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GDF15 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC19P018613

Growth Differentiation Factor 15

  See GDF15-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Growth Differentiation Factor 151 2     MIC-12 3
Prostate Differentiation Factor1 2 3     NAG-12 3
MIC12 3 5     NRG-12 3
PDF2 3 5     PTGFB2 3
PLAB2 3 5     NSAID-Activated Gene 1 Protein2 3
Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 12 3     NSAID-Regulated Gene 1 Protein2 3
Placental Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 3     PTGF-beta2
Placental TGF-Beta2 3     Growth/Differentiation Factor 152
GDF-152 3     NSAID (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug)-Activated Protein 12

External Ids:    HGNC: 301421   Entrez Gene: 95182   Ensembl: ENSG000001305137   OMIM: 6053125   UniProtKB: Q999883   

Export aliases for GDF15 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U914343 GC19P018318 GC19P018358 GC19P018496


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GDF15 Gene:
Bone morphogenetic proteins (e.g., BMP9; MIM 605120) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (see
TGFB1; MIM 190180) superfamily and regulate tissue differentiation and maintenance. They are synthesized as
precursor molecules that are processed at a dibasic cleavage site to release C-terminal domains containing a
characteristic motif of 7 conserved cysteines in the mature protein.(supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for GDF15 Gene:
GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GDF15 include estrogen resistance, and oral cavity cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is GDF9.

Gene Wiki entry for GDF15 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000019.9  NC_018930.2  NT_011295.12  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GDF15 gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   C/EBPbeta   AP-1   ATF-2   STAT3   PPAR-gamma2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): GDF15 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GDF15

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GDF15


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19p13.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19p13.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19p13.11

GDF15 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GDF15 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19P018613:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
18,485,541 bp from pter      End:
18,499,986 bp from pter
Size:
14,446 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF15_HUMAN, Q99988 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Growth/differentiation factor 15 precursor  
Size: 308 amino acids; 34140 Da
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: O14629 P78360 Q9BWA0 Q9NRT0

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GDF15: NX_Q99988

Explore proteomics data for GDF15 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Ser44, Asn70
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GDF15 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004855.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000469819   ENSP00000470531   ENSP00000252809  

    GDF15 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GDF15
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    Novus Biologicals GDF15 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GDF15 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for GDF15
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for GDF15
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GDF15
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GDF15

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GDF15 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for GDF15 (34 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for GDF15

    GDF15 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GDF15
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    Novus Biologicals GDF15 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GDF15
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GDF15
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for GDF15
    antibodies-online antibodies for GDF15 (164 products) 

    GDF15 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GDF15
    R&D Systems ELISAs for GDF15 (GDF-15)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GDF15
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GDF15
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GDF15
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GDF15 
    antibodies-online kits for GDF15 (36 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
     IPR001839 TGF-b_C

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q99988

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q99988

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001839 Transforming growth factor beta (TGFb)
    IPB002400 Growth factor cystine knot superfamily signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF15_HUMAN, Q99988
    Similarity: Belongs to the TGF-beta family


    Find genes that share domains with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IEA--
    GO:0008083growth factor activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GDF15:
     Increased resistance to MDM2 i 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Gdf15):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  nervous system  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GDF15: Gdf15tm1Breit Gdf15tm1Sjl

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for GDF15

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GDF15:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018703)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GDF15 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GDF15
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGDF15 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GDF15

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GDF15 (NM_004864)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GDF15
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GDF15
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GDF15

    Cell Line
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    ESI BIO PureStem Progenitor for GDF15: 
    PureStem SM30, NCr-fac & Meso-latp Progenitor
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GDF15

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-13010) for GDF15 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GDF15_HUMAN, Q99988: Secreted (Probable)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular4
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1
    nucleus1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS9326641
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GDF15 About   (see all 7)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
    2TGF-beta Signaling Pathway (sino)
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway
    3Selected targets of p53
    Selected targets of p53
    4Selected targets of CREB1
    Selected targets of CREB1
    5Lymphocyte Signaling
    Lymphocyte Signaling


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GDF15 (see all 54)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    3 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for GDF15
        Apoptosis and Autophagy
    Lymphocyte Signaling
    TGF-beta/Smad Signaling

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GDF15
        Direct p53 effectors

