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Aliases for GALR3 Gene

Aliases for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 3 2 3
  • GAL3-R 3 4
  • GALR-3 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor, Family Member 3 3
  • Galanin Receptor Type 3 3
  • GALNR3 4

External Ids for GALR3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR3 Gene

  • GC22P034833
  • GC22P036462
  • GC22P036543
  • GC22P038219
  • GC22P021186

Summaries for GALR3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin modulates a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. The human galanin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that functionally couple to their intracellular effector through distinct signaling pathways. GALR3 is found in many tissues and may be expressed as 1.4-, 2.4-, and 5-kb transcripts [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR3 Gene

GALR3 (Galanin Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).

Tocris Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR3 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR3 Gene

Genomics for GALR3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR3 Gene

Genomic Location for GALR3 Gene

37,823,382 bp from pter
37,825,495 bp from pter
2,114 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GALR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR3 Gene

Proteins for GALR3 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53YJ4

    Protein attributes for GALR3 Gene

    368 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39573 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR3 Gene

Proteomics data for GALR3 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALR3 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn6
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR3 Gene

Domains for GALR3 Gene

Gene Families for GALR3 Gene

  • GALR :GPCR / Class A : Galanin receptors

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • O60755
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR3: view

Function for GALR3 Gene

Molecular function for GALR3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: galanin receptor 3,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in testis,adrenal gland,pancreas,predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for the hormone galanin. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA 24517231
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

Phenotypes for GALR3 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for GALR3:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GALR3:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR3: view

Animal Models for GALR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR3:

miRNA for GALR3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GALR3 Gene

Localization for GALR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GALR3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

Pathways for GALR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR3: view

Pathways by source for GALR3 Gene

Interacting Proteins for GALR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 9722565
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

Compounds for GALR3 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist [114547-31-8]
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist [119418-04-1]
M 1145 Potent and selective GAL2 agonist [1172089-00-7]
M617 Selective GAL1 agonist [860790-38-1]
M871 Selective GAL2 antagonist [908844-75-7]

(28) IUPHAR Ligand for GALR3 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
M35 Antagonist Antagonist 10.4
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
M32 Antagonist Antagonist 9.74
M617 Agonist Agonist 9.64
M40 Antagonist Antagonist 9.3
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Agonist Agonist 9.22
C7 Antagonist Antagonist 8.98
M15 Antagonist Antagonist 8.84
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Agonist Agonist 8.65
SNAP 398299 Antagonist Antagonist 8.27
galanin(7-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 8.17
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (human) Agonist Agonist 7.89
SNAP 37889 Antagonist Antagonist 7.77
J20 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 7.6
galanin(2-29) (pig) Agonist Full agonist 7.58
galanin-like peptide Agonist Agonist 7.11
M1151 Agonist Agonist 7.01
J18 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 6.86
M871 Antagonist Antagonist 6.38
M1145 Agonist Agonist 6.23
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6.2
galanin(3-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6
M1153 Agonist Agonist 5.72
M1152 Agonist Agonist 5.63
galanin(2-11) Agonist Agonist 5.3
M1160 Agonist Agonist 4.81

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GALR3 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
calcium 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR3: view

Transcripts for GALR3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR3 Gene

(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(8) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR3 Gene

Galanin receptor 3:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALR3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (5.3), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (5.2), Pancreas (4.9), and Testis (4.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GALR3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR3 Gene Hs.158353

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GALR3: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALR3 Gene

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR3 35
  • 99 (n)
  • 99.46 (a)
GALR3 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR3 35
  • 92.75 (n)
  • 97.23 (a)
GALR3 36
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR3 35
  • 91.67 (n)
  • 94.94 (a)
GALR3 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr3 35
  • 87.07 (n)
  • 90.58 (a)
Galr3 16
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR3 36
  • 66 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 29 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr3 35
  • 86.41 (n)
  • 90.78 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR3 35
  • 67.79 (n)
  • 65.99 (a)
GALR3 36
  • 50 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 49 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-52e11.1 36
  • 44 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 36
  • 26 (a)
AR-2 36
  • 27 (a)
AlstR 37
  • 34 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea npr-9 36
  • 22 (a)
ZK455.3 37
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 32 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GALR3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR3 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR3 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GALR3 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR3: view

Variants for GALR3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1800694 -- 37,823,936(+) GGCAC(C/T)TGCAG intron-variant
rs2284057 -- 37,825,596(+) GACTT(A/G)TCCCC downstream-variant-500B
rs2284058 -- 37,825,651(+) ATATG(A/G)ACAGC downstream-variant-500B
rs5995502 -- 37,821,928(+) gaatt(C/T)ctggc upstream-variant-2KB
rs7290156 -- 37,822,630(+) ACAGG(C/T)AGTAG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4965n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv915035 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1406e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv4966n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4967n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GALR3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Disorders for GALR3 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GALR3 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pathological processes 44.4 1
alzheimers disease 40.1 2

Relevant External Links for GALR3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GALR3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Publications for GALR3 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski L.F. Jr. … O'Dowd B.F. (J. Neurochem. 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Structural organization and chromosomal localization of three human galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 9928159) Iismaa T.P. … Shine J. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1998) 3 4 23
  3. Cloned human and rat galanin GALR3 receptors: pharmacology and activation of G-protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels. (PMID: 9722565) Smith K.E. … Jones K.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4
  4. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 23 48
  5. A polymorphism in the human GALR3 galanin receptor gene (GALNR3). (PMID: 10441207) Lapsys N.M. … Iismaa T.P. (Mol. Cell. Probes 1999) 3 23

Products for GALR3 Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate GALR3
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GALR3
    • Block miRNA regulation of GALR3 using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for GALR3 Gene

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