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Aliases for GALNS Gene

Aliases for GALNS Gene

  • Galactosamine (N-Acetyl)-6-Sulfatase 2 3 5
  • Galactosamine (N-Acetyl)-6-Sulfate Sulfatase 2 3
  • N-Acetylgalactosamine-6-Sulfate Sulfatase 3 4
  • Galactose-6-Sulfate Sulfatase 3 4
  • Chondroitinsulfatase 3 4
  • GalNAc6S Sulfatase 3 4
  • Chondroitinase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GalN6S 3 4
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA 2
  • Morquio Syndrome 2
  • GALNAC6S 3
  • EC 3.1.6 63
  • MPS4A 3
  • GAS 3

External Ids for GALNS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALNS Gene

  • GC16P080398
  • GC16P090059
  • GC16M088583
  • GC16M088624
  • GC16M087407
  • GC16M088880
  • GC16M074577

Summaries for GALNS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALNS Gene

  • This gene encodes N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase which is a lysosomal exohydrolase required for the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate, and chondroitin 6-sulfate. Sequence alterations including point, missense and nonsense mutations, as well as those that affect splicing, result in a deficiency of this enzyme. Deficiencies of this enzyme lead to Morquio A syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALNS Gene

GALNS (Galactosamine (N-Acetyl)-6-Sulfatase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GALNS include Mucopolysaccharidosis Iva and Mucopolysaccharidosis Iv. Among its related pathways are Glycosaminoglycan degradation and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include sulfuric ester hydrolase activity and N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ARSJ.

Gene Wiki entry for GALNS Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALNS Gene

Genomics for GALNS Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALNS Gene

Enhancers for GALNS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GALNS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GALNS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GALNS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GALNS Gene

88,813,734 bp from pter
88,856,970 bp from pter
43,237 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GALNS Gene

Genes around GALNS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALNS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALNS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALNS Gene

Proteins for GALNS Gene

  • Protein details for GALNS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86VK3

    Protein attributes for GALNS Gene

    522 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58026 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GALNS Gene

neXtProt entry for GALNS Gene

Proteomics data for GALNS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALNS Gene

  • The conversion to 3-oxoalanine (also known as C-formylglycine, FGly), of a serine or cysteine residue in prokaryotes and of a cysteine residue in eukaryotes, is critical for catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 204 and Asn 423
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GALNS Gene

Gene Families for GALNS Gene

Protein Domains for GALNS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALNS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the sulfatase family.
  • Belongs to the sulfatase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALNS: view

Function for GALNS Gene

Molecular function for GALNS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acetyl-galactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase,lysosomal,acting on keratan sulfate,stepwise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydrolysis of the 6-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and of the D-galactose 6-sulfate units of keratan sulfate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GALNS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALNS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003943 N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase activity TAS 8325655
GO:0008484 sulfuric ester hydrolase activity IEA,IDA 15962010
GO:0043890 N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALNS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALNS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GALNS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GALNS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALNS:

Animal Model Products

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALNS Gene

Localization for GALNS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALNS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GALNS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALNS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
vacuole 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALNS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GALNS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALNS: view

Pathways by source for GALNS Gene

Interacting Proteins for GALNS Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000268695 P34059-GALNS_HUMAN for GALNS Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALNS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042340 keratan sulfate catabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALNS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALNS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALNS Gene

(15) Drugs for GALNS Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Elosulfase alfa Approved Pharma Enzyme, Other 0
Morphine Approved, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 889
Pharmaceutical Solutions Pharma 7317
calcium Nutra 0

(28) Additional Compounds for GALNS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Sulfate (ion 2-)
  • Sulfate anion
  • Sulfate anion(2-)
  • Sulfate dianion
  • Sulfate ion
  • (+)-Galactose
  • 5abp
  • 8abp
  • alpha D-Galactose
  • alpha-D-Galactopyranose
  • Keratan 6'-sulfate
  • Keratan 6'-sulphate
  • Keratan sulfate
  • Keratan sulphate
  • Kerato 6'-sulfate
  • 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-allopyranose
  • 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranose
  • 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-allopyranose
  • 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranose
  • 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-delta-allopyranose
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALNS: view

Transcripts for GALNS Gene

Unigene Clusters for GALNS Gene

Galactosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfate sulfatase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALNS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALNS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALNS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALNS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GALNS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (27.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for GALNS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALNS Gene Hs.271383

