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GDF11 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 55
GCID: GC12P056137

Growth Differentiation Factor 11

  Search for GDF11
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Growth Differentiation Factor 111 2
BMP112 3 5
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 112 3
BMP-112 3
GDF-112 3
Growth/Differentiation Factor 112

External Ids:    HGNC: 42161   Entrez Gene: 102202   Ensembl: ENSG000001354147   OMIM: 6039365   UniProtKB: O953903   

Export aliases for GDF11 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12P056061 GC12P056210 GC12P055853 GC12P054423 GC12P053175


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GDF11 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and the TGF-beta
superfamily. This group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site which is cleaved
to produce a mature protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. The members of this family are
regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Studies in mice and Xenopus
suggest that this protein is involved in mesodermal formation and neurogenesis during embryonic development.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GDF11 Gene:
GDF11 (growth differentiation factor 11) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and cytokine activity. An important paralog of this gene is TGFB3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF11_HUMAN, O95390
Function: Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis
during development. Play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the
skeletal pattern

Gene Wiki entry for GDF11 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NT_029419.13  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GDF11 gene promoter:
         GR   C/EBPbeta   Sp1   GR-beta   Nkx2-5   c-Ets-1   HEN1   GR-alpha   LyF-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGDF11 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GDF11

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GDF11


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q13.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q13.13

GDF11 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GDF11 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P056137:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
56,137,064 bp from pter      End:
56,150,911 bp from pter
Size:
13,848 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF11_HUMAN, O95390 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Growth/differentiation factor 11 precursor  
Size: 407 amino acids; 45091 Da
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q9UID1 Q9UID2

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GDF11: NX_O95390

Explore proteomics data for GDF11 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn94
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GDF11 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005802.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000257868   ENSP00000448390  

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GDF11

     
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GDF11 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001111 TGF-b_N
     IPR015615 TGF-beta-rel
     IPR001839 TGF-b_C
     IPR017948 TGFb_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O95390

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O95390

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001111 Transforming growth factor beta (TGFb)
    IPB001839 Transforming growth factor beta (TGFb)


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GDF11_HUMAN, O95390
    Similarity: Belongs to the TGF-beta family


    Find genes that share domains with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GDF11_HUMAN, O95390
    Function: Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis
    during development. Play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the
    skeletal pattern

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008083growth factor activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GDF11:
     Decreased Salmonella enterica   Decreased homologous recombina 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Gdf11) (see all 19):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis 
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     limbs/digits/tail  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GDF11: Gdf11tm2.2Sjl Gdf11tm1Clf Gdf11tm1Sjl

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GDF11
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GDF11
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GDF11

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GDF11:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029928), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT052163), hsa-mir-18a-3p (MIRT040960), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040475), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038028), hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT050946)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GDF11 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GDF11 (see all 134):
    hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-631 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-3170
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGDF11 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GDF11

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GDF11


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GDF11_HUMAN, O95390: Secreted (Probable)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular4
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GDF11: 
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GDF11

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 8)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GDF11 (O953902, 3 ENSP000002578684) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 11)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ACVR2BQ137052, 3, ENSP000003403614MINT-8044205 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000340361
    WFIKKN1Q96NZ83, ENSP000003247634I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000324763
    WFIKKN2Q8TEU83, ENSP000003111844I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000311184
    APCENSP000002574304STRING: ENSP00000257430
    AXIN1ENSP000002623204STRING: ENSP00000262320
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    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 14):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001501skeletal system development TAS10391213
    GO:0001656metanephros development IEA--
    GO:0001657ureteric bud development IEA--
    GO:0007399nervous system development TAS10075854
    GO:0007498mesoderm development TAS10075854

    Find genes that share ontologies with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GDF11



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GDF11 gene: 
    NM_005811.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GDF11:

    Growth differentiation factor 11
    Hs.600883  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005811
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000257868(uc001shq.3) ENST00000546799
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GDF11 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GDF11 (see all 134):
    hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-631 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-3170
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGDF11 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GDF11
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GDF11
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GDF11 (NM_005811)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GDF11
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GDF11
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GDF11
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GDF11
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GDF11
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GDF11

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF028333.1 AF100907.1 AK091091.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.121194657  DT.100020515  DT.430003  DT.95135754  DT.313388  DT.99936459  DT.92459617 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 191):

