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Aliases for GCGR Gene

Aliases for GCGR Gene

  • Glucagon Receptor 2 3
  • GL-R 3 4
  • GGR 3

External Ids for GCGR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCGR Gene

  • GC17P079285
  • GC17P9I0091
  • GC17M9K0029
  • GC17P9P0057
  • GC17P8B0057
  • GC17P079763
  • GC17P075168

Summaries for GCGR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCGR Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glucagon receptor that is important in controlling blood glucose levels. Defects in this gene are a cause of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GCGR Gene

GCGR (Glucagon Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCGR include diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent and islet cell tumor. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Interleukin receptor SHC signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is VIPR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glucagon that plays a central role in the regulation of blood glucose levels and glucose homeostasis. Regulates the rate of hepatic glucose production by promoting glycogen hydrolysis and gluconeogenesis. Plays an important role in mediating the responses to fasting. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Promotes activation of adenylate cyclase. Besides, plays a role in signaling via a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Tocris Summary for GCGR Gene

  • The glucagon receptor is a member of the glucagon receptor family that also includes GLP-1, GLP-2, secretin, GHRH and GIP receptors. The glucagon receptor regulates blood glucose levels and is predominantly expressed in the pancreas, liver and kidneys.

Gene Wiki entry for GCGR Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCGR Gene

Genomics for GCGR Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GCGR Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
81,804,132 bp from pter
End:
81,814,013 bp from pter
Size:
9,882 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCGR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GCGR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCGR Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for GCGR Gene

Proteins for GCGR Gene

  • Protein details for GCGR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P47871-GLR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glucagon receptor
    Protein Accession:
    P47871
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M3M5

    Protein attributes for GCGR Gene

    Size:
    477 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54009 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCGR Gene

neXtProt entry for GCGR Gene

Proteomics data for GCGR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GCGR Gene

  • Ligand-binding promotes phosphorylation of serine residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Phosphorylation is important for receptor endocytosis after ligand-binding.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 46, Asn 59, Asn 74, and Asn 78
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GCGR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCGR Gene

Domains & Families for GCGR Gene

Gene Families for GCGR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GCGR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P47871

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLR_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCGR: view

Function for GCGR Gene

Molecular function for GCGR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glucagon receptor,G protein coupled,receptor
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glucagon that plays a central role in the regulation of blood glucose levels and glucose homeostasis. Regulates the rate of hepatic glucose production by promoting glycogen hydrolysis and gluconeogenesis. Plays an important role in mediating the responses to fasting. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Promotes activation of adenylate cyclase. Besides, plays a role in signaling via a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004967 glucagon receptor activity IDA 9287038
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCGR: view

Animal Models for GCGR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCGR:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCGR

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GCGR Gene

Localization for GCGR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Is rapidly internalized after ligand-binding. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9287038}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GCGR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCGR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endosome 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 9287038
GO:0016020 membrane --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 8144028
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view

Pathways & Interactions for GCGR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCGR: view

PCR Array Products

SIGNOR curated interactions for GCGR Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006091 generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS 7773293
GO:0006112 energy reserve metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006887 exocytosis IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view

Drugs & Compounds for GCGR Gene

(15) Drugs for GCGR Gene - From: NovoSeek, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, DrugBank, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glucagon recombinant Approved Pharma binder, Target, agonist 0
Epinephrine Approved Pharma 768
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
fructose Experimental Pharma 0
L-168,049 Pharma Antagonist Potent, orally active human glucagon receptor antagonist 0

(12) Additional Compounds for GCGR Gene - From: NovoSeek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
N-[3-cyano-6-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl]-2-ethylbutanamide
Antagonist
des-His1-[Glu9]-Glucagon (1-29) amide
110084-95-2
Oxyntomodulin
62340-29-8
adenylate
Des-His 1-[Glu9]Glucagon Amide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCGR: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GCGR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GCGR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCGR Gene

Glucagon receptor:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCGR

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCGR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCGR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GCGR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GCGR

Expression for GCGR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GCGR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCGR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x40.3) and Kidney - Cortex (x7.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GCGR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GCGR Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCGR Gene Hs.208

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GCGR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GCGR Gene

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCGR Gene

Orthologs for GCGR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GCGR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCGR 35
  • 86.08 (n)
  • 85.65 (a)
GCGR 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GCGR 35
  • 84.31 (n)
  • 83.61 (a)
GCGR 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gcgr 35
  • 82.5 (n)
  • 83.01 (a)
Gcgr 16
Gcgr 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCGR 35
  • 99.02 (n)
  • 98.11 (a)
GCGR 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gcgr 35
  • 82.5 (n)
  • 82.14 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCGR 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GIPR 35
  • 77.31 (n)
  • 71.1 (a)
GIPR 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GCGR 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gcgr 35
  • 63.5 (n)
  • 61.56 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gcgrp-A 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC562973 35
  • 62.63 (n)
  • 56.82 (a)
gcgra 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
gcgrb 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta EG:BACR25B3.3 37
  • 28 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GCGR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCGR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GCGR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GCGR (if available)

Paralogs for GCGR Gene

(13) SIMAP similar genes for GCGR Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GCGR: view

Variants for GCGR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCGR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5384 -- 81,812,864(+) GTCTT(C/T)GCCTT reference, synonymous-codon
rs5385 - 81,811,078(+) GGCAG(C/G)CTTGG reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs5386 -- 81,811,293(+) GGGGC(C/G)CTGCT reference, synonymous-codon
rs5387 - 81,812,212(+) GGGCT(G/T)CTGGT missense, reference
rs1801483 Pathogenic, - 81,809,839(+) TCTAC(A/G)GTGAC missense, reference, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCGR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv909052 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv428351 CNV Gain 18775914
dgv3330n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3332n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470620 CNV Loss 18288195
dgv3333n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv909134 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GCGR Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.02; 37.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GCGR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GCGR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GCGR

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

Disorders for GCGR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for GCGR Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2
islet cell tumor
  • pancreatic endocrine carcinoma
hyperglycemia
glucose metabolism disease
  • disorder of glucose metabolism
acquired metabolic disease
- elite association
Search GCGR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GCGR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GCGR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GCGR
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GCGR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCGR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GCGR Gene

Publications for GCGR Gene

  1. Structure-function of the glucagon receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors: the glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2 receptors. (PMID: 12529935) Brubaker P.L. … Drucker D.J. (Recept. Channels 2002) 23 25 67
  2. The human glucagon receptor encoding gene: structure, cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 8144028) Lok S. … Rosenberg G.B. (Gene 1994) 23 25 67
  3. Localization of the glucagon receptor gene to human chromosome band 17q25. (PMID: 8020989) Menzel S. … Bell G.I. (Genomics 1994) 2 25 67
  4. Low sensitivity of glucagon provocative testing for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. (PMID: 19897672) Lenders J.W. … Eisenhofer G. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010) 23 67
  5. Autoreactive T-cell receptor (Vbeta/D/Jbeta) sequences in diabetes are homologous to insulin, glucagon, the insulin receptor, and the glucagon receptor. (PMID: 19051206) Root-Bernstein R. (J. Mol. Recognit. 2009) 23 67

Products for GCGR Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GCGR
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GCGR
    • Block miRNA regulation of GCGR using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GCGR Gene

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