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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

GAL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC11P068451

Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide

(Previous names: galanin, galanin prepropeptide)
(Previous symbol: GALN)
Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide1 2     GAL-GMAP2
GALN1 2 3 5     GMAP2
GLNN2 3 5     Galanin Peptides2
Galanin Prepropeptide1 2     Galanin-Related Peptide2
Galanin-Message-Associated Peptide1 2     GAL13
galanin1     

External Ids:    HGNC: 41141   Entrez Gene: 510832   Ensembl: ENSG000000694827   OMIM: 1370355   UniProtKB: P224663   

Export aliases for GAL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P070974 GC11P070148 GC11P068701 GC11P068227 GC11P068206 GC11P068208 GC11P064788


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for GAL Gene:
Galanin is small neuropeptide that functions as a cellular messenger within the central and peripheral nervous
systems, modulating diverse physiologic functions (Mechenthaler, 2008 (PubMed 18500643)).(supplied by OMIM, Jan
2009)

GeneCards Summary for GAL Gene: 
GAL (galanin/GMAP prepropeptide) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GAL include pain disorder, and normal pressure hydrocephalus, and among its related super-pathways are GPCR ligand binding and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
Function: Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone
release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

summary for GAL Gene:
Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three
different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly
expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of
the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal
tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of
glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal
motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes
and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral
conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include
Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GAL (Galanin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_167190.1  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GAL gene promoter:
         GR   p53   AP-1   ATF-2   CREB   deltaCREB   c-Jun   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGAL promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for GAL

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat GAL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q13.2

GAL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GAL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P068451:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
68,451,247 bp from pter      End:
68,458,643 bp from pter
Size:
7,397 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Galanin peptides precursor  
Size: 123 amino acids; 13302 Da
Subcellular location: Secreted
Secondary accessions: Q14413

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GAL: NX_P22466

Explore proteomics data for GAL at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P22466

  • GAL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    GAL Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_057057.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000265643  
    Reactome Protein details: P22466
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for GAL: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for GAL
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    Novus Biologicals GAL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals GAL Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for GAL
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for GAL 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for GAL 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IEA--
    GO:0030141secretory granule IEA--

    GAL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    GAL Antibody Products: 
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    R&D Systems Antibodies for GAL (Galanin)
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    Novus Biologicals GAL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for GAL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for GAL 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for GAL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for GAL 

    Assay Products for GAL: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for GAL
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for GAL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for GAL 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for GAL


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008174 Galanin
     IPR013068 GMAP
     IPR008175 Galanin_pre

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P22466

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P22466

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB008174 Galanin
    IPB013068 Galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
    Similarity: Belongs to the galanin family


    GAL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
    Function: Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone
    release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GAL:
    preprogalanin,including galanin and galanin message associated peptide,widely distributed in peripheral and
    central nervous system,eliciting numerous functions,including inhibition of neurotransmitter release,regulation
    of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake; also coexpressed with GALNR1 in ciliary epithelium

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005179hormone activity ----
    GO:0005184neuropeptide hormone activity NAS1722333
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    GAL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GAL:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Gal):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism 
     integument  nervous system  reproductive system 

    GAL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Galtm1Wyn for GAL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for GAL 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for GAL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for GAL 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GAL 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat GAL
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate GAL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidGAL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for GAL
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat GAL

    Gene Editing
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    Sirion Biotech Validated adenovirus to knockdown GAL (GAL1) in human, mouse 
                         Customized adenovirus for overexpression of GAL

    Clone
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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GAL
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat GAL
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of GAL 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GAL


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for GAL About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.46
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.55
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q
    Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q0.46
    4Selected targets of ESR1
    Selected targets of ESR1
    5Selected targets of CREB1
    Selected targets of CREB1

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    3 EMD Millipore Pathways for GAL
        Selected targets of CREB1
    Selected targets of ESR1
    Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q



    5/7        Reactome Pathways for GAL (see all 7)
        GPCR downstream signaling
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Signal Transduction
    Signaling by GPCR
    G alpha (i) signalling events



