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GAPDH Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC12P006643

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase


(Previous symbol: GAPD)
  See GAPDH-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase1 2     HEL-S-162eP2
GAPD1 2 3 5     Aging-Associated Gene 9 Protein2
Peptidyl-Cysteine S-Nitrosylase GAPDH2 3     Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 162eP2
EC 1.2.1.123 8     EC 2.6.99.-3
G3PD2     EC 1.2.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 41411   Entrez Gene: 25972   Ensembl: ENSG000001116407   OMIM: 1384005   UniProtKB: P044063   

Export aliases for GAPDH gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC12P006514


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GAPDH Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has
been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The
product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible
oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase
activity in the nucleus. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions
including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin
receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human
genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014)

GeneCards Summary for GAPDH Gene:
GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GAPDH include plexiform neurofibroma, and turcot syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include NADP binding and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is GAPDHS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: G3P_HUMAN, P04406
Function: Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in
glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA
transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that
mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the
organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane
associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity).
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the
pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the
GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced
transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles
into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory
mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation

Gene Wiki entry for GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000012.12  NC_018923.2  NT_009759.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GAPDH gene promoter:
         N-Myc   TBP   PPAR-gamma1   NF-1   p53   TFIID   PPAR-gamma2   GATA-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): GAPDH promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GAPDH

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GAPDH


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12p13.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12p13.31

GAPDH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GAPDH gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P006643:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
6,643,093 bp from pter      End:
6,647,537 bp from pter
Size:
4,445 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: G3P_HUMAN, P04406 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase  
Size: 335 amino acids; 36053 Da
Subunit: Homotetramer. Interacts with TPPP; the interaction is direct. Interacts (when S-nitrosylated) with SIAH1;
leading to nuclear translocation. Interacts with RILPL1/GOSPEL, leading to prevent the interaction between GAPDH
and SIAH1 and prevent nuclear translocation. Interacts with CHP1; the interaction increases the binding of CHP1
with microtubules. Associates with microtubules (By similarity). Interacts with EIF1AD, USP25, PRKCI and WARS.
Component of the GAIT complex
4 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for GAPDH:
1U8F (3D)        1ZNQ (3D)        2FEH (3D)        3GPD (3D)    
Secondary accessions: E7EUT4 P00354 Q53X65
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P04406-1   P04406-2   (No experimental confirmation available. Gene prediction based on EST data)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GAPDH: NX_P04406

Explore proteomics data for GAPDH at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • S-nitrosylation of Cys-152 leads to interaction with SIAH1, followed by translocation to the nucleus (By
    similarity)1
  • ISGylated (Probable)1
  • Sulfhydration at Cys-152 increases catalytic activity (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys5, Lys61, Lys66, Lys84, Lys86, Lys107, Lys139, Lys145, Lys162, Lys186,
                                 Lys194, Lys215, Lys219, Lys227, Lys263, Lys334
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn149
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for GAPDH (P04406) (see all 40)
     GVNHEKY  GKLVING  LAKVIHD  PELNGKL 


    See GAPDH Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001243728.1  NP_001276674.1  NP_001276675.1  NP_002037.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000229239   ENSP00000380065   ENSP00000380070   ENSP00000380068   ENSP00000380067  
    Reactome Protein details: P04406

    GAPDH Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for GAPDH
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GAPDH
    OriGene MassSpec for GAPDH
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for GAPDH
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for GAPDH
    Novus Biologicals GAPDH Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GAPDH Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for GAPDH
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for GAPDH
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GAPDH

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for GAPDH 

    GAPDH Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of GAPDH
    R&D Systems Antibodies for GAPDH (GAPDH/G3PDH)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GAPDH 
    OriGene Antibodies for GAPDH
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for GAPDH
    Novus Biologicals GAPDH Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GAPDH
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GAPDH
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for GAPDH
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GAPDH

    GAPDH Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GAPDH
    R&D Systems ELISAs for GAPDH (GAPDH/G3PDH)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GAPDH
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GAPDH
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GAPDH
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for GAPDH 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR020831 GlycerAld/Erythrose_P_DH
     IPR020828 GlycerAld_3-P_DH_NAD(P)-bd
     IPR006424 Glyceraldehyde-3-P_DH_1
     IPR020830 GlycerAld_3-P_DH_AS
     IPR020829 GlycerAld_3-P_DH_cat

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P04406

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P04406

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000173 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: G3P_HUMAN, P04406
    Similarity: Belongs to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family


