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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GALR2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC17P074070

Galanin Receptor 2

Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Galanin Receptor 21 2
GALNR22 3 5
GAL2-R2 3
GALR-22 3
Galanin Receptor Type 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 41331   Entrez Gene: 88112   Ensembl: ENSG000001826877   OMIM: 6036915   UniProtKB: O436033   

Export aliases for GALR2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17U990138 GC17P074534 GC17P074668 GC17P074648 GC17P071582 GC17P069499


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GALR2 Gene:
Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary
axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion,
inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial
gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane
receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the
N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the
phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular
signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples
efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for GALR2 Gene: 
GALR2 (galanin receptor 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GALR2 include amyotrophic neuralgia, and sinusitis, and among its related super-pathways are Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors) and Peptide GPCRs. GO annotations related to this gene include galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is SSTR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALR2_HUMAN, O43603
Function: Receptor for the hormone galanin and for GALP. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins
that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via
G(i))

summary for GALR2 Gene:
Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three
different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly
expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of
the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal
tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of
glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal
motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes
and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral
conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include
Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR2 (Galanin receptor 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000017.10  NC_018928.2  NT_010783.15  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GALR2 gene promoter:
         CREB   USF1   RREB-1   deltaCREB   MyoD   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGALR2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GALR2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GALR2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q25.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  17q25.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q25.3

GALR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GALR2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17P074070:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
74,070,875 bp from pter      End:
74,073,622 bp from pter
Size:
2,748 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALR2_HUMAN, O43603 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Galanin receptor type 2  
Size: 387 amino acids; 41700 Da
Subcellular location: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein
Secondary accessions: A5JUU4 Q32MN8

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GALR2: NX_O43603

Explore proteomics data for GALR2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_O43603

  • GALR2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GALR2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_003848.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000329684  
    Reactome Protein details: O43603
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GALR2: 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GALR2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral to membrane IEA--

    GALR2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    GALR: GPCR / Class A : Galanin receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: GAL2 receptor 
    Galanin receptors

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR003907 Galnin_2_rcpt
     IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
     IPR000405 Galanin_rcpt
     IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O43603

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O43603

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000405 Galanin receptor signature
    IPB003907 Galanin 2 receptor signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALR2_HUMAN, O43603
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family


    GALR2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GALR2_HUMAN, O43603
    Function: Receptor for the hormone galanin and for GALP. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins
    that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via
    G(i))

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GALR2:
    galanin receptor 2,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding GALN with high affinity,expressed in several
    region of brain as will as peripheral tissues,coupling to phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular calcium
    levels

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity ----
    GO:0004966galanin receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    GALR2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Galr2):
     behavior/neurological  hematopoietic system  immune system  integument  nervous system 

    GALR2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Galr2tm1Dgen for GALR2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GALR2 
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GALR2 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.46
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like0.41
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction0.37
    2Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q
    Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q0.46
    Peptide GPCRs0.46
    3Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.55
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for GALR2
        Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q


    2 BioSystems Pathways for GALR2
        GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like
    Peptide GPCRs

    5/7        Reactome Pathways for GALR2 (see all 7)
        GPCR downstream signaling
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Signal Transduction
    Signaling by GPCR
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for GALR2):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction


    GALR2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for GALR2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/144 Interacting proteins for GALR2 (O436033 ENSP000003296844) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 144)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GALP224663, ENSP000002656434I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000265643
    GNAQP501483, ENSP000002865484I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000286548
    ACKR3ENSP000002729284STRING: ENSP00000272928
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/12 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006936muscle contraction TAS9480833
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS9480833
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0007188adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS9685625
    GO:0007194negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA--

    GALR2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GALR2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for GALR2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    M617Selective GAL1 agonist[860790-38-1]
    Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist[114547-31-8]
    M40 Potent, non-selective galanin receptor antagonist [143896-17-7]
    M 1145Potent and selective GAL2 agonist[1172089-00-7]
    M871Selective GAL2 antagonist[908844-75-7]

    10/57 IUPHAR Ligands for GALR2 (GAL2 receptor) (see all 57)    About this table 
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    [125I][Tyr26]galanin (pig)
    AgonistAgonist9.929685625
    [125I][Tyr26]galanin (human)
    AgonistAgonist9.51 - 9.629832121 9880084 9480833
    galanin
    AgonistFull agonist9.479685625
    C7
    AntagonistAntagonist8.7 - 9.29880084 9480833
    galanin(1-20) (human)
    AgonistAgonist9.119480833
    galanin
    AgonistFull agonist8.63 - 9.0711600206 9880084 9480833
    galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
    AgonistFull agonist9.049480833
    M32
    AntagonistAntagonist8.66 - 8.8411600206 9880084
    M40
    AntagonistAntagonist8.39 - 8.829880084 9480833
    M35
    AntagonistAntagonist8.71 - 8.749880084 9480833

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GALR2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    galp 81.1 2 11174012 (1), 15944009 (1)
    capsaicin 31.4 15 18553211 (6), 15275747 (2), 16996122 (1)
    adenylate 18 1 9832121 (1)
    calcium 4.31 5 9832121 (1), 9685625 (1), 11567049 (1), 10980593 (1) (see all 5)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GALR2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GALR2 gene: 
    NM_003857.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GALR2:

    Galanin receptor 2
    Hs.666366  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AF040630
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000329003(uc002jqm.1)

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF040630.1 AF080586.1 BC069130.1 BC074914.2 BC074915.2 BC109051.1 BC109052.1 EF577401.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.402965 

