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Aliases for GCKR Gene

Aliases for GCKR Gene

  • Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulator 2 3
  • GKRP 3 4
  • Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulatory Protein 2
  • Glucokinase Regulator 4
  • FGQTL5 3

External Ids for GCKR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCKR Gene

  • GC02P027641
  • GC02P027812
  • GC02P027694
  • GC02P027631
  • GC02P027573
  • GC02P027720

Summaries for GCKR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCKR Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein belonging to the GCKR subfamily of the SIS (Sugar ISomerase) family of proteins. The gene product is a regulatory protein that inhibits glucokinase in liver and pancreatic islet cells by binding non-covalently to form an inactive complex with the enzyme. This gene is considered a susceptibility gene candidate for a form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GCKR Gene

GCKR (Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCKR include transient cerebral ischemia and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Among its related pathways are Infectious disease and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and protein domain specific binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

  • Inhibits glucokinase (GCK) by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme. The affinity of GCKR for GCK is modulated by fructose metabolites: GCKR with bound fructose 6-phosphate has increased affinity for GCK, while GCKR with bound fructose 1-phosphate has strongly decreased affinity for GCK and does not inhibit GCK activity.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCKR Gene

Genomics for GCKR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GCKR Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GCKR gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GCKR Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
27,496,839 bp from pter
End:
27,523,689 bp from pter
Size:
26,851 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCKR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GCKR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCKR Gene

Proteins for GCKR Gene

  • Protein details for GCKR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glucokinase regulatory protein
    Protein Accession:
    Q14397
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A1L4C2
    • B4DPQ2
    • Q53RY6
    • Q99522

    Protein attributes for GCKR Gene

    Size:
    625 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68685 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (fructose 6-phosphate bound form) with GCK.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCKR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GCKR Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GCKR Gene

Proteomics data for GCKR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GCKR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GCKR Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GCKR (GCKR)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCKR Gene

Domains & Families for GCKR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GCKR Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14397

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GCKR_HUMAN :
  • Fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate compete for the same binding site
  • Belongs to the GCKR family.
Domain:
  • Fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate compete for the same binding site
  • Contains 2 SIS domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GCKR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCKR: view

No data available for Gene Families for GCKR Gene

Function for GCKR Gene

Molecular function for GCKR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glucokinase regulatory protein 69kDa,,interacting non-covalently with GCR and inhibiting it in presence of fructose-6-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inhibits glucokinase (GCK) by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme. The affinity of GCKR for GCK is modulated by fructose metabolites: GCKR with bound fructose 6-phosphate has increased affinity for GCK, while GCKR with bound fructose 1-phosphate has strongly decreased affinity for GCK and does not inhibit GCK activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004857 enzyme inhibitor activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11522786
GO:0016301 kinase activity --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding --
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCKR: view

Animal Models for GCKR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCKR:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GCKR Gene

Localization for GCKR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Under low glucose concentrations, GKRP associates with GCK and the inactive complex is recruited to the hepatocyte nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GCKR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCKR gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view

Pathways & Interactions for GCKR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCKR: view

Pathways by source for GCKR Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for GCKR Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000060 protein import into nucleus, translocation ISS --
GO:0001678 cellular glucose homeostasis --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008645 hexose transport TAS --
GO:0009750 response to fructose IDA 14627435
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GCKR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GCKR Gene

(5) Drugs for GCKR Gene - From: HMDB and NovoSeek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Pharma 220
Beta-D-Glucose Experimental Pharma 0
Glucose 6-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
fructose-6-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Uric Acid Experimental, Investigational Pharma 112