    Find genes that share domains with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: G3P_HUMAN, P04406
    Function: Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in
    glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA
    transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that
    mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the
    organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane
    associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity).
    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the
    pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the
    GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced
    transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles
    into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory
    mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation
    Catalytic activity: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD(+) = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.2.1.121 2 EC 1.2.12 EC 2.6.99.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004365glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity NAS3170585
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11724794
    GO:0008017microtubule binding ISS--
    GO:0016620oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor ----
    GO:0035605peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase activity ISS--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GAPDH:
     Increased S DNA content  Increased number of mitotic ce  Synthetic lethal with imatinib 

         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Gapdh):
     cardiovascular system  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GAPDH
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for GAPDH

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GAPDH
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GAPDH

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target GAPDH:
    hsa-mir-296-3p (MIRT038345), hsa-mir-17-3p (MIRT050751), hsa-mir-769-3p (MIRT039090), hsa-mir-1229-3p (MIRT036280), hsa-mir-29b-2-5p (MIRT038710), hsa-mir-501-5p (MIRT041139), hsa-mir-342-5p (MIRT038226), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049457), hsa-mir-766-3p (MIRT039028), hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT050952), hsa-mir-96-5p (MIRT048718), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT052138), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041819), hsa-mir-644a (MIRT007162), hsa-mir-106b-3p (MIRT038579), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039782), hsa-mir-29c-3p (MIRT001929), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT036904), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038105), hsa-mir-331-3p (MIRT043451), hsa-mir-324-3p (MIRT042878), hsa-mir-149-5p (MIRT045446), hsa-mir-25-3p (MIRT050206), hsa-mir-23b-3p (MIRT046276), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044658), hsa-mir-93-5p (MIRT048761)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GAPDH using miScript Target Protectors
    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GAPDH:
    hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4302 hsa-miR-323-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGAPDH 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GAPDH
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GAPDH

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for GAPDH

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for GAPDH (see all 9)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for GAPDH
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: GAPDH (NM_002046)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GAPDH
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GAPDH
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GAPDH

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for GAPDH
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for GAPDH 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GAPDH


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    G3P_HUMAN, P04406: Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus (By similarity). Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Membrane.
    Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton (By similarity). Note=Translocates to the nucleus following S-nitrosylation and
    interaction with SIAH1, which contains a nuclear localization signal (By similarity). Postnuclear and Perinuclear
    regions
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol5
    extracellular5
    cytoskeleton4
    nucleus4
    plasma membrane4
    chloroplast3
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    mitochondrion2
    peroxisome2
    golgi apparatus1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ISS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ISS--
    GO:0005811lipid particle IDA14741744
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GAPDH About   (see all 10)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map 0.60
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    Glycolysis0.40
    2Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimers Disease0.44
    Alzheimer's disease0.44
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4Glucose metabolism
    Glucose metabolism0.44
    Gluconeogenesis0.44
    5Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38
    Biosynthesis of amino acids0.38


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for GAPDH
        Huntington's Disease Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for GAPDH
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for GAPDH
        Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for GAPDH
        SIDS Susceptibility Pathways
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    Alzheimers Disease
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation


    2 Reactome Pathways for GAPDH
        Gluconeogenesis
    Glycolysis


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for GAPDH) (see all 6):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Biosynthesis of amino acids
    HIF-1 signaling pathway

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: G3P_HUMAN, P04406
    Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 1/5

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GAPDH (see all 148): 

              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GAPDH

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GAPDH (P044061, 2, 3 ENSP000002292394) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 988)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PCNAP120041, 2, 3EBI-354056,EBI-358311 MINT-7995141 MINT-7995351 MINT-7995132 I2D: score=2 
    YWHAEP622582, 3, ENSP000002643354MINT-8256415 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000264335
    ACTBP607092, 3, ENSP000003499604MINT-7947479 MINT-4054731 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000349960
    HSP90AB1P082382, 3, ENSP000003258754MINT-72648 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000325875
    BIDP559572, 3, ENSP000003188224MINT-8249531 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000318822
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000226microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS--
    GO:0005975carbohydrate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006094gluconeogenesis TAS--
    GO:0006096glycolytic process TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for GAPDH
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for GAPDH (G3P)

