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Aliases for GCKR Gene

Aliases for GCKR Gene

  • Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulator 2 3
  • GKRP 3 4 6
  • FGQTL5 3 6
  • Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulatory Protein 2
  • Glucokinase Regulatory Protein 3
  • Glucokinase Regulator 4

External Ids for GCKR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCKR Gene

  • GC02P027641
  • GC02P027812
  • GC02P027694
  • GC02P027631
  • GC02P027573
  • GC02P027720

Summaries for GCKR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCKR Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein belonging to the GCKR subfamily of the SIS (Sugar ISomerase) family of proteins. The gene product is a regulatory protein that inhibits glucokinase in liver and pancreatic islet cells by binding non-covalently to form an inactive complex with the enzyme. This gene is considered a susceptibility gene candidate for a form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GCKR Gene

GCKR (Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4) Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCKR include cardiovascular disease risk factor and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and MPS VI - Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and carbohydrate binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

  • Inhibits glucokinase (GCK) by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme. The affinity of GCKR for GCK is modulated by fructose metabolites: GCKR with bound fructose 6-phosphate has increased affinity for GCK, while GCKR with bound fructose 1-phosphate has strongly decreased affinity for GCK and does not inhibit GCK activity.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCKR Gene

Genomics for GCKR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GCKR Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GCKR gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GCKR Gene

Start:
27,496,612 bp from pter
End:
27,523,689 bp from pter
Size:
27,078 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCKR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GCKR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCKR Gene

Proteins for GCKR Gene

  • Protein details for GCKR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glucokinase regulatory protein
    Protein Accession:
    Q14397
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A1L4C2
    • B4DPQ2
    • Q53RY6
    • Q99522

    Protein attributes for GCKR Gene

    Size:
    625 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68685 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (fructose 6-phosphate bound form) with GCK.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCKR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GCKR Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GCKR Gene

Proteomics data for GCKR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GCKR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GCKR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GCKR (GCKR)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCKR Gene

Domains for GCKR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GCKR Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14397

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GCKR_HUMAN :
  • Q14397
Domain:
  • Fructose 1-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate compete for the same binding site
  • Contains 2 SIS domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GCKR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCKR: view

No data available for Gene Families for GCKR Gene

Function for GCKR Gene

Molecular function for GCKR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glucokinase regulatory protein 69kDa,,interacting non-covalently with GCR and inhibiting it in presence of fructose-6-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Inhibits glucokinase (GCK) by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme. The affinity of GCKR for GCK is modulated by fructose metabolites: GCKR with bound fructose 6-phosphate has increased affinity for GCK, while GCKR with bound fructose 1-phosphate has strongly decreased affinity for GCK and does not inhibit GCK activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004857 enzyme inhibitor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11522786
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IEA --
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IEA --
GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view

Phenotypes for GCKR Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for GCKR:
inferred from 2 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GCKR:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCKR: view

Animal Models for GCKR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCKR:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GCKR Gene

Localization for GCKR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Under low glucose concentrations, GKRP associates with GCK and the inactive complex is recruited to the hepatocyte nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GCKR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCKR gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view

Pathways for GCKR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCKR: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCKR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000060 protein import into nucleus, translocation ISS --
GO:0001678 cellular glucose homeostasis IEA --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008645 hexose transport TAS --
GO:0009750 response to fructose IDA 14627435
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCKR: view

Compounds for GCKR Gene

(4) HMDB Compounds for GCKR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Alpha-D-Glucose
  • Hexopyranose
492-62-6
Beta-D-Glucose
  • b-D-Glucopyranose
492-61-5
D-Glucose
  • (+)-Glucose
50-99-7
Glucose 6-phosphate
  • D(+)-Glucopyranose 6-phosphate
56-73-5

(11) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GCKR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
fructose 1-phosphate 90.1 6
fructose-6-phosphate 80.8 9
mannitol-1-phosphate 71.9 2
mannoheptulose 65.6 1
leptomycin b 62.3 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCKR: view

Transcripts for GCKR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCKR Gene

Glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for GCKR
  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCKR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCKR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GCKR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GCKR

Expression for GCKR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GCKR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCKR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (39.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GCKR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCKR Gene Hs.89771

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCKR Gene

Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Found in liver and pancreas. Not detected in muscle, brain, heart, thymus, intestine, uterus, adipose tissue, kidney, adrenal, lung or spleen.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GCKR: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for GCKR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GCKR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCKR 35
  • 99.41 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GCKR 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCKR 35
  • 84.41 (n)
  • 78.13 (a)
GCKR 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToMany
GCKR 35
  • 89.12 (n)
  • 91.8 (a)
GCKR 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gckr 35
  • 85.94 (n)
  • 88.47 (a)
Gckr 16
Gckr 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCKR 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gckr 35
  • 86.57 (n)
  • 89.32 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68583 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493477 35
  • 56.69 (n)
  • 52.69 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gckr 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
LOC100333044 35
  • 48.97 (n)
  • 41.59 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GCKR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCKR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GCKR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GCKR (if available)

Paralogs for GCKR Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GCKR Gene

Variants for GCKR Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

Q14397-GCKR_HUMAN
Genetic variations in GCKR define the fasting plasma glucose levels quantitative trait locus 5 (FGQTL5) [MIM:613463]. The normal fasting plasma glucose level is defined as less than 100 mg glucose per deciliter plasma (5.55 mmol per liter). Higher fasting plasma glucose levels predict type 2 diabetes in young adults and increases the risk of mortality

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCKR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs704790 -- 27,523,543(-) GGAAA(C/T)GGGGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs715325 -- 27,502,705(-) TTCTA(G/T)GGCAG intron-variant
rs715326 -- 27,502,894(-) ATGAC(A/G)ATCTT intron-variant
rs780092 -- 27,520,287(-) TCTTT(C/T)TGCTA intron-variant
rs780093 -- 27,519,736(-) ccccc(A/G)accag intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCKR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv817684 CNV Gain 17921354

Relevant External Links for GCKR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GCKR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GCKR

Disorders for GCKR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for GCKR Gene including...

Search for GCKR Gene in MalaCards »

(1) OMIM Diseases for GCKR Gene (600842)

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GCKR Gene

(4) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GCKR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
niddm 56.3 4
hyperglycemia 55.5 2
hypoglycemia 34.7 2
obesity 33.5 4

Relevant External Links for GCKR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GCKR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GCKR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCKR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCKR Gene

Publications for GCKR Gene

  1. Organization of the human glucokinase regulator gene GCKR. (PMID: 9570959) Hayward B.E. … Bonthron D.T. (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. The common P446L polymorphism in GCKR inversely modulates fasting glucose and triglyceride levels and reduces type 2 diabetes risk in the DESIR prospective general French population. (PMID: 18556336) Vaxillaire M. … Froguel P. (Diabetes 2008) 3 4 23 48
  3. Common missense variant in the glucokinase regulatory protein gene is associated with increased plasma triglyceride and C-reactive protein but lower fasting glucose concentrations. (PMID: 18678614) Orho-Melander M. … Kathiresan S. (Diabetes 2008) 3 4 23 48
  4. Polygenic determinants of severe hypertriglyceridemia. (PMID: 18596051) Wang J. … Hegele R.A. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2008) 3 23 48
  5. Association between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triacylglycerol concentrations in fasting, postprandial, and fenofibrate-treated states. (PMID: 19056598) Perez-Martinez P. … Ordovas J.M. (Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009) 3 23 48

Products for GCKR Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GCKR
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCKR
    • Block miRNA regulation of GCKR using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GCKR Gene

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