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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GCG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC02M162963

Glucagon

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
glucagon1 2     preproglucagon1 2
Glicentin-Related Polypeptide1 2     GLP12
Glucagon-Like Peptide 11 2     GLP22
Glucagon-Like Peptide 21 2     GRPP2

External Ids:    HGNC: 41911   Entrez Gene: 26412   Ensembl: ENSG000001152637   OMIM: 1380305   UniProtKB: P012753   

Export aliases for GCG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M161053 GC02M161527 GC02M163201 GC02M162824 GC02M162707 GC02M154881


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GCG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides.
One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by
stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor
whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine
cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to
glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GCG Gene: 
GCG (glucagon) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GCG include pancreatic steatorrhea, and dumping syndrome, and among its related super-pathways are Signaling by GPCR and cAMP Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
Function: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing
gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels
in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic
conditions in diabetes
Function: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric
motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and
stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have
growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via
effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet
neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis
Function: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant
with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the
stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis,
enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient
disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability
Function: Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of
gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation
of fullness
Function: Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an
important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life

Gene Wiki entry for GCG (Glucagon) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.11  NT_005403.17  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GCG gene promoter:
         CREB   c-Fos   AP-1   ATF-2   deltaCREB   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGCG promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GCG

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GCG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q36-q37   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q24.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q36-q37

GCG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GCG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M162963:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
162,999,385 bp from pter      End:
163,008,914 bp from pter
Size:
9,530 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glucagon precursor  
Size: 180 amino acids; 20909 Da
Subcellular location: Secreted
Miscellaneous: In the glucagon antagonist, His-53 and Phe-58 are missing. This antagonist has been successfully
utilized to reduce glucose concentration in vivo
6/9 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GCG (see all 9):
1BH0 (3D)        1D0R (3D)        1NAU (3D)        2G49 (3D)        2L63 (3D)        2L64 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NN65 Q53TP6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GCG: NX_P01275

Explore proteomics data for GCG at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L
    cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L
    cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by
    post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The
    C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine
    pancreas
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P01275

  • GCG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GCG Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_002045.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000387662   ENSP00000364647  
    Reactome Protein details: P01275
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GCG: 
    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant GCG Protein
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GCG
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GCG
    GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for GCG
    Novus Biologicals GCG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GCG Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GCG
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005788endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--

    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    GCG Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GCG
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GCG (Glucagon)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GCG 
    OriGene Antibodies for GCG
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GCG
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for GCG
    Novus Biologicals GCG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GCG
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for GCG
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GCG 

    Assay Products for GCG: 
    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of GCG
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GCG
    R&D Systems ELISAs for GCG (Glucagon)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GCG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR015550 Glucagon-like
     IPR000532 Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01275

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01275

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000532 Glucagon/GIP/secretin/VIP

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Similarity: Belongs to the glucagon family


    GCG for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Function: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing
    gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels
    in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic
    conditions in diabetes
    Function: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric
    motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and
    stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have
    growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via
    effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet
    neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis
    Function: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant
    with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the
    stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis,
    enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient
    disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability
    Function: Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of
    gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation
    of fullness
    Function: Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an
    important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life
    Induction: Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and
    somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GCG:
    glucagon,including glucagon related peptides I and II,enteroglucagon,glicentin,same as glucagon

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005102receptor binding TAS9990065
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0042802identical protein binding IPI--
         
    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Gcg):
     digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism  mortality/aging 
     renal/urinary system 

    GCG for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GCG 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GCG

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GCG 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GCG 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat GCG
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GCG
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGCG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GCG
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GCG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GCG
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of GCG

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GCG (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GCG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GCG (NM_002054)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GCG
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GCG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GCG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of GCG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GCG 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GCG
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for GCG
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GCG


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GCG About   (see all 16)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.55
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    2Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
    Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA0.77
    Activation of PKA through GPCR0.71
    cAMP Pathway0.77
    3Regulation of Insulin Secretion
    Regulation of Insulin Secretion0.74
    Regulation of Insulin Secretion by Glucagon-like Peptide-10.55
    Integration of energy metabolism0.74
    4Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors0.58
    G alpha (s) signalling events0.31
    Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors)0.36
    5G alpha (q) signalling events
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK0.90
    G alpha (q) signalling events0.90

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for GCG
        Adenylate cyclase-activating neuropeptides
    Selected targets of CREB1

    3 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for GCG
        Activation of PKA through GPCR
    cAMP Pathway
    Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for GCG
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GCG
        FOXA1 transcription factor network


    5/18        Reactome Pathways for GCG (see all 18)
        Incretin Synthesis, Secretion, and Inactivation
    Metabolism
    Regulation of Insulin Secretion
    Signal Transduction
    Metabolism of proteins


    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for GCG):
        Insulin secretion