    GAL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for GAL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/146 Interacting proteins for GAL (P224662, 3 ENSP000002656434) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 146)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GALR2O436033, ENSP000003296844I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000329684
    GALR1P472113, ENSP000002997274I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000299727
    GPR151Q8TDV03, ENSP000003087334I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000308733
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/15 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006939smooth muscle contraction NAS--
    GO:0006950response to stress ----
    GO:0006954inflammatory response IEA--
    GO:0007218neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA--
    GO:0007399nervous system development IEA--

    GAL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    GAL for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for GAL available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    M617Selective GAL1 agonist[860790-38-1]
    Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist[114547-31-8]
    M40 Potent, non-selective galanin receptor antagonist [143896-17-7]
    M 1145Potent and selective GAL2 agonist[1172089-00-7]
    M871Selective GAL2 antagonist[908844-75-7]

    10/108 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAL gene (see all 108)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gal 1 92.8 185 9455920 (10), 10764829 (8), 19011096 (6), 19407817 (5) (see all 83)
    (h,g)-a-l 86.7 8 7686918 (1), 7534460 (1), 7539818 (1), 8930940 (1) (see all 7)
    galantide 84.2 21 18362840 (3), 17477304 (3), 7518053 (3), 11005758 (1) (see all 7)
    enterostatin 78.5 7 11732637 (1), 12612162 (1), 8221149 (1), 16149568 (1) (see all 7)
    galp 71.1 20 17604107 (2), 15099568 (2), 16787232 (2), 14988032 (2) (see all 9)
    helospectin 69.1 2 1335445 (1), 1605004 (1)
    pgal 61.4 1 9061507 (1)
    hexarelin 54.5 17 9854683 (6), 10754475 (1)
    pyridostigmine 52.4 47 9026681 (4), 1283383 (4), 10754475 (3), 1692988 (2) (see all 8)
    norepinephrine 51.3 101 11409758 (5), 15944024 (5), 12801593 (5), 9032095 (4) (see all 43)

    4 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GAL gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsCA  
    antidepressantsCA  
    benzodiazepine derivativesCA  
    mirtazapineCA  

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about GAL / GALA

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for GAL gene: 
    NM_015973.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GAL:

    Galanin/GMAP prepropeptide
    Hs.278959  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ888773
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000538401 ENST00000265643(uc001oob.3)

    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): GAL (NM_000153)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for GAL
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF077047.1 BC030241.1 M77140.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.108209  DT.91765148 

    24/77 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 77):

    BM129549 BE503279 AW590258 BF059503 BM794204 BM846531 NM_015973 AV745387 
    BM764546 AA760994 AI337122 M77140 BM740781 BG675116 BE672134 BM764944 
    BM841367 AV745443 AV745983 BU930913 BM745398 AL556409 BC030241 AV745385 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    GAL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      GAL embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    GAL Expression
    About this image


    GAL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/17 selected tissues (see all 17) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 23 entries
             Thalamus
             Brain Pericytes   
             Septum   
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 12 entries
             Line H7 (WA07)
             ESI-017   
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Atrioventricular Canal Cells Atrioventricular Canal
             Outflow Tract
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced 4D20.8 cells
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced 4D20.8 cells

