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GAST Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 56
GCID: GC17P039868

Gastrin


(Previous symbol: GAS)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
gastrin1 2
GAS1 2 3 5
preprogastrin1 2

External Ids:    HGNC: 41641   Entrez Gene: 25202   Ensembl: ENSG000001845027   OMIM: 1372505   UniProtKB: P013503   

Export aliases for GAST gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17P037124 GC17P035631


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GAST Gene:
Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa,
which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal
epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GAST Gene:
GAST (gastrin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GAST include collagenous gastritis, and gastric mucosal hypertrophy. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GAST_HUMAN, P01350
Function: Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to
secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and
water secretion in the stomach and intestine

Gene Wiki entry for GAST (Gastrin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000017.11  NC_018928.2  NT_010783.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GAST gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   Sp1   AP-1   ATF-2   STAT5A   IRF-1   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGAST promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GAST

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GAST


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  17q21.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q21.2

GAST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GAST gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17P039868:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
39,868,578 bp from pter      End:
39,872,221 bp from pter
Size:
3,644 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr17+,NW_003571052 2,061-2,611     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GAST_HUMAN, P01350 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gastrin precursor  
Size: 101 amino acids; 11394 Da
Secondary accessions: P78463 P78464

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GAST: NX_P01350

Explore proteomics data for GAST at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Two different processing pathways probably exist in antral G-cells. In the dominant pathway progastrin is cleaved
    at three sites resulting in two major bioactive gastrins, gastrin-34 and gastrin-17. In the putative alternative
    pathway, progastrin may be processed only at the most C-terminal dibasic site resulting in the synthesis of
    gastrin-711
  • Sulfation enhances proteolytic processing, and blocks peptide degradation. Levels of sulfation differ between
    proteolytically-cleaved gastrins. Thus, gastrin-6 is almost 73% sulfated, whereas the larger gastrins are less
    than 50% sulfated. Sulfation levels are also tissue-specific1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GAST Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000796.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000331358  
    Reactome Protein details: P01350

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001651 Gastrin
     IPR013152 Gastrin/cholecystokinin_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01350

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01350

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001651 Gastrin/cholecystokinin peptide hormone

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GAST_HUMAN, P01350
    Similarity: Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family


    GAST for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GAST_HUMAN, P01350
    Function: Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to
    secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and
    water secretion in the stomach and intestine

         Summary: 

    During embryonic development, GAST as signaling molecule affects the following cells:
    Liver: Biliary Epithelial Cells (Intrahepatic Biliary Tree)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19664057
         
    GAST for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Gast):
     digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  mortality/aging 
     tumorigenesis 

    GAST for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for GAST: Gasttm1Tcw Gasttm1Lcs Gasttm1Psi

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GAST
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GAST

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GAST
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GAST

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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GAST
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GAST

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GAST


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GAST_HUMAN, P01350: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    cytoskeleton2
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--

    GAST for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GAST About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    2Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK0.90
    G alpha (q) signalling events0.90
    3Salivary secretion
    Gastric acid secretion0.34

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GAST
        CCKBR-Gastrin Stimulated Signaling
    WNT Signaling


    2 Reactome Pathways for GAST
        Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK
    G alpha (q) signalling events


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for GAST):
        Gastric acid secretion


    GAST for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for GAST
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GAST

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GAST (P013501, 2, 3 ENSP000003313584) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 128)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TFP027871, 2, 3, ENSP000002649984EBI-3436637,EBI-714319 MINT-7212849 MINT-7212881 MINT-7212832 MINT-7212864 MINT-7212909 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000264998
    MMEP084733, ENSP000003536794I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000353679
    CPP004503, ENSP000002646134I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000264613
    CPEP168703, ENSP000003861044I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000386104
    MEP1BQ168203, ENSP000002692024I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000269202
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007165signal transduction NAS7488110
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA--

    GAST for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GAST

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAST gene (see all 143)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pro-gastrin 94.8 207 14627349 (7), 16615003 (6), 12825873 (6), 11115822 (5) (see all 74)
    gastrin 17 88.4 10 16143134 (7), 15362871 (1), 7851540 (1)
    preprogastrin 83.4 8 1773057 (2), 15486344 (2), 2218398 (1)
    pepsinogen 83.3 113 15298602 (7), 10102232 (7), 8642157 (6), 8053437 (5) (see all 37)
    omeprazole 81.8 106 9536937 (4), 7942731 (4), 1459168 (4), 2104080 (3) (see all 62)
    minigastrin 80.8 1 16204724 (1)
    loxtidine 78.2 3 11025361 (1), 8898635 (1), 8097370 (1)
    histalog 76.6 2 8975987 (1), 9172476 (1)
    loxiglumide 76 32 1634067 (4), 8166452 (2), 7958670 (2), 7939393 (1) (see all 15)
    ym022 75.2 3 15269153 (1), 8698625 (1)



    GAST for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GAST gene: 
    NM_000805.4  

    Unigene Cluster for GAST:

    Gastrin
    Hs.2681  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM768289
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000329402(uc002hxl.3)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GAST
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat GAST
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat GAST
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GAST

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC069724.1 BC069762.1 V00511.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.97843366 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 26):

    BM765898 BQ084163 BM855359 BM855583 BM856458 BM853900 BM855834 BQ083239 
    BM768289 BM768483 BM854018 BM854691 NM_000805 BM856272 BC069724 BM856563 
    BC069762 V00511 BM850374 BM855860 BM830473 BM768337 BM768748 BM768762 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GAST expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GAST embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCTGGAGGAA
    GAST Expression
    About this image


    GAST expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)
     
