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Aliases for GDF15 Gene

Aliases for GDF15 Gene

  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 2 3 5
  • Prostate Differentiation Factor 2 3 4
  • Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 4
  • Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 3 4
  • NSAID-Activated Gene 1 Protein 3 4
  • NSAID-Regulated Gene 1 Protein 3 4
  • Placental TGF-Beta 3 4
  • GDF-15 3 4
  • Mic-1 3 4
  • NAG-1 3 4
  • NRG-1 3 4
  • PTGFB 3 4
  • MIC1 3 4
  • PLAB 3 4
  • PDF 3 4
  • NSAID (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug)-Activated Protein 1 3
  • PTGF-Beta 3

External Ids for GDF15 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GDF15 Gene

  • GC00U914343
  • GC19P018318
  • GC19P018358
  • GC19P018496
  • GC19P018613

Summaries for GDF15 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GDF15 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family. The protein is expressed in a broad range of cell types, acts as a pleiotropic cytokine and is involved in the stress reponse program of cells after cellular injury. Increased protein levels are associated with disease states such as tissue hypoxia, inflammation, acute injury and oxidative stress. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GDF15 Gene

GDF15 (Growth Differentiation Factor 15) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GDF15 include pulmonary systemic sclerosis and oral cavity cancer. Among its related pathways are Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is GDF10.

Gene Wiki entry for GDF15 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GDF15 Gene

Genomics for GDF15 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GDF15 Gene

Promoters for GDF15 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GDF15 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GDF15 Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
18,374,731 bp from pter
End:
18,389,176 bp from pter
Size:
14,446 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GDF15 Gene

Genes around GDF15 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GDF15 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GDF15 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GDF15 Gene

Proteins for GDF15 Gene

  • Protein details for GDF15 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q99988-GDF15_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Growth/differentiation factor 15
    Protein Accession:
    Q99988
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14629
    • P78360
    • Q9BWA0
    • Q9NRT0

    Protein attributes for GDF15 Gene

    Size:
    308 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34140 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

neXtProt entry for GDF15 Gene

Proteomics data for GDF15 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GDF15 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Ser 44 and Asn 70
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GDF15 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GDF15 (GDF15)

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GDF15 Gene

Domains & Families for GDF15 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GDF15 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q99988

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GDF15_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GDF15: view

No data available for Gene Families for GDF15 Gene

Function for GDF15 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GDF15: view

Animal Models for GDF15 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GDF15:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GDF15

miRNA for GDF15 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GDF15

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GDF15 Gene

Localization for GDF15 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF15 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GDF15 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GDF15 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GDF15 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GDF15 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GDF15: view

Pathways by source for GDF15 Gene

1 Sino Biological pathway for GDF15 Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for GDF15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GDF15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS 9348093
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 9326641
GO:0010862 positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA --
GO:0043408 regulation of MAPK cascade IBA --
GO:1901741 positive regulation of myoblast fusion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GDF15: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GDF15 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GDF15 Gene

(9) Drugs for GDF15 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(9) Additional Compounds for GDF15 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GDF15: view

Transcripts for GDF15 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GDF15 Gene

Growth differentiation factor 15:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GDF15 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GDF15 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GDF15
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GDF15

Expression for GDF15 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GDF15 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GDF15 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bladder (x7.8), Kidney - Cortex (x6.3), Prostate (x5.0), and Pancreas (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GDF15 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (24.2), Placenta (15.9), Lung (13.7), and Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GDF15 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GDF15 Gene Hs.616962

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GDF15 Gene

Q99988-GDF15_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GDF15: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for GDF15 Gene

Orthologs for GDF15 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GDF15 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GDF15 35
  • 74.54 (n)
  • 66.56 (a)
GDF15 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GDF15 35
  • 98.05 (n)
  • 96.75 (a)
GDF15 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gdf15 35
  • 68.86 (n)
  • 62.27 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gdf15 16
Gdf15 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
Gdf15 35
  • 68.62 (n)
  • 64.47 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GDF15 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
GDF15 35
  • 74.34 (n)
  • 65.13 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GDF15 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GDF15 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ndr1 36
  • 13 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea daf-7 36
  • 14 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GDF15:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GDF15 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)

Paralogs for GDF15 Gene

Paralogs for GDF15 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GDF15: view

Variants for GDF15 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GDF15 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_010386 -
VAR_047646 -
rs1054221 -- 18,389,048(+) AGCTG(C/T)ATTTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1054564 -- 18,389,005(+) GAATG(C/G)GCTCA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1055150 -- 18,388,974(-) GTCGC(C/G)TCCTC utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GDF15 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv911274 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv911275 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv2430 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv911276 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GDF15 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.20; 90.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GDF15 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GDF15
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GDF15

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GDF15 Gene

Disorders for GDF15 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for GDF15 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pulmonary systemic sclerosis
  • lung disease with systemic sclerosis
oral cavity cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of anterior portion of floor of mouth
transitional papilloma
  • transitional cell papilloma
prostatic adenoma
  • adenoma - prostate
pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • hnsha
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GDF15 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GDF15

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GDF15
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GDF15
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GDF15
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GDF15: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GDF15 Gene

Publications for GDF15 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family. (PMID: 9593718) Paralkar V.M. … Thompson D.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4 67
  2. Resveratrol enhances the expression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) by increasing the expression of p53. (PMID: 11895857) Baek S.J. … Eling T.E. (Carcinogenesis 2002) 2 3 23
  3. Overexpression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induces metastasis of human prostate cancer cells through the FAK-RhoA signaling pathway. (PMID: 19946339) Senapati S. … Batra S.K. (Oncogene 2010) 3 23
  4. Plasma MIC-1 correlates with systemic inflammation but is not an independent determinant of nutritional status or survival in oesophago-gastric cancer. (PMID: 20104227) Skipworth R.J. … Fearon K.C. (Br. J. Cancer 2010) 3 23
  5. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is increased in individuals before type 2 diabetes diagnosis but is not an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes: the Whitehall II study. (PMID: 20167682) Carstensen M. … Witte D.R. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2010) 3 23

Products for GDF15 Gene

Sources for GDF15 Gene

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