    7 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC074914 AF080586 BC074915 BC069130 NM_003857 AF040630 BU631750 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GALR2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GALR2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ATCCTCATCG
    GALR2 Expression
    About this image


    GALR2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/6 selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Paraxial Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem ES-209, Meso-prx/latp Progenitor
     
     Primitive Streak (Early Embryonic Tissues)
             Mesendoderm-like cells ( Generation of mesendoderm and definitive endoderm cells...
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Posterior foregut-like cells ( A scalable, suspension protocol for derivation of...
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             Pro-myelinating Schwann Cells Peripheral Nerve Domain
     
     Lateral Plate Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem ES-209, Meso-prx/latp Progenitor

    See GALR2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GALR2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.666366

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALR2_HUMAN, O43603
    Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus.
    In peripheral tissues, the strongest expression was observed in heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including GALR2: 
              G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GALR2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for GALR2 gene from 7/14 species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Galr21 , 5 galanin receptor 21, 5 85.35(n)1
    88.17(a)1
      11 (81.10 cM)5
    144281  NM_010254.41  NP_034384.31 
     1162809395 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GALR21 galanin receptor 2 72.77(n)
    68.77(a)
      770030  NM_001128063.1  NP_001121535.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    62(a)
    50(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    2(113170432-113182116)
    5(24039165-24052404)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.121522 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 75.07(n)    BX705384.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1003347931 galanin receptor type 2-like 70.98(n)
    72.03(a)
      100334793  XM_002664007.1  XP_002664053.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta AlstR1 , 3 G-protein coupled receptor protein
    signaling pathway more3
    Allatostatin Receptor1
    36(a)3
    47.67(n)1
    37.63(a)1
      1 3E13
    441261  NM_079961.31  NP_524700.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ZK455.33
    npr-91
    G-protein coupled receptor3
    Protein NPR-91
    33(a)3
    43.84(n)1
    38.98(a)1
      X(11363821-11367302)3
    1913201  NM_077495.11  NP_509896.11 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for GALR2 gene
    SSTR32  OPRL12  OPRK12  NPBWR12  OPRD12  KISS1R2  GALR12  SSTR42  
    SSTR52  MCHR22  SSTR12  GALR32  SSTR22  MCHR12  OPRM12  NPBWR22  
    15 SIMAP similar genes for GALR2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     GALR2_HUMAN:
    GALR3    GALR1    KISS1R    OPRL1    SSTR2    CXCR1
    OPRK1    SSTR5    SSTR1    SSTR3    OPRM1    NPBWR1
    OPRD1    SSTR4    UTS2R

    GALR2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/70 SNPs in GALR2 are shown (see all 70)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1998210831,2
    --74070971(+) TGAACA/GTCTCG 2 I V mis10--------
    rs1505852671,2
    --74070975(+) CGTCTC/TGGGCT 2 S L mis10--------
    rs2014194651,2
    --74071054(+) CCCCTC/GCTCTT 2 L syn10--------
    rs1388613961,2
    C--74071113(+) GGTGCT/GGCTGC 2 /R /L mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4516
    rs1140845621,2
    C,F--74071172(+) GCGTGG/TCCGAC 2 A S mis12Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA NA 4670
    rs1436056471,2
    F--74071211(+) TCCAGG/ACCACC 2 /T /A mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs1396442151,2
    C,F--74071221(+) CATCTA/GCACCC 2 Y C mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1417840161,2
    C,F--74071294(+) ATGCAC/GGCCAG 2 H Q mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5823
    rs1508372001,2
    F--74071309(+) TTCACG/TCTGGC 2 T syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4456
    rs1999429751,2
    C--74071380(+) CGGGGG/TATGGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00EU 837

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GALR2 (74070875 - 74073622 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for GALR2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv2142CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv509674CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv833546CNV Loss17160897
    nsv908824CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3270n71CNV Loss21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 603691    OMIM disorders: --

    12 diseases for GALR2:    About MalaCards
    amyotrophic neuralgia    sinusitis    keratoderma    alcoholism
    alzheimer's disease    neuroblastoma    neuronitis    obesity
    lung cancer    squamous cell carcinoma    breast cancer    prostatitis


    GALR2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GALR2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    alzheimers disease 42.1 1 18500647 (1)
    tumors 0 2 20148716 (1), 19276245 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GALR2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GALR2 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for GALR2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GALR2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 79):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GALR2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PubMed id 9832121)1, 2, 3, 9 Kolakowski L.F. Jr.... O'Dowd B.F. (1998)
    2. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. (PubMed id 9685625)1, 2, 3, 9 Fathi Z.... Zimanyi I.A. (1998)
    3. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PubMed id 17083333)1, 4, 9 Belfer I....Enoch M.A. (2007)
    4. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. (PubMed id 9480833)1, 2, 9 Bloomquist B.T.... Cornfield L.J. (1998)
    5. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. (PubMed id 9880084)1, 2, 9 Borowsky B.... Gerald C. (1998)
    6. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (2008)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    8. Galanin decreases proliferation of PC12 cells and induces apoptosis via its subtype 2 receptor (GalR2). (PubMed id 18272487)1, 9 Tofighi R....Ceccatelli S. (2008)
    9. Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. (PubMed id 14592962)1, 9 Berger A....Kofler B. (2004)
    10. Distinct features of neurotransmitter systems in the h uman brain with focus on the galanin system in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe. (PubMed id 23341594)1 Le Maitre E....Hokfelt T.G. (2013)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 8811 HGNC: 4133 AceView: GALR2 Ensembl:ENSG00000182687 euGenes: HUgn8811
    ECgene: GALR2 Kegg: 8811 H-InvDB: GALR2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GALR2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GALR2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GALR2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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