 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GDF15 Gene

Genomics for GDF15 Gene

Genomic Location for GDF15 Gene

18,374,731 bp from pter
18,389,176 bp from pter
14,446 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GDF15 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GDF15 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GDF15 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GDF15 Gene

Proteins for GDF15 Gene

  • Protein details for GDF15 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Growth/differentiation factor 15
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14629
    • P78360
    • Q9BWA0
    • Q9NRT0

    Protein attributes for GDF15 Gene

    308 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34140 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

neXtProt entry for GDF15 Gene

Proteomics data for GDF15 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GDF15 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Ser44 and Asn70

Other Protein References for GDF15 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GDF15 Gene

Domains for GDF15 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GDF15 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.:
    • Q99988
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GDF15: view

No data available for Gene Families for GDF15 Gene

Function for GDF15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GDF15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF15: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GDF15: view

Animal Models for GDF15 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GDF15:

miRNA for GDF15 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GDF15

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GDF15 Gene

Localization for GDF15 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF15 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GDF15 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GDF15 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GDF15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS 9326641
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF15: view

Pathways for GDF15 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GDF15: view

Pathways by source for GDF15 Gene

3 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for GDF15 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for GDF15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GDF15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 9326641
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS 9348093
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 9326641
GO:0010862 positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA --
GO:0042981 regulation of apoptotic process IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF15: view

Compounds for GDF15 Gene

(18) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GDF15 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
sulindac sulfide 85.7 11
sulindac 60.7 3
n-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide 48.2 5
ly294002 40.5 5
pd 98,059 37.2 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GDF15: view

Transcripts for GDF15 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GDF15 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GDF15 Gene

Growth differentiation factor 15:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GDF15 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GDF15 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GDF15 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GDF15 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GDF15 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bladder (7.8), Kidney - Cortex (6.3), Prostate (5.0), and Pancreas (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GDF15 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GDF15 Gene Hs.616962

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GDF15 Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GDF15: view

Orthologs for GDF15 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GDF15 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GDF15 35
  • 98.05 (n)
  • 96.75 (a)
GDF15 36
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GDF15 35
  • 74.54 (n)
  • 66.56 (a)
GDF15 36
  • 64 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GDF15 35
  • 74.34 (n)
  • 65.13 (a)
GDF15 36
  • 64 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gdf15 35
  • 68.62 (n)
  • 64.47 (a)
Gdf15 16
Gdf15 36
  • 60 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GDF15 36
  • 34 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GDF15 36
  • 34 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gdf15 35
  • 68.86 (n)
  • 62.27 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ndr1 36
  • 13 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea daf-7 36
  • 14 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GDF15:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GDF15 Gene

Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)
Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)

Paralogs for GDF15 Gene

Paralogs for GDF15 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GDF15: view

Variants for GDF15 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GDF15 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1054221 -- 18,389,048(+) AGCTG(C/T)ATTTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1054564 -- 18,389,005(+) GAATG(C/G)GCTCA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1055150 -- 18,388,974(-) GTCGC(C/G)TCCTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1058587 - 18,388,612(-) ACAGT(C/G)GTCCC reference, missense
rs1059022 -- 18,388,341(-) CCCTC(A/G)GGAAG reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GDF15 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv911274 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv911275 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv2430 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv911276 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GDF15 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF15 Gene

Disorders for GDF15 Gene

(36) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GDF15 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
prostate cancer 51.1 57
colon cancer 48.5 16
cancer 47.6 46
colorectal cancer 40.1 21
lung carcinoma 39.5 2

Relevant External Links for GDF15

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GDF15: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF15 Gene

Publications for GDF15 Gene

  1. MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. (PMID: 9326641) Bootcov M.R. … Breit S.N. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997) 3 4 23
  2. PLAB, a novel placental bone morphogenetic protein. (PMID: 9375789) Hromas R. … Lu L. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1997) 3 4 23
  3. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors regulate the expression of a TGF-beta superfamily member that has proapoptotic and antitumorigenic activities. (PMID: 11259636) Baek S.J. … Eling T.E. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2001) 3 4 23
  4. Resveratrol enhances the expression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) by increasing the expression of p53. (PMID: 11895857) Baek S.J. … Eling T.E. (Carcinogenesis 2002) 2 3 23
  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family. (PMID: 9593718) Paralkar V.M. … Thompson D.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4

Products for GDF15 Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GDF15
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GDF15
    • Block miRNA regulation of GDF15 using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GDF15 Gene

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