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Aliases for GALM Gene

Aliases for GALM Gene

  • Galactose Mutarotase (Aldose 1-Epimerase) 2 3 5
  • EC 5.1.3.3 4 63
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 63p 3
  • Galactose Enzyme Activator 3
  • Galactose Mutarotase 4
  • Aldose 1 Epimerase 2
  • Galactomutarotase 3
  • HEL-S-63p 3
  • BLOCK25 3
  • GLAT 3
  • IBD1 3

External Ids for GALM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALM Gene

  • GC02P038867
  • GC02P038787

Summaries for GALM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALM Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the epimerization of hexose sugars such as glucose and galactose. The encoded protein is expressed in the cytoplasm and has a preference for galactose. The encoded protein may be required for normal galactose metabolism by maintaining the equilibrium of alpha and beta anomers of galactose.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GALM Gene

GALM (Galactose Mutarotase (Aldose 1-Epimerase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Fructose metabolism and Galactose metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include carbohydrate binding and aldose 1-epimerase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALM Gene

  • Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GALM Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALM Gene

Genomics for GALM Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALM Gene

Enhancers for GALM Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GALM Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GALM Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
38,665,910 bp from pter
End:
38,741,237 bp from pter
Size:
75,328 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALM Gene

Genes around GALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALM Gene

Proteins for GALM Gene

  • Protein details for GALM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q96C23-GALM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Aldose 1-epimerase
    Protein Accession:
    Q96C23
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53RY1
    • Q8NIA2
    • V9HWA8

    Protein attributes for GALM Gene

    Size:
    342 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37766 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAL62475.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GALM Gene

neXtProt entry for GALM Gene

Proteomics data for GALM Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALM Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GALM Gene

Domains & Families for GALM Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q96C23

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALM_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the aldose epimerase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the aldose epimerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALM: view

No data available for Gene Families for GALM Gene

Function for GALM Gene

Molecular function for GALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Alpha-D-glucose = beta-D-glucose.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose (By similarity).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GALM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALM: view

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALM Gene

Localization for GALM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALM Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GALM Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALM gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 2
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view

Pathways & Interactions for GALM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALM: view

Pathways by source for GALM Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q96C23-GALM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IDA 12753898
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALM Gene

(1) Drugs for GALM Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Beta-D-Glucose Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GALM Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Alpha-D-Glucose
  • a-D-Glucopyranose
  • a-D-Glucose
  • a-Dextrose
  • a-Glucose
  • alpha-D-Glucopyranose
492-62-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALM: view

Transcripts for GALM Gene

Unigene Clusters for GALM Gene

Galactose mutarotase (aldose 1-epimerase):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALM Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for GALM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GALM
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GALM

Expression for GALM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x10.1), Kidney - Cortex (x4.3), and Liver (x4.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GALM Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALM Gene Hs.435012

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALM: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALM Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALM Gene

Orthologs for GALM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GALM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALM 35
  • 89.57 (n)
  • 90.06 (a)
GALM 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALM 35
  • 87.62 (n)
  • 91.23 (a)
GALM 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galm 35
  • 85.67 (n)
  • 87.13 (a)
Galm 16
Galm 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galm 35
  • 86.35 (n)
  • 88.89 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALM 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALM 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALM 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALM 35
  • 67.54 (n)
  • 69.3 (a)
GALM 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALM 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galm 35
  • 68.91 (n)
  • 71.05 (a)
Str.19129 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.18948 35
galm 35
  • 63.81 (n)
  • 62.13 (a)
galm 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004376 35
  • 54.22 (n)
  • 50.31 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10467 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
CG10996 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
CG32444 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
CG32445 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
CG4988 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C01B4.6 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Y19D10A.16 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
-- 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G17940 35
  • 54.79 (n)
  • 47.81 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.20067 35
Os10g0155500 35
  • 56.15 (n)
  • 48.75 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GALM:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GALM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GALM (if available)

Paralogs for GALM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for GALM Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALM: view

No data available for Paralogs for GALM Gene

Variants for GALM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs6741892 - 38,689,828(+) ATATA(A/T)ATGAC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1560524 -- 38,689,206(-) GGGGT(C/G)TAGTT intron-variant
rs3084494 -- 38,679,001(+) tattt(-/ATTT)tttga intron-variant
rs6747675 -- 38,694,026(+) cattt(C/T)tttga intron-variant
rs5830539 -- 38,678,982(+) ATAAC(-/TTTA)TTTAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv9646 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv873882 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv873883 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv213847 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2719950 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2667436 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv820974 CNV Duplication 20802225
nsv828975 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv828986 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv819664 CNV Loss 19587683
nsv828997 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv441752 CNV CNV 18776908
esv2421335 CNV Duplication 20811451
esv24300 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv518220 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv817751 CNV Gain 17921354
esv2667715 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for GALM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 48.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.73; 83.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GALM Gene

Disorders for GALM Gene

Relevant External Links for GALM

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GALM
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GALM
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GALM

No disorders were found for GALM Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALM Gene

Publications for GALM Gene

  1. Identification and characterisation of human aldose 1-epimerase. (PMID: 12753898) Timson D.J. … Reece R.J. (FEBS Lett. 2003) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Galactomutarotase and other galactose-related genes are rapidly induced by retinoic acid in human myeloid cells. (PMID: 18052213) Pai T. … Ross A.C. (Biochemistry 2007) 3 23
  3. Molecular structure of human galactose mutarotase. (PMID: 15026423) Thoden J.B. … Holden H.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 23
  4. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 3
  5. Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes. (PMID: 26344197) Wan C. … Emili A. (Nature 2015) 3

Products for GALM Gene

Sources for GALM Gene

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