    GCG for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for GCG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/214 Interacting proteins for GCG (P012752, 3 ENSP000003876624) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 214)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    DPP4P274872, 3, ENSP000003537314MINT-8090772 MINT-8090760 MINT-8090796 MINT-8090833 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000353731
    FAPQ128842, 3, ENSP000001887904MINT-8090539 MINT-8094207 MINT-8094231 MINT-8090553 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000188790
    GCGP012752MINT-8299685 MINT-8299703 MINT-8299667
    GLP1RP432203, ENSP000003623534I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000362353
    CPEP168703, ENSP000003861044I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000386104
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/19 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006112energy reserve metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7929237
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS9990065
    GO:0007631feeding behavior TAS8538742
    GO:0008283cell proliferation TAS10861272

    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GCG for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GCG

    Browse Tocris compounds for GCG (GLUC)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Glucagon (Eli Lilly) and GlucaGen or Glucagon Novo Nordisk (Novo
    Nordisk). Used to treat severe hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics

    10/111 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GCG gene (see all 111)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    incretin 98.4 662 16800760 (4), 19952298 (3), 20465123 (3), 19748061 (3) (see all 99)
    liraglutide 95.7 130 15562141 (4), 19638470 (3), 20109994 (3), 19041364 (2) (see all 70)
    exenatide 95.2 156 15562141 (4), 14688288 (3), 20425571 (3), 16724926 (2) (see all 85)
    vildagliptin 95.2 75 17698900 (4), 15886245 (3), 17303799 (2), 15907807 (2) (see all 41)
    sitagliptin 94.3 69 20075143 (3), 16855072 (2), 18372550 (2), 16912128 (2) (see all 38)
    proglucagon 92.7 192 11145564 (5), 9074764 (4), 15528303 (4), 12651102 (4) (see all 65)
    oxyntomodulin 89.6 108 20147608 (7), 9074764 (3), 12769729 (3), 15068960 (3) (see all 50)
    saxagliptin 87.4 11 19952298 (1), 19743938 (1), 19791828 (1), 19780719 (1) (see all 8)
    teduglutide 87.2 31 16705029 (3), 18974283 (2), 15548172 (2), 18491995 (2) (see all 12)
    glucose 86.8 2236 12540611 (9), 9049482 (7), 8289665 (7), 9338524 (7) (see all 99)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GCG / GLUC

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GCG gene: 
    NM_002054.4  

    Unigene Clusters for GCG:

    Glucagon
    Hs.516494  [show with all ESTs], Hs.741174  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: BM802953, BM802521
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000418842(uc002ucc.3) ENST00000483769 ENST00000497568 ENST00000492913
    ENST00000375497
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GCG (NM_002054)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GCG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GCG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of GCG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GCG 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GCG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GCG
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GCG
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GCG

    Additional mRNA sequence: X05388.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.100045965  DT.100045958  DT.100045964  DT.100692511  DT.95140653  DT.100045968  DT.100045970  DT.95360374 
    DT.100692521  DT.100692520  DT.100692518  DT.100045963  DT.121028562  DT.100045953  DT.100692522  DT.97862779 
    DT.100692514  DT.95269510  DT.100883937 

    24/3975 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 3975):

    BU069292 BQ788028 CA866736 BI714821 CA866482 BQ631864 BI439037 BM314710 
    CA943470 BM314337 CA867009 CA777716 CA775115 BQ632095 CA844107 BU580905 
    CA868384 CA848675 CA771100 BQ269148 CA842973 CB069299 CA843144 CA868020 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GCG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GCG embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    GCG Expression
    About this image


    GCG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/8 selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 18 entries
             Alpha Progenitor Cells Dorsal Pancreatic Bud
             Islets of Langerhans
             Beta-like cells ( Serum-free protocol to generate islet clusters from embryonic...
             visceral organ/gut/gland   
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             colonic mucosal (ibs)   
     
     Blood Brain Barrier (Nervous System)
             Postnatal Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             GLP-transfected mesenchymal stem cells
     
     Intestine (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             SMALL INTESTINE   

    See GCG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GCG

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.516494 Hs.741174

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Tissue specificity: Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin
    and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are
    also secreted in selected neurons in the brain

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including GCG (see all 6): 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GCG gene from 5/11 species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gcg1 , 5 glucagon1, 5 88.15(n)1
    90(a)1
      2 (35.85 cM)5
    145261  NM_008100.31  NP_032126.11 
     624745305 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GCG1 glucagon 76.72(n)
    74.86(a)
      396196  NM_205167.4  NP_990498.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GCG6
    Uncharacterized protein
    78(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343359.1(520951-521685)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia gcg-A2 proglucagon I 71.72(n)    AF004432.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii gcgb1 glucagon b 63.66(n)
    59.84(a)
      436584  XM_002667824.1  XP_002667870.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GCG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GCG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/277 SNPs in GCG are shown (see all 277)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900213211,2
    --162998940(+) AGAACA/GGCTAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs353280191,2
    C,F,H--162998941(+) GAACGG/ACTACA 1 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NS EA NA 2138
    rs168463201,2
    C,F,H--162999000(+) AGTGGG/ACCAGA 1 -- ds500113Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NA NS EA 796
    rs1123079421,2
    F--162999053(+) AGCACA/GCCTGG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.00CSA 1
    rs67172631,2
    C,F,A,H--162999055(+) CACGCC/ATGGGC 1 -- ds500120Minor allele frequency- A:0.13NS EA NA WA CSA 2337
    rs1500231841,2
    --162999147(+) GCCTTG/TTGGGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1857299701,2
    --162999179(+) CTTTTC/TCAGGA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs67176091,2
    C,F--162999263(+) TGCAGC/ACATCT 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NA 124
    rs1156792551,2
    F--162999267(+) GCCATC/GTGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs67176591,2
    C,F,A,H--162999355(+) CATGAC/AAAAGG 1 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- A:0.14NS EA NA WA CSA 2224

