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Aliases for GCG Gene

Aliases for GCG Gene

  • Glucagon 2 3
  • Glicentin-Related Polypeptide 2 3
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 2 3
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 2 3
  • Preproglucagon 2 3
  • GLP1 3
  • GLP2 3
  • GRPP 3

External Ids for GCG Gene

Summaries for GCG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GCG Gene

GCG (Glucagon) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCG include obesity and dumping syndrome. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCG Gene

  • Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes

  • GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis

  • GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability

  • Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness

  • Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life

Gene Wiki entry for GCG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCG Gene

Genomics for GCG Gene

Genomic Location for GCG Gene

Start:
162,142,869 bp from pter
End:
162,152,404 bp from pter
Size:
9,536 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GCG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GCG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCG Gene

Regulatory Elements for GCG Gene

Proteins for GCG Gene

  • Protein details for GCG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01275-GLUC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glucagon
    Protein Accession:
    P01275
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NN65
    • Q53TP6

    Protein attributes for GCG Gene

    Size:
    180 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    20909 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • In the glucagon antagonist, His-53 and Phe-58 are missing. This antagonist has been successfully utilized to reduce glucose concentration in vivo

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCG Gene

neXtProt entry for GCG Gene

Proteomics data for GCG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GCG Gene

  • Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GCG Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCG Gene

Domains for GCG Gene

Gene Families for GCG Gene

HGNC:

Protein Domains for GCG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLUC_HUMAN
Family:
  • Belongs to the glucagon family.:
    • P01275
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCG: view

Function for GCG Gene

Molecular function for GCG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: glucagon,including glucagon related peptides I and II,enteroglucagon,glicentin,same as glucagon
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding TAS 9990065
GO:0005179 hormone activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21314817
GO:0031769 glucagon receptor binding IBA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 22212535
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCG: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GCG Gene

Localization for GCG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCG Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GCG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
plasma membrane 4
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 2
vacuole 2
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCG: view

Pathways for GCG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCG: view

Pathways by source for GCG Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for GCG Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for GCG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006112 energy reserve metabolic process TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 7929237
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9990065
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007631 feeding behavior TAS 8538742
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCG: view

Compounds for GCG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

P01275-GLUC_HUMAN
Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Glucagon (Eli Lilly) and GlucaGen or Glucagon Novo Nordisk (Novo Nordisk). Used to treat severe hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics

(111) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GCG Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
incretin 98.4 171
liraglutide 95.7 94
exenatide 95.2 98
vildagliptin 95.2 54
sitagliptin 94.3 46

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GCG Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
clozapine CA
olanzapine CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCG: view

Transcripts for GCG Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GCG Gene

Unigene Clusters for GCG Gene

Glucagon:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GCG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GCG

Expression for GCG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GCG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (48.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GCG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCG Gene Hs.516494

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GCG Gene

P01275-GLUC_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GCG: view

Orthologs for GCG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GCG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCG 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCG 37
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLP-1 37
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gcg 16
Gcg 37
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCG 37
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GCG 37
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GCG 37
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GCG 37
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gcg-A 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gcga 37
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
gcgb 36
  • 63.66 (n)
  • 59.84 (a)
gcgb 37
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GCG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GCG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GCG (if available)

Paralogs for GCG Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GCG Gene

Variants for GCG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_014596 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv834439 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv834440 CNV Gain 17160897

Relevant External Links for GCG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GCG

Disorders for GCG Gene

(79) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GCG Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
niddm 83.6 125
hypoglycemia 81.8 55
short bowel syndrome 77.3 32
hyperglycemia 77.2 55
insulin sensitivity 70.6 40

Relevant External Links for GCG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GCG
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GCG
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCG Gene

Publications for GCG Gene

  1. Role of the prohormone convertase PC2 in the processing of proglucagon to glucagon. (PMID: 9287128) Rouille Y. … Halban P.A. (FEBS Lett. 1997) 3 4 23
  2. Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (PMID: 12554744) Drucker D.J. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Expression, purification, and PC1-mediated processing of human proglucagon, glicentin, and major proglucagon fragment. (PMID: 12651102) Bonic A. … Mackin R.B. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2003) 3 4 23
  4. Postnatal and postprandial changes in plasma concentrations of glicentin in term and preterm infants. (PMID: 14632334) Tadokoro R. … Yamashiro Y. (Acta Paediatr. 2003) 3 4 23
  5. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine. (PMID: 2753890) Orskov C. … Holst J.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989) 2 3 4

Products for GCG Gene

Sources for GCG Gene

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