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GCG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 61
GCID: GC02M162963

Glucagon

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
glucagon1 2     preproglucagon1 2
Glicentin-Related Polypeptide1 2     GLP12
Glucagon-Like Peptide 11 2     GLP22
Glucagon-Like Peptide 21 2     GRPP2

External Ids:    HGNC: 41911   Entrez Gene: 26412   Ensembl: ENSG000001152637   OMIM: 1380305   UniProtKB: P012753   

Export aliases for GCG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02M161053 GC02M161527 GC02M163201 GC02M162824 GC02M162707 GC02M154881


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GCG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides.
One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by
stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor
whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine
cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to
glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GCG Gene:
GCG (glucagon) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GCG include pancreatic steatorrhea, and dumping syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and identical protein binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
Function: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing
gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels
in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic
conditions in diabetes
Function: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric
motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and
stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have
growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via
effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet
neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis
Function: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant
with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the
stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis,
enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient
disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability
Function: Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of
gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation
of fullness
Function: Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an
important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life

Gene Wiki entry for GCG (Glucagon) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NC_018913.2  NT_005403.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GCG gene promoter:
         CREB   c-Fos   AP-1   ATF-2   deltaCREB   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGCG promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GCG

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GCG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q36-q37   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q24.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q36-q37

GCG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GCG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02M162963:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
162,999,385 bp from pter      End:
163,008,914 bp from pter
Size:
9,530 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glucagon precursor  
Size: 180 amino acids; 20909 Da
Miscellaneous: In the glucagon antagonist, His-53 and Phe-58 are missing. This antagonist has been successfully
utilized to reduce glucose concentration in vivo
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GCG (see all 9):
1BH0 (3D)        1D0R (3D)        1NAU (3D)        2G49 (3D)        2L63 (3D)        2L64 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NN65 Q53TP6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GCG: NX_P01275

Explore proteomics data for GCG at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L
    cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L
    cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by
    post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The
    C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine
    pancreas1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GCG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_002045.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000387662   ENSP00000364647  
    Reactome Protein details: P01275

    GCG Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GCG
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    GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for GCG
    Novus Biologicals GCG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GCG Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GCG
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    GCG Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GCG
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GCG (Glucagon)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GCG 
    OriGene Antibodies for GCG
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GCG
    Novus Biologicals GCG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GCG
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GCG

    GCG Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of GCG
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    R&D Systems ELISAs for GCG (Glucagon)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GCG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR015550 Glucagon-like
     IPR000532 Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01275

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01275

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000532 Glucagon/GIP/secretin/VIP

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Similarity: Belongs to the glucagon family


    GCG for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Function: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing
    gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels
    in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic
    conditions in diabetes
    Function: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric
    motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and
    stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have
    growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via
    effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet
    neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis
    Function: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant
    with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the
    stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis,
    enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient
    disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability
    Function: Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of
    gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation
    of fullness
    Function: Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an
    important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life
    Induction: Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and
    somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GCG:
    glucagon,including glucagon related peptides I and II,enteroglucagon,glicentin,same as glucagon

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005102receptor binding TAS9990065
    GO:0005179hormone activity IBA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0031769glucagon receptor binding IBA--
    GO:0042802identical protein binding IPI--
         
    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Gcg):
     digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  mortality/aging 
     renal/urinary system 

    GCG for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GCG
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GCG

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GCG
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GCG

    miRNA
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGCG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GCG
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GCG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GCG

    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GCG (see all 5)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GCG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GCG (NM_002054)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GCG
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GCG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GCG

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GCG 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GCG


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GLUC_HUMAN, P01275: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    endoplasmic reticulum4
    plasma membrane4
    mitochondrion3
    nucleus3
    cytoskeleton2
    cytosol2
    golgi apparatus2
    peroxisome2
    vacuole2
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IBA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005788endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--

    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GCG About   (see all 17)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    2Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
    Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA0.77
    Activation of PKA through GPCR0.71
    cAMP Pathway0.77
    3Integration of energy metabolism
    Integration of energy metabolism0.75
    Regulation of Insulin Secretion by Glucagon-like Peptide-10.56
    Regulation of Insulin Secretion0.75
    4Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK0.90
    G alpha (q) signalling events0.90
    5Incretin Synthesis, Secretion, and Inactivation
    Incretin Synthesis, Secretion, and Inactivation0.88
    Synthesis, Secretion, and Inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)0.88

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    3 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GCG
        Activation of PKA through GPCR
    cAMP Pathway
    Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for GCG
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 BioSystems Pathway for GCG
        FOXA1 transcription factor network


    Selected Reactome Pathways for GCG (see all 7)
        Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin
    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors
    Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation
    G alpha (q) signalling events


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for GCG):
        Insulin secretion


