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Aliases for GC Gene

Aliases for GC Gene

  • Group-Specific Component (Vitamin D Binding Protein) 2 3 5
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor 3 4
  • Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor 3 4
  • Gc-Globulin 3 4
  • DBP-Maf 3 4
  • Gc-MAF 3 4
  • GcMAF 3 4
  • DBP 3 4
  • VDB 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 51 3
  • Vitamin D-Binding Alpha-Globulin 3
  • Group-Specific Component 4
  • EC 63
  • HEL-S-51 3
  • DBP/GC 3
  • GRD3 3
  • VDBG 3
  • VDBP 3
  • GC 4

External Ids for GC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GC Gene

  • GC04M072596
  • GC04M072847
  • GC04M073008
  • GC04M073073
  • GC04M072972
  • GC04M072826
  • GC04M068412

Summaries for GC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GC Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the albumin gene family. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GC Gene

GC (Group-Specific Component (Vitamin D Binding Protein)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GC include Blastomycosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy. Among its related pathways are Vitamin D synthesis and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. GO annotations related to this gene include actin binding and vitamin transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is AFM.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene

  • Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.

Gene Wiki entry for GC Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GC Gene

Genomics for GC Gene

Regulatory Elements for GC Gene

Enhancers for GC Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GC Gene

71,741,693 bp from pter
71,805,520 bp from pter
63,828 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GC Gene

Genes around GC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GC Gene

Proteins for GC Gene

  • Protein details for GC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Vitamin D-binding protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DPP2
    • D6RAK8
    • Q16309
    • Q16310
    • Q53F31
    • Q6GTG1

    Protein attributes for GC Gene

    474 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52964 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Associates with membrane-bound immunoglobulin on the surface of B-lymphocytes and with IgG Fc receptor on the membranes of T-lymphocytes.
    • Sequence=BAG60654.1; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of CDS.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GC Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GC Gene


neXtProt entry for GC Gene

Proteomics data for GC Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GC Gene

Post-translational modifications for GC Gene

  • Allele GC*1S is O-glycosylated at Thr-436 (PubMed:20079467). The trisaccharide sugar moiety can be modified by the successive removal of neuraminic acid and galactose leaving an O-linked N-acetyl-galactosamine. This conversion is thought to produce a macrophage-activating factor (Gc-MAF). Only a minor proportion of plasma GC is O-glycosylated (PubMed:17360250). The potential N-glycosylation site predicted at Asn-288 is thought to be nonglycosylated.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 288
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GC Gene

Domains & Families for GC Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 3 albumin domains.
  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
  • Contains 3 albumin domains.
  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GC: view

No data available for Gene Families for GC Gene

Function for GC Gene

Molecular function for GC Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein),52.9kDa,found in plasma,CSF,urine and the cell surface of many cell types
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:1902118 calcidiol binding IDA 11799400
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GC: view

Animal Models for GC Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GC:
  • Gc tm1Nec

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GC Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GC

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GC Gene

Localization for GC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GC Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GC gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
vacuole 5
lysosome 4
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS,TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view

Pathways & Interactions for GC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GC: view

Pathways by source for GC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0032355 response to estradiol IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0048545 response to steroid hormone IEA --
GO:0051180 vitamin transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GC Gene

(21) Drugs for GC Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Alfacalcidol Approved Nutra Carrier, substrate Bone resorption inhibitor 47
Calcitriol Approved Nutra TNF-α and IL-1β production inhibitor, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist 191
Cholecalciferol Approved Nutra Carrier Fat-soluble secosteroids 810,804
oleic acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Carrier 0
Doxercalciferol Pharma Vitamin D receptor activator, Vitamin D2 analog, VDR agonist 0

(32) Additional Compounds for GC Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) ApexBio Compounds for GC Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Calcitriol TNF-α and IL-1β production inhibitor 32222-06-3
Doxercalciferol Vitamin D receptor activator 54573-75-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GC: view

Transcripts for GC Gene

Unigene Clusters for GC Gene

Group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GC Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GC Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x52.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (16.3), Plasma (12.8), and Vitreous humor (8.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GC Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GC Gene Hs.418497

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GC Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the liver. Found in plasma, ascites, cerebrospinal fluid and urine.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GC: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GC Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

Orthologs for GC Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GC Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GC 35
  • 84.6 (n)
  • 80.51 (a)
GC 36
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GC 35
  • 84.6 (n)
  • 82.28 (a)
GC 36
  • 76 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gc 35
  • 80.45 (n)
  • 78.06 (a)
Gc 16
Gc 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GC 35
  • 99.51 (n)
  • 99.58 (a)
GC 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gc 35
  • 80.31 (n)
  • 77.64 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 52 (a)
-- 36
  • 55 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GC 36
  • 56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GC 35
  • 59.36 (n)
  • 50.64 (a)
GC 36
  • 48 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GC 36
  • 43 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gc 35
  • 55.44 (n)
  • 42.43 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gc 35
  • 46.74 (n)
  • 32.05 (a)
gc 36
  • 30 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GC:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GC Gene

Gene Tree for GC (if available)
Gene Tree for GC (if available)

Paralogs for GC Gene

Paralogs for GC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GC: view

Variants for GC Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene

Over 80 variants of human DBP have been identified. The three most common alleles are called GC*1F, GC*1S, and GC*2. The sequence shown is that of the GC*2 allele.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GC Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs7041 - 71,752,617(-) CCTGA(G/T)GCCAC intron-variant, reference, missense
rs4588 - 71,752,606(-) ACCCA(A/C/T)GGAAC intron-variant, reference, missense
VAR_014120 -
rs9016 - 71,752,579(-) CAAGC(A/G)CTCAG intron-variant, reference, missense
rs4752 -- 71,756,849(-) GACTG(C/T)TGTCA reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GC Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829967 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv822615 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv879476 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv437395 CNV Loss 16327808
nsv879477 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for GC Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.28; 40.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GC Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for GC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for GC Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • blastomyces dermatitidis infection
hepatic encephalopathy
  • portal-systemic encephalopathy
  • active rickets
nervous system disease
  • nervous system diseases
central nervous system disease
  • central nervous system diseases
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GC

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GC: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GC Gene

Publications for GC Gene

  1. The Gc2 allele of the vitamin D binding protein is associated with a decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, independent of the vitamin D status. (PMID: 18559548) Abbas S. … Chang-Claude J. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2008) 3 23 48 67
  2. A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein. (PMID: 11799400) Verboven C. … De Ranter C. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002) 3 23 25
  3. The glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating factor. (PMID: 20079467) Ravnsborg T. … jrup P. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2010) 3 23
  4. Genetic variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) and risk for colorectal cancer: results from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. (PMID: 20086113) Poynter J.N. … Haile R.W. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2010) 3 23
  5. Alteration of DBP levels in CSF of patients with MS by proteomics analysis. (PMID: 18807170) Qin Z. … Liu S. (Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2009) 3 23

Products for GC Gene

Sources for GC Gene