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Aliases for GALR1 Gene

Aliases for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 1 2 3 5
  • GALNR1 3 4
  • GAL1-R 3 4
  • GALR-1 3 4
  • GALNR 3 4

External Ids for GALR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GALR1 Gene

  • GALNR1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR1 Gene

  • GC18M074531
  • GC18P075110
  • GC18P074724
  • GC18P073088
  • GC18P073090
  • GC18P074962
  • GC18P071642

Summaries for GALR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin elicits a range of biological effects by interaction with specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Galanin receptors are seven-transmembrane proteins shown to activate a variety of intracellular second-messenger pathways. GALR1 inhibits adenylyl cyclase via a G protein of the Gi/Go family. GALR1 is widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in peripheral sites such as the small intestine and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR1 Gene

GALR1 (Galanin Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and neuropeptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is GALR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.

Tocris Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR1 Gene

Genomics for GALR1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR1 Gene

Enhancers for GALR1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GALR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GALR1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GALR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GALR1 Gene

77,250,052 bp from pter
77,277,896 bp from pter
27,845 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR1 Gene

Genes around GALR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR1 Gene

Proteins for GALR1 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VBL7

    Protein attributes for GALR1 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38953 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR1 Gene

Proteomics data for GALR1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALR1 Gene

  • Palmitoylated on at least one of the three cysteine residues present in the C-terminal part.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GALR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR1 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR1 Gene

Gene Families for GALR1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR1: view

Function for GALR1 Gene

Molecular function for GALR1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 1,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in brain,also coexpressed with GALN in ciliary epithelium predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IEA,IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR1: view

Animal Models for GALR1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GALR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR1 Gene

Localization for GALR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GALR1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 2
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

Pathways & Interactions for GALR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007200 NOT phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007586 digestion TAS 8670213
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALR1 Gene

(51) Drugs for GALR1 Gene - From: DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
galnon Pharma Agonist Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0
[<sup>125</sup>I][Tyr<sup>26</sup>]galanin (human) Pharma Agonist 0
[N-Me,des-Sar]Gal-B2 Pharma Agonist 0
[Sar<sup>1</sup>, D-Ala<sup>12</sup>]galanin(1-16) Pharma Agonist 0
2,3-dihydro-1,4-dithiin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide Pharma Antagonist 0

(7) Additional Compounds for GALR1 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
Full agonist, Agonist
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat)
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse)
Galanin (1-30) (human)
Galanin (2-29) (rat)

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR1: view

Transcripts for GALR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR1 Gene

Galanin receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x11.1).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR1 Gene Hs.272191

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR1: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALR1 Gene

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 91.79 (n)
  • 92.84 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 89.78 (n)
  • 91.12 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr1 35
  • 87.64 (n)
  • 92.24 (a)
Galr1 16
Galr1 36
  • 92 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 99.24 (n)
  • 99.14 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr1 35
  • 86.51 (n)
  • 90.75 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR1 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR1 36
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR1 35
  • 85.39 (n)
  • 89.2 (a)
  • 83 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR1 36
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr1 35
  • 75.78 (n)
  • 85.4 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galr1 35
  • 70.28 (n)
  • 74.61 (a)
galr1 36
  • 71 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 37
  • 39 (a)
AR-2 37
  • 35 (a)
AlstR 36
  • 31 (a)
AR-2 36
  • 31 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 37
  • 30 (a)
CELE_Y54E2A.1 35
  • 43.13 (n)
  • 34.77 (a)
npr-9 36
  • 23 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GALR1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR1 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR1: view

Variants for GALR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1143093 - 77,250,593(+) AGCTG(G/T)CCGGA reference, missense
rs5376 - 77,268,853(-) TTTTA(C/T)TTTCT reference, missense
rs5377 - 77,268,877(+) CCCAC(C/T)ATCAA reference, missense
rs5371 -- 77,250,127(+) CGCAG(C/G)CCCTC utr-variant-5-prime
rs5372 -- 77,250,129(+) CAGCC(C/G)CTCCG utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2717388 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2751779 CNV Gain 17911159
dgv1052e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv2364 CNV Insertion 18451855
dgv196n21 CNV Gain 19592680
esv2169580 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2717435 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv130653 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2717436 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717437 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717438 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv7653 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2717439 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717441 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717442 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for GALR1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.28; 62.71% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GALR1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Disorders for GALR1 Gene

Relevant External Links for GALR1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for GALR1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR1 Gene

Publications for GALR1 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of a functional human galanin receptor. (PMID: 7524088) Habert-Ortoli E. … Mayaux J.-F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 2 3 4 67
  2. Galanin receptor-1 modulates 5-hydroxtryptamine-1A signaling via heterodimerization. (PMID: 20171159) Borroto-Escuela D.O. … Fuxe K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010) 3 23
  3. The galanin signaling cascade is a candidate pathway regulating oncogenesis in human squamous cell carcinoma. (PMID: 18973137) Sugimoto T. … Hata A. (Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2009) 3 23
  4. Postendocytotic traffic of the galanin R1 receptor: a lysosomal signal motif on the cytoplasmic terminus. (PMID: 18385373) Xia S. … Xu Z.Q. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 23
  5. Epigenetic inactivation of galanin receptor 1 in head and neck cancer. (PMID: 19047085) Misawa K. … Carey T.E. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2008) 3 23

Products for GALR1 Gene

Sources for GALR1 Gene