    6 HMDB Compounds for GAPDH    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate2-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)-Propanal (see all 11)142-10-9--
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    PhosphateNFB Orthophosphate (see all 13)14265-44-2--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for GAPDH    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17508915 16898590 17194030 17031544
    Adenosine-5-Diphosphoribose-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Thionicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    4-(2-AMINOETHYL)BENZENESULFONYL FLUORIDE-- --target--10592235
    Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide-- 53-84-9target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAPDH gene (see all 151)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 98.9 2647 7534983 (7), 9264469 (7), 12882642 (5), 11371431 (4) (see all 99)
    actb 87.4 58 10378372 (3), 18191039 (2), 18317805 (2), 20113474 (2) (see all 35)
    koningic acid 81.3 40 8439569 (4), 2226438 (4), 15788719 (4), 7902582 (3) (see all 8)
    1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 76.3 10 9308888 (2), 8075252 (1), 15950210 (1), 9369240 (1) (see all 7)
    nad+ 72.4 72 7639707 (5), 9354374 (4), 7540026 (3), 7531693 (3) (see all 36)
    cgp-3466 68.1 1 10617673 (1)
    3-phosphoglycerate 66.4 24 2390992 (2), 8075252 (2), 15564524 (2), 18416820 (1) (see all 14)
    pssg 61.7 1 12958160 (1)
    nadh 59.7 51 10391884 (6), 8912669 (4), 16444750 (3), 12893257 (2) (see all 29)
    vtcs 59.7 6 16473604 (1), 15485821 (1), 16452474 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GAPDH gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001256799.2  NM_001289745.1  NM_001289746.1  NM_002046.5  

    Unigene Clusters for GAPDH:

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    Hs.544577  [show with all ESTs], Hs.592355  [show with all ESTs], Hs.598320  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: BF983396, CV357503, BQ067557
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000229239(uc001qop.1) ENST00000496049 ENST00000396856 ENST00000492719
    ENST00000396861 ENST00000474249 ENST00000466588 ENST00000396859 ENST00000466525
    ENST00000396858
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat GAPDH using miScript Target Protectors
    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GAPDH:
    hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4302 hsa-miR-323-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGAPDH 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: AJ844645.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 307):

    DT.97869929  DT.100749347  DT.95375100  DT.100749258  DT.97869918  DT.92476260  DT.102841638  DT.92475902 
    DT.95375081  DT.95375098  DT.100749097  DT.100865568  DT.95326333  DT.87000287  DT.100749022  DT.91832908 
    DT.100830267  DT.100749019  DT.100749379  DT.100749245  DT.95375056  DT.92476269  DT.100749358  DT.100749129 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 65):

    CR593979 CR601654 CR609914 CR602408 CR598336 CR616276 CR600683 CR614775 
    CR608954 CR619302 CR597106 CR602720 CR608433 CR600131 CR597330 CR599926 
    CR623498 CR593185 CR600937 CR622647 CR610903 CR594180 CR598463 CR594204 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAPDH (see all 7)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9
    SP1:                                                                                                            
    SP2:                    -                                                                                       
    SP3:                                -     -     -                                                               
    SP4:                                                        -     -     -                                       
    SP5:                                                        -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for GAPDH

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GAPDH expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TACCATCAAT
    GAPDH Expression
    About this image


    GAPDH expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
             Thymus
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Gonad (Reproductive System)
             Primordial Germ Cells Primitive Gonad
    GAPDH Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GAPDH Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.544577 Hs.592355 Hs.598320
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GAPDH (see all 148): 
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for GAPDH gene from Selected species (see all 25)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gapdh1 , 5 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1, 5 89.56(n)1
    94.28(a)1
      6 (59.32 cM)5
    144331  NM_008084.21  NP_032110.11 
     1251618535 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GAPDH1 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 83.73(n)
    92.17(a)
      374193  NM_204305.1  NP_989636.1 
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC043972.12   -- 81.89(n)    BC043972.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BI896468.12   -- 80.47(n)   326976  BI896468.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Gapdh11 Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 72.42(n)
    76.67(a)
      35728  NM_080369.2  NP_525108.2 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea gpd-31 gpd-3 70.86(n)
    76.35(a)
      180601  NM_076133.5  NP_508534.3 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes TDH1(YJL052W)4
    TDH31
    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isozyme 1, more4
    TDH31
    62.11(n)1
    65.05(a)1
      10(338271-339269)4
    8531061  NP_011708.31  8533954 
     NP_012483.14 
    soybean
    (Glycine max)
    eudicotyledons Gma.55052 Transcribed sequence with strong similarity to protein more 73.78(n)    BI942637.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.227812 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cultivar cpslo17 more 76.79(n)    AK062215.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GAPDH (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GAPDH (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for GAPDH gene
    GAPDHS2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for GAPDH using alignment to 3 protein entries:     G3P_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    GAPD    GAPDHS    YA61

    Find genes that share paralogs with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GAPDH (see all 73)
    PGOHUM00000238364 PGOHUM00000238494 PGOHUM00000242403 PGOHUM00000251011 PGOHUM00000248389