    GCG for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GCG (see all 6): 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GCG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GCG (P012751, 2, 3 ENSP000003876624) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 214)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    DPP4P274871, 2, 3, ENSP000003537314EBI-7629173,EBI-2871277 MINT-8090772 MINT-8090760 MINT-8090796 MINT-8090833 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000353731
    FAPQ128841, 2, 3, ENSP000001887904EBI-7629173,EBI-4319803 MINT-8090539 MINT-8094207 MINT-8094231 MINT-8090553 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000188790
    GCGP012751, 2EBI-7629173,EBI-7629173 MINT-8299685 MINT-8299703 MINT-8299667
    CTSLP077113, ENSP000003453444I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000345344
    GLP2RO958383, ENSP000002624414I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000262441
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 23):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006112energy reserve metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7929237
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS9990065
    GO:0007188adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA--
    GO:0007631feeding behavior TAS8538742

    GCG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GCG
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GCG (GLUC)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Glucagon (Eli Lilly) and GlucaGen or Glucagon Novo Nordisk (Novo
    Nordisk). Used to treat severe hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GCG gene (see all 111)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    incretin 98.4 662 16800760 (4), 19952298 (3), 20465123 (3), 19748061 (3) (see all 99)
    liraglutide 95.7 130 15562141 (4), 19638470 (3), 20109994 (3), 19041364 (2) (see all 70)
    exenatide 95.2 156 15562141 (4), 14688288 (3), 20425571 (3), 16724926 (2) (see all 85)
    vildagliptin 95.2 75 17698900 (4), 15886245 (3), 17303799 (2), 15907807 (2) (see all 41)
    sitagliptin 94.3 69 20075143 (3), 16855072 (2), 18372550 (2), 16912128 (2) (see all 38)
    proglucagon 92.7 192 11145564 (5), 9074764 (4), 15528303 (4), 12651102 (4) (see all 65)
    oxyntomodulin 89.6 108 20147608 (7), 9074764 (3), 12769729 (3), 15068960 (3) (see all 50)
    saxagliptin 87.4 11 19952298 (1), 19743938 (1), 19791828 (1), 19780719 (1) (see all 8)
    teduglutide 87.2 31 16705029 (3), 18974283 (2), 15548172 (2), 18491995 (2) (see all 12)
    glucose 86.8 2236 12540611 (9), 9049482 (7), 8289665 (7), 9338524 (7) (see all 99)



    GCG for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GCG gene: 
    NM_002054.4  

    Unigene Cluster for GCG:

    Glucagon
    Hs.516494  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM802953
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000418842(uc002ucc.3) ENST00000483769 ENST00000497568 ENST00000492913
    ENST00000375497
    miRNA
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GCG (NM_002054)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GCG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GCG
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for GCG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for GCG
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GCG
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GCG
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GCG

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC005278.1 BT006813.1 J04040.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.100045965  DT.100045964  DT.100045958  DT.95140653  DT.100692511  DT.100045968  DT.100045970  DT.95360374 
    DT.100692521  DT.100692520  DT.100692518  DT.100045963  DT.121028562  DT.100045953  DT.100692522  DT.100692514 
    DT.95269510  DT.100883937  DT.97862779 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 3975):

    BI438935 BI438642 BQ778550 CA866499 BU952613 CA867294 CB070153 BG655504 
    BQ788115 BM090785 BQ632180 CA868433 CA950162 CA775799 BM312768 BU069214 
    CA840984 BM505009 CA848457 CA868561 CA777750 CA950663 BG654655 BI792346 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    GCG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    GCG Expression
    About this image


    GCG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 16 entries
             Alpha Progenitor Cells Dorsal Pancreatic Bud
             Islets of Langerhans
             Beta-like cells
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Mature Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             GLP-transfected mesenchymal stem cells
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Mature Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)
    GCG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GCG Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.516494

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GLUC_HUMAN, P01275
    Tissue specificity: Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin
    and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are
    also secreted in selected neurons in the brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GCG (see all 6): 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GCG gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gcg5 glucagon   --   2 (35.85 cM) 62474530 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GCG6
    Gallus gallus glucagon (GCG), transcript variant 3...
    65(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    7(20616148-20633934)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GCG6
    glucagon
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343359.1(520951-521685)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia gcg-A2 proglucagon I 71.72(n)    AF004432.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii gcgb1 glucagon b 63.66(n)
    59.84(a)
      436584  NM_001242770.1  NP_001229699.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GCG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GCG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GCG (see all 277)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900213211,2
    --162998940(+) AGAACA/GGCTAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs353280191,2
    C,F,H--162998941(+) GAACGG/ACTACA 1 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NS EA NA 2138
    rs168463201,2
    C,F,H--162999000(+) AGTGGG/ACCAGA 1 -- ds500113Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NA NS EA 796
    rs1123079421,2
    F--162999053(+) AGCACA/GCCTGG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.00CSA 1
    rs67172631,2
    C,F,A,H--162999055(+) CACGCC/ATGGGC 1 -- ds500120Minor allele frequency- A:0.13NS EA NA WA CSA 2337
    rs1500231841,2
    --162999147(+) GCCTTG/TTGGGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1857299701,2
    --162999179(+) CTTTTC/TCAGGA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs67176091,2
    C,F--162999263(+) TGCAGC/ACATCT 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NA 124
    rs1156792551,2
    F--162999267(+) GCCATC/GTGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs67176591,2
    C,F,A,H--162999355(+) CATGAC/AAAAGG 1 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- A:0.14NS EA NA WA CSA 2224