    See GAL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for GAL

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.278959
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including GAL: 
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Neurotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat GAL
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for GAL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GAL gene from 4/10 species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gal1 , 5 galanin1, 5 75.34(n)1
    70.73(a)1
      19 (3.16 cM)5
    144191  NM_010253.31  NP_034383.11 
     34099175 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GAL1 galanin prepropeptide 63.27(n)
    62.04(a)
      423117  NM_001159678.1  NP_001153150.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GAL6
    --
    --
    48(a)
    34(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    1(75795625-75806633)
    GL343355.1(184367-187862)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1000063611 galanin-like 58.88(n)
    54.21(a)
      100006361  XM_001920300.2  XP_001920335.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GAL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/162 SNPs in GAL are shown (see all 162)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs9488541,2
    C,F,A,H--68450203(-) GAGGCA/GGAGGA 1 -- us2k113Minor allele frequency- G:0.30NA WA CSA EA 380
    rs1426927501,2
    --68450210(+) CCTCTC/TGGCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1160242951,2
    C,F--68450211(+) CTCTCG/AGCTGT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.09WA 118
    rs20970421,2
    C,F,A,H--68450314(-) ATTTCA/GGAGCC 1 -- us2k125Minor allele frequency- G:0.28NS EA NA WA CSA 2353
    rs1510088171,2
    C--68450316(+) CTCCGA/TAATCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs18936791,2
    C,F,O,A,H--68450330(-) TAGGAG/CTCACA 1 -- us2k118Minor allele frequency- C:0.43MN NS EA NA WA CSA 1150
    rs9488531,2
    F,A--68450567(-) TCTGGC/TGAAGG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00MN 184
    rs9488521,2
    C,F,A--68450573(-) AAGAAA/CTCTGG 1 -- us2k110Minor allele frequency- C:0.21MN WA NA CSA EA 554
    rs753501021,2
    F--68450846(+) GAGGGG/AAGGTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs1913120591,2
    C--68450885(+) CTCTTC/TGGAAG 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GAL (68451247 - 68458643 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for GAL:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv1211n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv897864CNV Loss21882294
    nsv832195CNV Loss17160897


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GAL
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GAL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GAL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 137035    OMIM disorders: --

    20/96 diseases for GAL (see all 96):    About MalaCards
    pain disorder    normal pressure hydrocephalus    hyperprolactinemia    mononeuropathy
    nervous system cancer    chronic pain    balanitis    alcohol abuse
    esophageal atresia    seasonal affective disorder    ganglioneuroma    acromegaly
    growth disorders    syncope    autonomic dysfunction    paraganglioma
    eating disorder    anorexia nervosa    hydrocephalus    alcoholism

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GAL:
    Alzheimer's disease     Hepatitis     Mononeuropathy

    GAL for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/77 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAL gene (see all 77)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    trophoblastic tumor 50.5 5 15221419 (2), 16607538 (1)
    alzheimers disease 41.5 63 7510783 (4), 9928179 (3), 11826038 (2), 14993421 (2) (see all 30)
    pituitary tumors 36.3 4 10098517 (2), 7694774 (1), 10199778 (1)
    acromegaly 34 22 18617732 (5), 7536207 (4), 7680832 (4), 7508379 (3) (see all 7)
    pituitary adenoma 30.3 9 10199778 (2), 11940053 (2), 14700749 (2), 1719117 (1) (see all 5)
    ganglioneuroma 28.7 3 1718239 (1), 11857022 (1), 11867941 (1)
    prolactinoma 27.5 2 10686432 (1), 9928158 (1)
    insulinoma 27.1 6 1699538 (2), 7536469 (1), 1370155 (1)
    neuroendocrine tumors 22.8 9 1718239 (4), 12966352 (1), 18288336 (1), 15944034 (1) (see all 6)
    small cell lung cancer 22.3 5 1314136 (1), 1711414 (1), 17906699 (1), 1705478 (1) (see all 5)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GAL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GAL (53 documents)

    Export disorders for GAL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for GAL gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 844):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GAL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genomic organization and localization of the gene encoding human preprogalanin. (PubMed id 7508413)1, 2, 3 Evans H.... Herzog H. (1993)
    2. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. (PubMed id 16314872)1, 4, 9 Belfer I....Enoch M.A. (2006)
    3. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. (PubMed id 15930442)1, 4, 9 Schauble N....Hinney A. (2005)
    4. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PubMed id 17083333)1, 4, 9 Belfer I....Enoch M.A. (2007)
    5. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. (PubMed id 17573119)1, 4, 9 Unschuld P.G....Keck M.E. (2008)
    6. Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells. (PubMed id 1370155)1, 2, 9 McKnight G.L.... Taborsky G.L. (1992)
    7. