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Aliases for GALR1 Gene

Aliases for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 1 2 3
  • GALNR1 3 4 6
  • GALNR 3 4 6
  • GAL1-R 3 4
  • GALR-1 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor Type 1 3

External Ids for GALR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GALR1 Gene

  • GALNR1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR1 Gene

  • GC18M074531
  • GC18P075110
  • GC18P074724
  • GC18P073088
  • GC18P073090
  • GC18P074962
  • GC18P071642

Summaries for GALR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin elicits a range of biological effects by interaction with specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Galanin receptors are seven-transmembrane proteins shown to activate a variety of intracellular second-messenger pathways. GALR1 inhibits adenylyl cyclase via a G protein of the Gi/Go family. GALR1 is widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in peripheral sites such as the small intestine and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR1 Gene

GALR1 (Galanin Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide binding and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity

Tocris Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR1 Gene

Genomics for GALR1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR1 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GALR1 Gene

77,250,052 bp from pter
77,277,896 bp from pter
27,845 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GALR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR1 Gene

Proteins for GALR1 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VBL7

    Protein attributes for GALR1 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38953 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR1 Gene

Proteomics data for GALR1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALR1 Gene

  • Palmitoylated on at least one of the three cysteine residues present in the C-terminal part
  • Glycosylation at Asn7, Asn12, and Asn183
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR1 Gene

Domains for GALR1 Gene

Gene Families for GALR1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR1: view

Function for GALR1 Gene

Molecular function for GALR1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 1,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in brain,also coexpressed with GALN in ciliary epithelium predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA 24517231
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IDA 24517231
GO:0042923 neuropeptide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

Phenotypes for GALR1 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for GALR1:
inferred from 2 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GALR1:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR1: view

Animal Models for GALR1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GALR1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR1 Gene

Localization for GALR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GALR1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

Pathways for GALR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR1: view

Pathways by source for GALR1 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA --
GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration IEA --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway TAS 7524088
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

Drugs for GALR1 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist [114547-31-8]
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist [119418-04-1]
M 1145 Potent and selective GAL2 agonist [1172089-00-7]
M617 Selective GAL1 agonist [860790-38-1]
M871 Selective GAL2 antagonist [908844-75-7]

(50) IUPHAR Ligand for GALR1 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
M35 Antagonist Antagonist 10.4
galanin Agonist Full agonist 9.89
M32 Antagonist Antagonist 9.74
M617 Agonist Agonist 9.64
M242 Agonist Agonist 9.6
galanin(1-19) (human) Agonist Agonist 9.47
Gal-(K)4 Agonist Agonist 9.4
[Sar1, D-Ala12]galanin(1-16) Agonist Agonist 9.4
Gal-B2-MPEG4 Agonist Agonist 9.3
M40 Antagonist Antagonist 9.3
galanin(1-16) (rat/mouse/pig) Agonist Agonist 9.22
Gal-B2-C8 Agonist Agonist 9.15
C7 Antagonist Antagonist 8.98
galanin(1-11) Agonist Agonist 8.96
Gal-B2-C10 Agonist Agonist 8.89
Gal-B2-dPEG24 Agonist Agonist 8.89
Gal-B2-C12 Agonist Agonist 8.85
M15 Antagonist Antagonist 8.84
galanin(1-15) Agonist Agonist 8.77
Gal-B2-C14 Agonist Agonist 8.59
Gal-B2 Agonist Agonist 8.46
Gal-B2-C18 Agonist Agonist 8.4
galanin(7-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 8.17
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Full agonist 8
[125I][Tyr26]galanin (human) Agonist Agonist 7.89
J20 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 7.6
galanin(2-29) (pig) Agonist Full agonist 7.58
GALP(3-32) (human) Agonist Agonist 7.48
galanin(2-30) (human) Agonist Agonist 7.28
galanin-like peptide Agonist Agonist 7.11
M1151 Agonist Agonist 7.01
GALP(1-32) (human) Agonist Agonist 6.89
J18 (galanin analogue) Agonist Agonist 6.86
dithiipin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide analogue 7 Antagonist Antagonist 6.72
[N-Me,des-Sar]Gal-B2 Agonist Agonist 6.44
Gal-B5 Agonist Agonist 6.41
M871 Antagonist Antagonist 6.38
M1145 Agonist Agonist 6.23
galanin(D-Trp2) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6.2
galanin(3-29) (rat/mouse) Agonist Agonist 6
galanin(3-29) (pig) Agonist Agonist 6
Sch 202596 Antagonist Antagonist 5.77
M1153 Agonist Agonist 5.72
M1152 Agonist Agonist 5.63
2,3-dihydro-1,4-dithiin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide Antagonist Antagonist 5.57
galanin(2-11) Agonist Agonist 5.3
GalR3ant Antagonist Antagonist 5
galnon Agonist Agonist 4.93
M1160 Agonist Agonist 4.81
galmic Agonist Agonist 4.47