    AW173253 AI335632 AI803864 BU682663 Z42173 AI889093 BM929310 BU730899 
    AW516251 BM678313 BQ218253 BM694432 CA428570 BF516009 AL134867 AI655774 
    AI291121 AI969382 AA494555 BM680556 Z41613 AI916904 AI380467 BM707862 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GDF11 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACACAATCCA
    GDF11 Expression
    About this image


    GDF11 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Muscle Progenitor Cells Mandibular Arch Muscles
     
     Neurons
             Mature Ganglion Cells Ganglion Cell Layer
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Mature Ganglion Cells Ganglion Cell Layer
    GDF11 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GDF11 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.600883
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including GDF11: 
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GDF11

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GDF11 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gdf111 , 5 growth differentiation factor 111, 5 94(n)1
    99.45(a)1
      10 (77.18 cM)5
    145611  NM_010272.11  NP_034402.11 
     1288822955 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GDF116
    growth differentiation factor 11
    80(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343198.1(3034380-3059436)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.136382 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 78.44(n)    BJ034907.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii gdf82 growth differentiation factor 8 77.16(n)   30215  AF019626.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta myo6
    myoglianin
    17(a)
    1 → many
    4(711890-716675)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea daf-71 daf-7 43.3(n)
    29.58(a)
      175237  NM_064864.4  NP_497265.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GDF11 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GDF11 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GDF11 gene
    TGFB32  INHBC2  MSTN2  INHBE2  INHBA2  TGFB12  TGFB22  INHBB2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for GDF11 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     GDF11_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    MSTN    GDF8

    Find genes that share paralogs with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GDF11 (see all 171)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1995571581,2
    C--56135194(+) CTTTTC/TTTTTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1894816571,2
    C--56135199(+) CTTTTC/TTTTTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1810246571,2
    C--56135262(+) ATCTCA/GGCTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1844059551,2
    --56135401(+) GTTAGC/GCAGGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1417999731,2
    --56135472(+) CAGGCC/GTGAGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1892731411,2
    --56135490(+) CCTGGC/TCTGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1819531311,2
    --56135494(+) GCCTGA/GCACAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1505529071,2
    --56135517(+) TGACTA/GTTGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1156904091,2
    C,F--56135963(+) TCCCAT/CCACCT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1864110171,2
    --56136123(+) TCCACC/TTCTGT 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GDF11 (56137064 - 56150911 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for GDF11:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv469410CNV Loss19166990
    nsv832423CNV Gain17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GDF11
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GDF11

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 603936    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with GDF11           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GDF11
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GDF11 (1 document)

    Export disorders for GDF11 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GDF11 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 20):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GDF11)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (PubMed id 15988002)1, 3, 9 Ge G....Greenspan D.S. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005)
    2. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PubMed id 20734064)1, 4 He C....Hunter D.J. (Hum. Genet. 2010)
    3. A novel BMP expressed in developing mouse limb, spinal cord, and tail bud is a potent mesoderm inducer in Xenopus embryos. (PubMed id 10075854)1, 2 Gamer L.W....Rosen V. (Dev. Biol. 1999)
    4. Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. (PubMed id 10391213)1, 2 McPherron A.C.... Lee S.-J. (Nat. Genet. 1999)
    5. Clinical significance of growth differentiation factor 11 in colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 17912435)1, 9 Yokoe T....Mori M. (Int. J. Oncol. 2007)
    6. BMP-11 and myostatin support undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells in feeder-free cultures. (PubMed id 19751112)1 Hannan N.R....Wolvetang E.J. (Cloning Stem Cells 2009)
    7. TGFbeta ligands promote the initiation of retinal ganglion cell dendrites in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed id 17997109)1 Hocking J.C....McFarlane S. (Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2008)
    8. VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5. (PubMed id 18519639)1 Szumska D....Bhattacharya S. (amp 2008)
    9. Both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 have high affinity for growth and differentiation factors 8 and 11. (PubMed id 18596030)1 KondA!s K....Patthy L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    10. Differential antagonism of activin, myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 by wild-type and mutant follistatin. (PubMed id 18535106)1 Schneyer A.L....Krasney P.A. (Endocrinology 2008)

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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10220 HGNC: 4216 AceView: GDF11 Ensembl:ENSG00000135414 euGenes: HUgn10220
    ECgene: GDF11 H-InvDB: GDF11

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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GDF11 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    Patent Information for GDF11 gene:
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