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALNS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALNS Gene

Orthologs for GALNS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALNS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALNS 35
  • 84.9 (n)
  • 87.72 (a)
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALNS 35
  • 86.18 (n)
  • 87.72 (a)
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galns 35
  • 83.75 (n)
  • 85.74 (a)
Galns 16
Galns 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALNS 35
  • 97.39 (n)
  • 97.17 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galns 35
  • 82.82 (n)
  • 85.82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALNS 36
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALNS 36
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALNS 35
  • 75.68 (n)
  • 79.56 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALNS 36
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galns 35
  • 71.57 (n)
  • 76.94 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.13248 35
galns 35
  • 69.29 (n)
  • 68.54 (a)
galns 36
  • 70 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10350 35
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea D1014.1 37
  • 33 (a)
sul-2 36
  • 27 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 61 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GALNS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALNS Gene

Gene Tree for GALNS (if available)
Gene Tree for GALNS (if available)

Paralogs for GALNS Gene

Paralogs for GALNS Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for GALNS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins: Pseudogenes for GALNS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALNS: view

Variants for GALNS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALNS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_007172 Mucopolysaccharidosis 4A (MPS4A)
VAR_007173 Mucopolysaccharidosis 4A (MPS4A)
rs11862754 - 88,842,751(+) AAGCA(G/T)CCCTT reference, missense
VAR_007175 Mucopolysaccharidosis 4A (MPS4A)
VAR_007177 Mucopolysaccharidosis 4A (MPS4A)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALNS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv907226 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907268 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2978n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2979n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907278 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907296 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907307 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv907313 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2988n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2989n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv907320 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2990n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv37n68 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv2991n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2992n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2993n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907336 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv457617 CNV Gain 19166990
dgv2995n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2996n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv471115 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv528898 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv471117 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv819907 CNV Gain 19587683
nsv521217 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2715046 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715047 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv907352 CNV Loss 21882294
esv29821 CNV Loss 19812545
esv2661245 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2715048 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2740749 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715049 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv527997 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2715050 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715051 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715053 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715054 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv22725 CNV Loss 19812545
esv2715055 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715056 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715057 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715058 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715059 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv7598 CNV Loss 19470904
esv1489877 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2715060 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715061 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2715062 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv2997n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv2998n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2674381 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for GALNS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.63; 82.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GALNS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALNS Gene

Disorders for GALNS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(21) MalaCards diseases for GALNS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
mucopolysaccharidosis iva
  • galactosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency
mucopolysaccharidosis iv
  • chondroosteodystrophy
  • mps
mucopolysaccharidosis is
  • mucopolysaccharidosis ih
kniest dysplasia
  • mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GALNS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Mucopolysaccharidosis 4A (MPS4A) [MIM:253000]: A form of mucopolysaccharidosis type 4, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by intracellular accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Key clinical features include short stature, skeletal dysplasia, dental anomalies, and corneal clouding. Intelligence is normal and there is no direct central nervous system involvement, although the skeletal changes may result in neurologic complications. There is variable severity, but patients with the severe phenotype usually do not survive past the second or third decade of life. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1522213, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16287098, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24726177, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7581409, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7633425, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7668283, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7795586, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8651279, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8826435, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9298823, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9375852, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9521421}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for GALNS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GALNS: view

No data available for Genatlas for GALNS Gene

Publications for GALNS Gene

  1. Morquio disease: isolation, characterization and expression of full- length cDNA for human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. (PMID: 1755850) Tomatsu S. … Orii T. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1991) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Descriptively quantitative relationship between mutated N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase and mucopolysaccharidosis IVA. (PMID: 19373925) Yan S. … Wu G. (Biopolymers 2009) 3 23
  3. Deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase results in collagen perturbations in cartilage of Morquio syndrome A patients. (PMID: 19394256) Bank R.A. … Everts V. (Mol. Genet. Metab. 2009) 3 23
  4. GALNS gene expression profiling in Morquio A patients' fibroblasts. (PMID: 18710657) Carraresi L. … Morrone A. (Clin. Chim. Acta 2008) 3 23
  5. Effect of 'attenuated' mutations in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA on molecular phenotypes of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. (PMID: 17876718) MontaA+o A.M. … Tomatsu S. (J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2007) 3 23

Products for GALNS Gene

Sources for GALNS Gene