    1 Sino Biological Pathway for GDF15
        TGF-beta Signaling Pathway


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GDF15: 
              Mesenchymal Stem Cell in human mouse rat
              Cytokines & Chemokines in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GDF15

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 7)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GDF15 (Q999883 ENSP000002528094) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 7)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MDFIQ997503, ENSP000002303214I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000230321
    MAPK14Q165393, ENSP000002297944I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000229794
    TP53ENSP000002693054STRING: ENSP00000269305
    COG8ENSP000003054594STRING: ENSP00000305459
    FYCO1ENSP000002961374STRING: ENSP00000296137
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS9326641
    GO:0007179transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS9348093
    GO:0007267cell-cell signaling TAS9326641

    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GDF15

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GDF15 gene (see all 18)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    sulindac sulfide 85.7 12 15180942 (3), 15767558 (2), 11925476 (1), 16699947 (1) (see all 8)
    sulindac 60.7 4 20051377 (2), 11984525 (1)
    n-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide 48.2 5 16582595 (2), 15958647 (2), 17213814 (1)
    ly294002 40.5 7 15377673 (3), 19384947 (1), 17715378 (1)
    pd 98,059 37.2 4 12514175 (1), 12907645 (1), 19384947 (1), 17715378 (1)
    azoxymethane 29.9 2 17101328 (2)
    phosphatidylinositol 28.9 4 17239488 (1), 19723892 (1), 17715378 (1), 15377673 (1)
    resveratrol 24.9 24 17257620 (8), 11895857 (6), 15670751 (1)
    glycogen 18.7 3 18058799 (1), 17237295 (1), 15377673 (1)
    iron 14.9 14 19863534 (2), 19833632 (2), 18842790 (2), 19907155 (1) (see all 9)



    Find genes that share compounds with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GDF15 gene: 
    NM_004864.2  

    Unigene Cluster for GDF15:

    Growth differentiation factor 15
    Hs.616962  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ883534
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000597765 ENST00000604609 ENST00000595973 ENST00000252809(uc002niv.2)
    ENST00000594925
    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GDF15
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GDF15 (NM_004864)
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    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GDF15
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GDF15
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GDF15
    Flow Cytometry
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB000584.1 AF003934.1 AF019770.1 AF173860.1 AK225431.1 AK291530.1 BC000529.2 BC008962.2 
    BT019465.1 U51731.1 U88323.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.95261396  DT.454415  DT.420863  DT.100826202  DT.121437456  DT.91774985  DT.121437428  DT.121437459 
    DT.100826198  DT.121437453  DT.100826197  DT.95261488  DT.95261365  DT.121437429  DT.95261432  DT.100826199 
    DT.100826204  DT.101985609  DT.121437425  DT.121437435  DT.121437447  DT.91775001  DT.95224314  DT.95261485 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1271):

    AI921852 BX096159 BU145432 R75650 AW043648 AA857899 BM271934 BM976016 
    BC000529 R66917 AA157984 AW043813 AI307313 AI467825 AI915894 BF109015 
    AI472060 AI087853 BM844774 CK824872 R25784 N41985 AI470551 BF435700 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GDF15 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GTGCTCATTC
    GDF15 Expression
    About this image


    GDF15 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Notch-transfected mesenchymal stromal cells (SB623)
             HyStem+BMP4-induced E15 cells
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem SM30, NCr-fac & Meso-latp Progenitor
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)
             HyStem+BMP4-induced E15 cells
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)
             HyStem+BMP4-induced E15 cells
    GDF15 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GDF15 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.616962

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF15_HUMAN, Q99988
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in
    kidney

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GDF15: 
              Mesenchymal Stem Cell in human mouse rat
              Cytokines & Chemokines in human mouse rat
              Common Cytokines in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GDF15
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GDF15
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GDF15

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GDF15 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gdf151 , 5 growth differentiation factor 151, 5 68.62(n)1
    64.47(a)1
      8 (34.15 cM)5
    238861  NM_011819.21  NP_035949.21 
     706293935 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ndr16
    nodal-related 1
    13(a)
    many ↔ many
    21(19838661-19840960) ENSDARG00000057096
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea daf-76
    Protein DAF-7 (daf-7) mRNA, complete cds
    14(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(811828-813764) WBGene00000903
    corn
    (Zea mays)
    Liliopsida AY105922.12   -- 99.25(n)    AY105922.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GDF15 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GDF15 gene
    GDF92  NODAL2  BMP32  GDF102  BMP152  