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GAPDH (see all 127)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1151241131,2
    C,F--6573065(+) CCCTCC/TAGCTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.04WA 118
    rs793136141,2
    C,F--6573146(+) GCAGGC/GGGGCT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.02WA 118
    rs1830691691,2
    --6573227(+) GCTGTA/GAGCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs37593421,2
    C--6573244(+) GTGACC/TACACT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs792644551,2
    F--6573287(+) CGTCAG/CTAGTG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.02WA 118
    rs455409311,2
    C,F--6573301(+) CCTGGG/ACACTG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS 154
    rs1873675321,2
    --6573305(+) GGCACC/TGAGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs455091981,2
    C,F--6573321(+) TTTGCG/AGGGAG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS WA 278
    rs455788411,2
    C,F--6573417(+) TCTCAA/GTGAGA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.02NS WA 282
    rs1399033171,2
    --6573449(+) CAGGAA/GTAGCT 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GAPDH (6643093 - 6647537 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for GAPDH:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2745477CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv8896CNV Gain18304495
    nsv826208CNV Gain20364138
    dgv453e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GAPDH
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GAPDH

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 138400    OMIM disorders: --

    9 diseases for GAPDH:    
    About MalaCards
    plexiform neurofibroma    turcot syndrome    osteochondritis dissecans    diffuse large b-cell lymphoma
    pituitary adenoma    parainfluenza virus type 3    sleeping sickness    acth-secreting pituitary adenoma
    obesity

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GAPDH:
    Cancer     Vascular disease     Neurodegenerative disease

    Find genes that share disorders with GAPDH           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAPDH gene (see all 93)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    neurodegenerative diseases 40.6 21 12428732 (3), 11208907 (3), 15822178 (2), 17613523 (1) (see all 13)
    tumors 36.8 88 17597534 (3), 10897012 (3), 18629778 (3), 19144146 (3) (see all 55)
    disseminated candidiasis 28 1 10219595 (1)
    huntington disease 27.7 11 11208907 (4), 9779656 (2), 12428732 (1), 15486605 (1) (see all 7)
    trypanosomiasis african 25.8 8 7562915 (2), 7932587 (2), 19748525 (1), 9822549 (1)
    shock 25.8 29 12517784 (2), 15498039 (1), 17194899 (1), 12669348 (1) (see all 23)
    cancer 25.1 39 19161537 (3), 20044597 (3), 15079082 (2), 18651557 (2) (see all 22)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 24.4 10 19144146 (2), 8666326 (2), 9472111 (1)
    alzheimers disease 20.2 23 7891898 (2), 9779656 (2), 16186172 (2), 12503091 (2) (see all 16)
    leukemia 18.6 4 9794812 (2), 15854547 (1), 8834064 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GAPDH
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GAPDH (11 documents)

    Export disorders for GAPDH gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GAPDH gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1144):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GAPDH)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and complete sequence of a functional human glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. (PubMed id 3170585)1, 2, 3 Ercolani L.... Alexander M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1988)
    2. Subcellular localization of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is independent of its glycolytic function. (PubMed id 12829261)1, 2, 9 Mazzola J.L. and Sirover M.A. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2003)
    3. Structural analysis of human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 16239728)1, 2, 9 Ismail S.A. and Park H.W. (Acta Crystallogr. D 2005)
    4. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PubMed id 20800603)1, 4 Flachsbart F....Nebel A. (Mutat. Res. 2010)
    5. Further examination of the candidate genes in chromosome 12p13 locus for late-onset Alzheimer disease. (PubMed id 18340469)1, 4 Lee J.H....Mayeux R. (Neurogenetics 2008)
    6. High-resolution structure of human D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 16510976)1, 2 Jenkins J.L. and Tanner J.J. (Acta Crystallogr. D 2006)
    7. The ubiquitin-specific protease USP25 interacts with three sarcomeric proteins. (PubMed id 16501887)1, 2 Bosch-Comas A....Marfany G. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2006)
    8. HERC5 is an IFN-induced HECT-type E3 protein ligase that mediates type I IFN-induced ISGylation of protein targets. (PubMed id 16815975)1, 2 Wong J.J.... Chin K.C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006)
    9. Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. (PubMed id 17081983)1, 2 Olsen J.V....Mann M. (Cell 2006)
    10. Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. (PubMed id 15592455)1, 2 Rush J.... Comb M.J. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2597 HGNC: 4141 AceView: GAPD Ensembl:ENSG00000111640 euGenes: HUgn2597
    ECgene: GAPDH Kegg: 2597 H-InvDB: GAPDH

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GAPDH Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for GAPDH Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/gapd/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyceraldehyde_3-phosphate_dehydrogenase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for GAPDH gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GAPDH

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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