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Aliases for GAPDH Gene

Aliases for GAPDH Gene

  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 2 3
  • GAPD 3 4 6
  • Peptidyl-Cysteine S-Nitrosylase GAPDH 3 4
  • EC 1.2.1.12 4 63
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 162eP 3
  • Aging-Associated Gene 9 Protein 3
  • HEL-S-162eP 3
  • EC 2.6.99.- 4
  • EC 1.2.1 63
  • G3PD 3

External Ids for GAPDH Gene

Previous Symbols for GAPDH Gene

  • GAPD

Summaries for GAPDH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAPDH Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for GAPDH Gene

GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAPDH include plexiform neurofibroma and osteochondritis dissecans. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Carbon metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and NADP binding. An important paralog of this gene is GAPDHS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAPDH Gene

  • Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.

Gene Wiki entry for GAPDH Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GAPDH Gene

Genomics for GAPDH Gene

Genomic Location for GAPDH Gene

Start:
6,533,927 bp from pter
End:
6,538,374 bp from pter
Size:
4,448 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAPDH Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GAPDH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAPDH Gene

Regulatory Elements for GAPDH Gene

Proteins for GAPDH Gene

  • Protein details for GAPDH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P04406-G3P_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    Protein Accession:
    P04406
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E7EUT4
    • P00354
    • Q53X65

    Protein attributes for GAPDH Gene

    Size:
    335 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36053 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Interacts with TPPP; the interaction is direct. Interacts (when S-nitrosylated) with SIAH1; leading to nuclear translocation. Interacts with RILPL1/GOSPEL, leading to prevent the interaction between GAPDH and SIAH1 and prevent nuclear translocation. Interacts with CHP1; the interaction increases the binding of CHP1 with microtubules. Associates with microtubules (By similarity). Interacts with EIF1AD, USP25, PRKCI and WARS. Interacts with phosphorylated RPL13A; inhibited by oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox)). Component of the GAIT complex. Interacts with FKBP6; leading to inhibit GAPDH catalytic activity.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GAPDH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GAPDH Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GAPDH Gene

Proteomics data for GAPDH Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GAPDH Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • S-nitrosylation of Cys-152 leads to interaction with SIAH1, followed by translocation to the nucleus (By similarity). S-nitrosylation of Cys-247 is induced by interferon-gamma and LDL(ox) implicating the iNOS-S100A8/9 transnitrosylase complex and seems to prevent interaction with phosphorylated RPL13A and to interfere with GAIT complex activity.
  • Sulfhydration at Cys-152 increases catalytic activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys5, Lys61, Lys66, Lys84, Lys86, Lys107, Lys139, Lys145, Lys162, Lys186, Lys194, Lys215, Lys219, Lys227, Lys263, and Lys334
  • Glycosylation at Asn149

Other Protein References for GAPDH Gene

Domains for GAPDH Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P04406

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

G3P_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif is a proposed target motif for cysteine S-nitrosylation mediated by the iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex.:
    • P04406
Family:
  • Belongs to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family.:
    • P04406
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAPDH: view

No data available for Gene Families for GAPDH Gene

Function for GAPDH Gene

Molecular function for GAPDH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD(+) = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GAPDH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GAPDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004365 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity NAS 3170585
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11724794
GO:0008017 microtubule binding ISS --
GO:0016620 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor --
GO:0035605 peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAPDH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAPDH: view

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GAPDH Gene

Localization for GAPDH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAPDH Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Membrane. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Note=Translocates to the nucleus following S-nitrosylation and interaction with SIAH1, which contains a nuclear localization signal (By similarity). Postnuclear and Perinuclear regions. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GAPDH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAPDH gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 4
chloroplast 3
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
golgi apparatus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAPDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005811 lipid particle IDA 14741744
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAPDH: view

Pathways for GAPDH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAPDH: view

Pathways by source for GAPDH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P04406-G3P_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 1/5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAPDH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAPDH: view

Compounds for GAPDH Gene

(6) HMDB Compounds for GAPDH Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
  • 2-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)-Propanal
142-10-9
NAD
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
53-84-9
NADH
  • 1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
58-68-4
NADP
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
53-59-8
NADPH
  • 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
53-57-6