(10) Additional Compounds for GCKR Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Alpha-D-Glucose
  • a-D-Glucopyranose
  • a-D-Glucose
  • a-Dextrose
  • a-Glucose
  • alpha-D-Glucopyranose
492-62-6
D-Glucose
  • Roferose ST
  • (+)-Glucose
  • Anhydrous dextrose
  • Cerelose
  • Cerelose 2001
50-99-7
fructose 1-phosphate
  • D-Fructose 1-phosphate
  • D-Fructose-1-P
  • D-Fructose-1-phosphate
  • Fructose 1-phosphate
  • Fructose-1-P
15978-08-2
glucose
Glycogen
  • Animal starch
  • Glycogen
  • Liver starch
  • Lyoglycogen
  • Phytoglycogen
9005-79-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCKR: view

Transcripts for GCKR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCKR Gene

Glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCKR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCKR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GCKR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GCKR

Expression for GCKR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GCKR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCKR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x39.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GCKR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (68.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GCKR Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCKR Gene Hs.89771

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCKR Gene

Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Found in liver and pancreas. Not detected in muscle, brain, heart, thymus, intestine, uterus, adipose tissue, kidney, adrenal, lung or spleen.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GCKR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GCKR Gene

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GCKR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GCKR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCKR 35
  • 84.41 (n)
  • 78.13 (a)
GCKR 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GCKR 35
  • 89.12 (n)
  • 91.8 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
GCKR 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gckr 35
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 88.47 (a)
Gckr 16
Gckr 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCKR 35
  • 99.41 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GCKR 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gckr 35
  • 86.57 (n)
  • 89.32 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCKR 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493477 35
  • 56.69 (n)
  • 52.69 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68583 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100333044 35
  • 48.97 (n)
  • 41.59 (a)
gckr 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GCKR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCKR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GCKR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GCKR (if available)

Paralogs for GCKR Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GCKR Gene

Variants for GCKR Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
Genetic variations in GCKR define the fasting plasma glucose levels quantitative trait locus 5 (FGQTL5) [MIM:613463]. The normal fasting plasma glucose level is defined as less than 100 mg glucose per deciliter plasma (5.55 mmol per liter). Higher fasting plasma glucose levels predict type 2 diabetes in young adults and increases the risk of mortality

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCKR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs704790 -- 27,523,543(-) GGAAA(C/T)GGGGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs715325 -- 27,502,705(-) TTCTA(G/T)GGCAG intron-variant
rs715326 -- 27,502,894(-) ATGAC(A/G)ATCTT intron-variant
rs780092 -- 27,520,287(-) TCTTT(C/T)TGCTA intron-variant
rs780093 -- 27,519,736(-) ccccc(A/G)accag intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCKR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv817684 CNV Gain 17921354

Variation tolerance for GCKR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 55.67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.69; 46.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GCKR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GCKR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GCKR

Disorders for GCKR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for GCKR Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
transient cerebral ischemia
  • transient cerebral ischaemia nos
maturity-onset diabetes of the young
  • mason-type diabetes
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2
obesity
  • obesity, association with
- elite association
Search GCKR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GCKR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GCKR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GCKR
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GCKR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCKR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GCKR Gene

Publications for GCKR Gene

  1. Organization of the human glucokinase regulator gene GCKR. (PMID: 9570959) Hayward B.E. … Bonthron D.T. (Genomics 1998) 2 23 67
  2. Co-localization of the ketohexokinase and glucokinase regulator genes to a 500-kb region of chromosome 2p23. (PMID: 8662230) Hayward B.E. … Bonthron D.T. (Mamm. Genome 1996) 2 23 67
  3. Functional variants of glucokinase regulatory protein and apolipoprotein A5 genes in ischemic stroke. (PMID: 19847674) JA!romi L. … Melegh B. (J. Mol. Neurosci. 2010) 23 67
  4. Replication of the five novel loci for uric acid concentrations and potential mediating mechanisms. (PMID: 19861489) van der Harst P. … Navis G. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2010) 23 67
  5. Common variants at the GCK, GCKR, G6PC2-ABCB11 and MTNR1B loci are associated with fasting glucose in two Asian populations. (PMID: 19937311) Takeuchi F. … Kato N. (Diabetologia 2010) 23 67

Products for GCKR Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GCKR
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR
    • Block miRNA regulation of GCKR using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GCKR Gene

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