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GCG (162999385 - 163008914 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for GCG:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv834440CNV Gain17160897
    nsv834439CNV Gain17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GCG
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GCG

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138030    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GCG (see all 90):    
    About MalaCards
    pancreatic steatorrhea    dumping syndrome    carcinoid tumor of lung    glossitis
    diabetic autonomic neuropathy    gastroparesis    acute insulin response    somatostatinoma
    short bowel syndrome    steatorrhea    gastroesophageal reflux disease    intestinal disease
    hyperglycemia    hypoglycemia    glucagonoma    wermer syndrome
    gastrinoma    hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia    autonomic neuropathy    adrenal adenoma

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GCG (see all 21):
    Hypoglycemia     Diabetes mellitus     Hyperglycemia     Hyperinsulinism
    Short bowel syndrome     Pancreatitis     Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia     Pancreatic cancer
    Liver disease     Adenoma     Glycogen storage disease     Autonomic neuropathy
    Vascular disease     Cholera     Neuroendocrine tumor     Lactic acidosis
    Glossitis     Diarrhea     Kidney failure     Hypopituitarism

    GCG for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GCG gene (see all 79)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    niddm 83.6 206 8921824 (6), 8908380 (4), 9049482 (4), 9397146 (3) (see all 99)
    hypoglycemia 81.8 70 9794105 (4), 12941722 (4), 12547550 (4), 11889194 (3) (see all 41)
    short bowel syndrome 77.3 46 19474717 (4), 18162829 (3), 16705029 (2), 15803906 (1) (see all 26)
    hyperglycemia 77.2 68 19783893 (4), 19174495 (4), 7612912 (2), 19439067 (2) (see all 47)
    insulin sensitivity 70.6 51 8897012 (3), 11911852 (2), 19936703 (2), 19106269 (2) (see all 34)
    reactive hypoglycemia 70.1 12 14517773 (2), 1914756 (2), 11575444 (2), 8319842 (1) (see all 8)
    insulin resistance 69.8 42 18818290 (3), 11522713 (2), 17460495 (2), 9285204 (1) (see all 25)
    obesity 67.1 78 10087239 (4), 15645696 (3), 12007541 (2), 15616656 (2) (see all 45)
    hyperinsulinemia 64.8 27 11911852 (1), 18812476 (1), 10871199 (1), 12540611 (1) (see all 24)
    insulinoma 64.5 22 11237222 (3), 17575235 (2), 8190093 (1), 9218425 (1) (see all 15)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GCG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GCG (39 documents)

    Export disorders for GCG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GCG gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1482):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GCG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine. (PubMed id 2753890)1, 2, 3 Orskov C.... Holst J.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989)
    2. Structure of the human glucagon gene. (PubMed id 3725587)1, 2, 3 White J.W. and Saunders G.F. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1986)
    3. Expression, purification, and PC1-mediated processing of human proglucagon, glicentin, and major proglucagon fragment. (PubMed id 12651102)1, 2, 9 Bonic A. and Mackin R.B. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2003)
    4. Postnatal and postprandial changes in plasma concentrations of glicentin in term and preterm infants. (PubMed id 14632334)1, 2, 9 Tadokoro R.... Yamashiro Y. (Acta Paediatr. 2003)
    5. Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (PubMed id 12554744)1, 2, 9 Drucker D.J. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2003)
    6. Role of the prohormone convertase PC2 in the processing of proglucagon to glucagon. (PubMed id 9287128)1, 2, 9 Rouille Y.... Halban P.A. (FEBS Lett. 1997)
    7. Common variants in 40 genes assessed for diabetes incidence and response to metformin and lifestyle intervention in the diabetes prevention program. (PubMed id 20682687)1, 4 Jablonski K.A....Florez J.C. (Diabetes 2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    9. Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis. (PubMed id 19948975)1, 4 McGeachie M....Ramoni M.F. (Circulation 2009)
    10. Physiogenomic comparison of edema and BMI in patients receiving rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. (PubMed id 18996102)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Hanks S. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2641 HGNC: 4191 AceView: GCG Ensembl:ENSG00000115263 euGenes: HUgn2641
    ECgene: GCG Kegg: 2641 H-InvDB: GCG

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GCG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Glucagon at Eli Lillyhttp://www.lillyDiabetes.com/Products/PatientInfo.cfm

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GCG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GCG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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