(5) Drugbank Compounds for GAPDH Gene

(151) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAPDH Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 98.9 244
actb 87.4 45
koningic acid 81.3 21
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 76.3 8
nad+ 72.4 50
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAPDH: view

Transcripts for GAPDH Gene

Unigene Clusters for GAPDH Gene

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAPDH Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6:
SP7:

Relevant External Links for GAPDH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GAPDH
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GAPDH

Expression for GAPDH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GAPDH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAPDH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GAPDH Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAPDH Gene Hs.544577

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GAPDH: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GAPDH Gene

Orthologs for GAPDH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GAPDH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAPDH 35
  • 99.6 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GAPDH 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAPDH 35
  • 90.86 (n)
  • 94.88 (a)
GAPDH 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAPDH 35
  • 91.27 (n)
  • 95.18 (a)
GAPDH 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gapdh 35
  • 89.56 (n)
  • 94.28 (a)
Gapdh 16
Gm12117 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gapdh 35
  • 89.66 (n)
  • 94.28 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GAPDH 35
  • 83.73 (n)
  • 92.17 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gapdh 35
  • 78.95 (n)
  • 85.32 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.1292 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
gapdh 35
  • 77.91 (n)
  • 86.45 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009623 35
  • 71.11 (n)
  • 76.36 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gapdh1 35
  • 72.42 (n)
  • 76.67 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gpd-3 35
  • 70.86 (n)
  • 76.35 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TDH1 38
TDH3 35
  • 62.11 (n)
  • 65.05 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F20988g 35
  • 60.47 (n)
  • 64.02 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.7665 35
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.5505 35
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.22781 35
Os08g0126300 35
  • 67.76 (n)
  • 68.96 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01528 35
  • 72.34 (n)
  • 70.21 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes gpd3 35
  • 69.25 (n)
  • 72.24 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GAPDH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GAPDH Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GAPDH (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GAPDH (if available)

Paralogs for GAPDH Gene

Paralogs for GAPDH Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GAPDH Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GAPDH: view

Variants for GAPDH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GAPDH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1109 -- 6,538,110(-) AATTC(A/G)TTGTC reference, synonymous-codon
rs1060619 -- 6,535,615(-) CCACC(A/G)CCAGA intron-variant
rs1060620 -- 6,535,556(-) GCTTC(A/C/T)CCCGG intron-variant
rs1060621 -- 6,535,530(-) CAGCC(A/C)CCACA intron-variant
rs1062429 - 6,537,811(+) GAAAA(A/C)CCTGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAPDH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv453e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv826208 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv8896 CNV Gain 18304495
esv2745477 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for GAPDH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GAPDH
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GAPDH

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAPDH Gene

Disorders for GAPDH Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GAPDH Gene

(93) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAPDH Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
neurodegenerative diseases 40.6 18
tumors 36.8 65
disseminated candidiasis 28 1
huntington disease 27.7 11
trypanosomiasis african 25.8 6

Relevant External Links for GAPDH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GAPDH
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GAPDH
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAPDH: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAPDH Gene

Publications for GAPDH Gene

  1. Subcellular localization of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is independent of its glycolytic function. (PMID: 12829261) Mazzola J.L. … Sirover M.A. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2003) 3 4 23
  2. Structural analysis of human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (PMID: 16239728) Ismail S.A. … Park H.W. (Acta Crystallogr. D 2005) 3 4 23
  3. FKBP36 is an inherent multifunctional glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. (PMID: 19001379) Jarczowski F. … Edlich F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 23
  4. Isolation and complete sequence of a functional human glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. (PMID: 3170585) Ercolani L. … Alexander M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1988) 2 3 4
  5. Isolation and characterization of rat and human glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs: genomic complexity and molecular evolution of the gene. (PMID: 2987855) Tso J.Y. … Wu R. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1985) 3 4

Products for GAPDH Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Adherens Junctions in human,mouse,rat
    • Adipogenesis in human,mouse,rat
    • Allergy & Asthma in human,mouse,rat
    • Alzheimers Disease in human,mouse,rat
    • Amino Acid Metabolism I in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GAPDH
  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GAPDH
  • Block miRNA regulation of GAPDH using miScript Target Protectors

Sources for GAPDH Gene

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