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GCG (162999385 - 163008914 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for GCG:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv834440CNV Gain17160897
    nsv834439CNV Gain17160897

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 138030    OMIM disorders: --

    20/89 diseases for GCG (see all 89):    About MalaCards
    pancreatic steatorrhea    dumping syndrome    glossitis    diabetic autonomic neuropathy
    somatostatinoma    gastroparesis    short bowel syndrome    steatorrhea
    gastroesophageal reflux disease    diabetes, type 2    glucagonoma    intestinal disease
    wermer syndrome    hypoglycemia    autonomic neuropathy    hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
    hyperglycemia    adrenal adenoma    glucose intolerance    ileus

    20/21 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GCG (see all 21):
    Hypoglycemia     Diabetes mellitus     Hyperglycemia     Hyperinsulinism
    Short bowel syndrome     Pancreatitis     Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia     Pancreatic cancer
    Liver disease     Adenoma     Glycogen storage disease     Autonomic neuropathy
    Vascular disease     Cholera     Neuroendocrine tumor     Lactic acidosis
    Glossitis     Diarrhea     Kidney failure     Hypopituitarism

    GCG for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/79 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GCG gene (see all 79)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    niddm 83.6 206 8921824 (6), 8908380 (4), 9049482 (4), 9397146 (3) (see all 99)
    hypoglycemia 81.8 70 9794105 (4), 12941722 (4), 12547550 (4), 11889194 (3) (see all 41)
    short bowel syndrome 77.3 46 19474717 (4), 18162829 (3), 16705029 (2), 15803906 (1) (see all 26)
    hyperglycemia 77.2 68 19783893 (4), 19174495 (4), 7612912 (2), 19439067 (2) (see all 47)
    insulin sensitivity 70.6 51 8897012 (3), 11911852 (2), 19936703 (2), 19106269 (2) (see all 34)
    reactive hypoglycemia 70.1 12 14517773 (2), 1914756 (2), 11575444 (2), 8319842 (1) (see all 8)
    insulin resistance 69.8 42 18818290 (3), 11522713 (2), 17460495 (2), 9285204 (1) (see all 25)
    obesity 67.1 78 10087239 (4), 15645696 (3), 12007541 (2), 15616656 (2) (see all 45)
    hyperinsulinemia 64.8 27 11911852 (1), 18812476 (1), 10871199 (1), 12540611 (1) (see all 24)
    insulinoma 64.5 22 11237222 (3), 17575235 (2), 8190093 (1), 9218425 (1) (see all 15)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GCG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GCG (39 documents)

    Export disorders for GCG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GCG gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 1470):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GCG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine. (PubMed id 2753890)1, 2, 3 Orskov C.... Holst J.J. (1989)
    2. Structure of the human glucagon gene. (PubMed id 3725587)1, 2, 3 White J.W. and Saunders G.F. (1986)
    3. Expression, purification, and PC1-mediated processing of human proglucagon, glicentin, and major proglucagon fragment. (PubMed id 12651102)1, 2, 9 Bonic A. and Mackin R.B. (2003)
    4. Postnatal and postprandial changes in plasma concentrations of glicentin in term and preterm infants. (PubMed id 14632334)1, 2, 9 Tadokoro R.... Yamashiro Y. (2003)
    5. Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (PubMed id 12554744)1, 2, 9 Drucker D.J. (2003)
    6. Role of the prohormone convertase PC2 in the processing of proglucagon to glucagon. (PubMed id 9287128)1, 2, 9 Rouille Y.... Halban P.A. (1997)
    7. Common variants in 40 genes assessed for diabetes inc idence and response to metformin and lifestyle intervention in the diabetes pre vention program. (PubMed id 20682687)1, 4 Jablonski K.A....Florez J.C. (2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of t hiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipr il and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (2010)
    9. Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calci fication in atherosclerosis. (PubMed id 19948975)1, 4 McGeachie M....Ramoni M.F. (2009)
    10. Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. (PubMed id 18996102)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Hanks S. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 2641 HGNC: 4191 AceView: GCG Ensembl:ENSG00000115263 euGenes: HUgn2641
    ECgene: GCG Kegg: 2641 H-InvDB: GCG

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GCG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Glucagon at Eli Lillyhttp://www.lillyDiabetes.com/Products/PatientInfo.cfm

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GCG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GCG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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