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Aliases for GALR2 Gene

Aliases for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 2 2 3
  • GALNR2 3 4 6
  • GAL2-R 3 4
  • GALR-2 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor Type 2 3

External Ids for GALR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR2 Gene

  • GC17U990138
  • GC17P074534
  • GC17P074668
  • GC17P074648
  • GC17P071582
  • GC17P074070
  • GC17P069499

Summaries for GALR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR2 Gene

GALR2 (Galanin Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is SSTR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Tocris Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR2 Gene

Genomics for GALR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene

76,074,794 bp from pter
76,077,541 bp from pter
2,748 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR2 Gene

Proteins for GALR2 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5JUU4
    • Q32MN8

    Protein attributes for GALR2 Gene

    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41700 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR2 Gene

Proteomics data for GALR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn2 and Asn11
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GALR2 (Galanin R2/GALR2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR2 Gene

Domains for GALR2 Gene

Gene Families for GALR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR2: view

Function for GALR2 Gene

Molecular function for GALR2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 2,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding GALN with high affinity,expressed in several region of brain as will as peripheral tissues,coupling to phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular calcium levels
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA 24517231
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR2: view

Animal Models for GALR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GALR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GALR2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GALR2 Gene

Localization for GALR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GALR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Pathways for GALR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR2: view

Pathways by source for GALR2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006936 muscle contraction TAS 9480833
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 9480833
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9685625
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Compounds for GALR2 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist [114547-31-8]
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist [119418-04-1]
M 1145 Potent and selective GAL2 agonist [1172089-00-7]
M617 Selective GAL1 agonist [860790-38-1]
M871 Selective GAL2 antagonist [908844-75-7]

(57) IUPHAR Ligand for GALR2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
M35 Antagonist Antagonist 10.4
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
M32 Antagonist Antagonist 9.74
M617 Agonist Agonist 9.64
M242 Agonist Agonist 9.6
Gal-(K)4 Agonist Agonist 9.4
M40 Antagonist Antagonist 9.3
Gal-B2-MPEG4 Agonist Agonist 9.3
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Agonist Agonist 9.22
Gal-B2-C8 Agonist Agonist 9.15
galanin(1-20) (human) Agonist Agonist 9.11
C7 Antagonist Antagonist 8.98
Gal-B2-dPEG24 Agonist Agonist 8.89
Gal-B2-C10 Agonist Agonist 8.89
Gal-B2-C12 Agonist Agonist 8.85
M15 Antagonist Antagonist 8.84
galanin(1-15) Agonist Agonist 8.77
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig) Agonist Agonist 8.65
Gal-B2-C14 Agonist Agonist 8.59
Gal-B2 Agonist Agonist 8.46
Gal-B2-C18 Agonist Agonist 8.4
SNAP 398299 Antagonist Antagonist 8.27
galanin(1-12) Agonist Agonist 8.19
galanin(7-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 8.17
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Full agonist 8
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (human) Agonist Agonist 7.89
SNAP 37889 Antagonist Antagonist 7.77
J20 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 7.6
galanin(2-29) (pig) Agonist Full agonist 7.58
GALP(3-32) (human) Agonist Agonist 7.48
galanin(2-30) (human) Agonist Agonist 7.28
Gal-R2-dPEG24 Agonist Agonist 7.22
galanin-like peptide Agonist Agonist 7.11
M1151 Agonist Agonist 7.01
GALP(1-32) (human) Agonist Agonist 6.89
J18 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 6.86
dithiipin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide analogue 7 Antagonist Antagonist 6.72
[N-Me,des-Sar]Gal-B2 Agonist Agonist 6.44
Gal-B5 Agonist Agonist 6.41
M871 Antagonist Antagonist 6.38
M1145 Agonist Agonist 6.23
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6.2
galanin(1-10) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin(3-30) (human) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin(9-29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin(5-29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin(9-25) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin (10-29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6.15
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6
galanin(3-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6
galanin(10-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6
M1153 Agonist Agonist 5.72
M1152 Agonist Agonist 5.63
galanin(2-11) Agonist Agonist 5.3
M1160 Agonist Agonist 4.81

(4) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GALR2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
galp 81.1 2
capsaicin 31.4 9
adenylate 18 1
calcium 4.31 5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR2: view

Transcripts for GALR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR2 Gene

Galanin receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GALR2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (20.1), Colon - Sigmoid (13.6), and Colon - Transverse (6.4).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR2 Gene Hs.666366

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALR2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. In peripheral tissues, the strongest expression was observed in heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GALR2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Expression partners for GALR2 Gene

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 89.03 (n)
  • 89.54 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 89.01 (n)
  • 88.27 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr2 35
  • 85.21 (n)
  • 87.92 (a)
Galr2 16
Galr2 36
  • 85 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 99.31 (n)
  • 98.97 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100910349 35
  • 86.65 (n)
  • 88.52 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR2 35
  • 72.75 (n)
  • 68.58 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 66 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR2 36
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr2 35
  • 67.59 (n)
  • 68.23 (a)
Str.12152 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch211-250n8.2 35
  • 67.79 (n)
  • 67.08 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 60 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 37
  • 36 (a)
AlstR 35
  • 47.64 (n)
  • 36.17 (a)
AlstR 36
  • 29 (a)
AR-2 36
  • 27 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRALS2 35
  • 54.67 (n)
  • 40.73 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 37
  • 33 (a)
npr-9 35
  • 43.84 (n)
  • 38.98 (a)
npr-9 36
  • 24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GALR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR2 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for GALR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR2: view

Variants for GALR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs8192512 -- 76,076,599(+) GTGCC(C/G)GCTCA intron-variant
rs8192513 -- 76,076,877(+) TTCTC(C/G)GCCTG missense, reference
rs9916013 -- 76,075,718(+) CAAGC(C/T)ACGGT intron-variant
rs34160081 -- 76,076,511(+) TGTGT(-/G)GCGGT intron-variant
rs61741641 -- 76,076,722(+) GGGGC(C/T)GTCGC missense, reference

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv908824 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv833546 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv3270n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509674 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv2142 CNV Insertion 18451855

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Disorders for GALR2 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GALR2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
alzheimers disease 42.1 1
tumors 0 2

Relevant External Links for GALR2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GALR2: view

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for GALR2 Gene

Publications for GALR2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. (PMID: 9685625) Fathi Z. … Zimanyi I.A. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski L.F. Jr. … O'Dowd B.F. (J. Neurochem. 1998) 2 3 4 23
  3. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. (PMID: 9480833) Bloomquist B.T. … Cornfield L.J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 3 4 23
  4. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. (PMID: 9880084) Borowsky B. … Gerald C. (Peptides 1998) 3 4 23
  5. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 23 48

Products for GALR2 Gene

Sources for GALR2 Gene

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