(3) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GALR1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
galp 76.8 1
adenylate 34.3 3
calcium 0 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR1: view

Transcripts for GALR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR1 Gene

(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR1 Gene

Galanin receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GALR1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (11.1).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR1 Gene Hs.272191

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GALR1: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for GALR1 Gene

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 91.79 (n)
  • 92.84 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 89.78 (n)
  • 91.12 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr1 35
  • 87.64 (n)
  • 92.24 (a)
Galr1 16
Galr1 36
  • 92 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR1 35
  • 99.24 (n)
  • 99.14 (a)
GALR1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr1 35
  • 86.51 (n)
  • 90.75 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR1 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR1 36
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR1 35
  • 85.39 (n)
  • 89.2 (a)
  • 83 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR1 36
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr1 35
  • 75.78 (n)
  • 85.4 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galr1 35
  • 70.28 (n)
  • 74.61 (a)
galr1 36
  • 71 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 37
  • 39 (a)
AR-2 37
  • 35 (a)
AlstR 36
  • 31 (a)
AR-2 36
  • 31 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 37
  • 30 (a)
CELE_Y54E2A.1 35
  • 43.13 (n)
  • 34.77 (a)
npr-9 36
  • 23 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GALR1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR1 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR1: view

Variants for GALR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5371 -- 77,250,127(+) CGCAG(C/G)CCCTC utr-variant-5-prime
rs5372 -- 77,250,129(+) CAGCC(C/G)CTCCG utr-variant-5-prime
rs5373 -- 77,250,355(+) AGGTC(C/G)CGGCG utr-variant-5-prime
rs5374 -- 77,250,689(+) CTGGG(C/T)GTGCT synonymous-codon, reference
rs5375 -- 77,250,854(+) TGGGT(G/T)CTGGG reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2717388 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2751779 CNV Gain 17911159
dgv1052e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv2364 CNV Insertion 18451855
dgv196n21 CNV Gain 19592680
esv2169580 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2717435 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv130653 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2717436 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717437 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717438 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv7653 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2717439 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717441 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2717442 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for GALR1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Disorders for GALR1 Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GALR1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pathological processes 32 1
mood disorders 24 1
alzheimers disease 22 2
obesity 0 3
melanoma 0 1

Relevant External Links for GALR1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GALR1: view

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for GALR1 Gene

Publications for GALR1 Gene

  1. Cloning, chromosomal location, and transcriptional regulation of the human galanin-1 receptor gene (GALN1R). (PMID: 9425310) Lorimer D.D. … Benya R.V. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997) 3 4 23
  2. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. (PMID: 15930442) SchAouble N. … Hinney A. (J. Nutr. 2005) 3 23 48
  3. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 23 48
  4. Molecular cloning of a functional human galanin receptor. (PMID: 7524088) Habert-Ortoli E. … Mayaux J.-F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 2 3 4
  5. Structural organization of the mouse and human GALR1 galanin receptor genes (Galnr and GALNR) and chromosomal localization of the mouse gene. (PMID: 9367674) Jacoby A.S. … Iismaa T.P. (Genomics 1997) 3 4 23

Products for GALR1 Gene

Sources for GALR1 Gene

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