     Stomach (Gastrointestinal Tract)
    GAST Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GAST Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.2681
        Custom PCR Arrays for GAST
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GAST

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for GAST gene from Selected species (see all 6)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gast1 , 5 gastrin1, 5 80.67(n)1
    70(a)1
      11 (63.46 cM)5
    144591  NM_010257.31  NP_034387.31 
     1003344075 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GAST (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GAST (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GAST (see all 171)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1848527081,2
    C--40655367(+) AGGATA/GGTCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs98935711,2
    C,F,A,H--40655385(+) TGACTG/TCGTGA 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA WA 10
    rs1880701811,2
    --40655399(+) ACCTGC/GCTCAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs99144741,2
    C,F,A--40655440(+) gccacC/Taagcc 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.19WA 118
    rs72235961,2
    C,F,H--40655442(+) CACCAC/AGCCTG 1 -- us2k18Minor allele frequency- A:0.38NA WA CSA 249
    rs1929177101,2
    --40655444(+) CCAAGC/TCTGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs99154741,2
    C,F,A,H--40655477(+) TGCCTA/GTGGAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- G:0.05NS EA WA 410
    rs349975781,2
    C,F--40655561(+) CATAAC/ACCCCT 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- A:0.08NA WA CSA EA 366
    rs1854484631,2
    --40655693(+) CAGAGC/TTACAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs99137131,2
    C,F,A,H--40655796(+) TTGTCG/ATTTTC 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- A:0.05NS EA WA 514

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GAST (39868578 - 39872221 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for GAST:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv962e1CNV Complex17122850
    dgv961e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GAST
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GAST

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 137250    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for GAST (see all 144):    About MalaCards
    collagenous gastritis    gastric mucosal hypertrophy    gastric endocrine tumor    ostertagiasis
    ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma    duodenal gastrinoma    apudoma    familial isolated hyperparathyroidism
    postcholecystectomy syndrome    pancreatic gastrinoma    megaesophagus    gastric outlet obstruction
    goblet cell carcinoid    duodenogastric reflux    biliary tract disease    mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
    gastric adenocarcinoma    pernicious anemia    bile reflux    diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GAST (see all 28):
    Peptic ulcer     Gastrinoma     Gastritis     Pernicious anemia
    Duodenogastric reflux     Esophagitis     Gastric outlet obstruction     Wermer syndrome
    Pancreatic cancer     Diarrhea     Dyspepsia     Carcinoma
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease     Ostertagiasis     Duodenitis     Hyperparathyroidism
    Hypoglycemia     Adenoma     Somatostatinoma     Stomach cancer

    GAST for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAST gene (see all 96)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    zollinger-ellison syndrome 93.9 53 11136282 (2), 2103752 (2), 2188384 (1), 1940201 (1) (see all 45)
    gastrinoma 93.7 120 9605259 (4), 11095444 (3), 2322109 (3), 2129824 (3) (see all 70)
    gastritis atrophic 88 73 2323589 (5), 15932170 (3), 17261130 (3), 8723421 (2) (see all 43)
    duodenal ulcer 86.2 170 2019363 (5), 7924733 (4), 8098023 (4), 16610039 (4) (see all 99)
    gastritis 85.6 122 18237867 (5), 8053437 (3), 9759944 (3), 15191513 (2) (see all 77)
    carcinoid 84.9 91 9465604 (3), 2049096 (3), 9752879 (3), 8204017 (2) (see all 64)
    achlorhydria 83.6 14 10418939 (4), 17985088 (1), 19172694 (1), 17101553 (1) (see all 9)
    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 82 20 1802924 (3), 11419921 (2), 8924487 (2), 8102327 (1) (see all 11)
    ovarian stromal cancer 80.2 1 9575243 (1)
    hypochlorhydria 78.9 11 7859584 (2), 8578237 (1), 16409664 (1), 19115463 (1) (see all 8)


    Export disorders for GAST gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GAST gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1797):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GAST)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification of gastrin component I as gastrin-71. The largest possible bioactive progastrin product. (PubMed id 8055952)1, 2, 9 Rehfeld J.F. and Johnsen A.H. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1994)
    2. Post-poly(Glu) cleavage and degradation modified by O-sulfated tyrosine: a novel post-translational processing mechanism. (PubMed id 7530658)1, 2, 9 Rehfeld J.F.... Johnsen A.H. (EMBO J. 1995)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Purification and structural determination of urinary NH2-terminal big gastrin fragments. (PubMed id 2730647)1, 2 Higashimoto Y....Tarui S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989)
    5. Expression of human gastrin gene in normal and gastrinoma tissues. (PubMed id 3034736)1, 2 Kariya Y.... Matsubara K. (Gene 1986)
    6. Structure of a human gastrin gene. (PubMed id 6322186)1, 2 Wiborg O.... Vuust J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1984)
    7. Structural analysis of the gene encoding human gastrin: the large intron contains an Alu sequence. (PubMed id 6087340)1, 2 Ito R.... Agarwal K.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1984)
    8. Molecular cloning of human gastrin precursor cDNA. (PubMed id 6689486)1, 2 Kato K....Matsubara K. (Gene 1983)
    9. Molecular cloning of the human gastrin gene. (PubMed id 6324077)1, 2 Kato K.... Matsubara K. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1983)
    10. Molecular cloning of human gastrin cDNA: evidence for evolution of gastrin by gene duplication. (PubMed id 6574456)1, 2 Boel E....Marcker K.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1983)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2520 HGNC: 4164 AceView: GAS Ensembl:ENSG00000184502 euGenes: HUgn2520
    ECgene: GAST Kegg: 2520 H-InvDB: GAST

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GAST Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GAST Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GAST gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GAST

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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