    Find genes that share paralogs with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GDF15 (see all 82)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1829733501,2
    --18495008(+) AGGCCA/GAGGCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs621224291,2
    C--18495014(+) AGGCCG/AGCGGA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA CSA 3
    rs1874417541,2
    --18495052(+) CTAGCC/TAACAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs2009451931,2
    C--18495085(+) AAAAA-/ATTAGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1456665591,2
    C--18495105(+) CAGGCA/GTGGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1414158361,2
    C--18495120(+) GTGCTC/TATAGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1131035721,2
    C,F--18498183(+) TGTTTA/TAAAAA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NA 122
    rs1461434371,2
    --18498213(+) TGTGTA/GCCTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1400362201,2
    --18498222(+) GTAGTC/GTCAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs37870231,2
    C,F--18498246(-) CCTCCT/CGCCTC 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- C:0.42NA WA CSA EA 368

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GDF15 (18485541 - 18499986 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for GDF15:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv911276CNV Loss21882294
    nsv911275CNV Loss21882294
    nsv2430CNV Loss18451855
    nsv911274CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GDF15
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GDF15
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GDF15

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 605312    OMIM disorders: --

    9 diseases for GDF15:    
    About MalaCards
    estrogen resistance    oral cavity cancer    pyruvate kinase deficiency    anoxia
    prostatitis    congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type i    hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis    colon cancer
    prostate cancer


    Find genes that share disorders with GDF15           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GDF15 gene (see all 36)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prostate cancer 51.1 78 19152406 (5), 17372249 (5), 19843661 (5), 19946339 (5) (see all 20)
    colon cancer 48.5 18 17899765 (4), 20230799 (4), 19540205 (3), 16435911 (2) (see all 7)
    cancer 47.6 62 19133249 (4), 18258606 (3), 18076062 (3), 15677629 (3) (see all 31)
    colorectal cancer 40.1 22 19924834 (3), 19723892 (3), 16731769 (2), 17964072 (2) (see all 14)
    lung carcinoma 39.5 2 12606762 (2)
    tumors 37.5 88 17129398 (5), 16397029 (4), 18264720 (4), 19152406 (3) (see all 37)
    prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia 37.2 1 16614113 (1)
    prostatitis 33.5 1 18929399 (1)
    gastric cancer 30.3 30 12907645 (8), 19133249 (4), 18258606 (3), 15180942 (3) (see all 7)
    colorectal carcinoma 29.2 6 15677629 (2), 12855642 (1), 12624183 (1), 12767058 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GDF15
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GDF15 (18 documents)

    Export disorders for GDF15 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GDF15 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 284):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GDF15)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family. (PubMed id 9593718)1, 2, 3 Paralkar V.M.... Thompson D.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    2. Resveratrol enhances the expression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) by increasing the expression of p53. (PubMed id 11895857)1, 3, 9 Baek S.J....Eling T.E. (Carcinogenesis 2002)
    3. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors regulate the expression of a TGF-beta superfamily member that has proapoptotic and antitumorigenic activities. (PubMed id 11259636)1, 2, 9 Baek S.J.... Eling T.E. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2001)
    4. MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily. (PubMed id 9326641)1, 2, 9 Bootcov M.R.... Breit S.N. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997)
    5. PLAB, a novel placental bone morphogenetic protein. (PubMed id 9375789)1, 2, 9 Hromas R.... Lu L. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1997)
    6. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PubMed id 19692168)1, 4 Guey L.T....Malats N. (Eur. Urol. 2010)
    7. The haplotype of the growth-differentiation factor 15 gene is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in human essential hypertension. (PubMed id 19505289)1, 4 Wang X....Hui R. (Clin. Sci. 2010)
    8. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PubMed id 20800603)1, 4 Flachsbart F....Nebel A. (Mutat. Res. 2010)
    9. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    10. Toll-like receptor signaling pathway variants and prostate cancer mortality. (PubMed id 19505919)1, 4 Stark J.R....Kraft P. (amp 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 9518 HGNC: 30142 AceView: GDF15 Ensembl:ENSG00000130513 euGenes: HUgn9518
    ECgene: GDF15 H-InvDB: GDF15

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GDF15 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GDF15 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for GDF15 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GDF15

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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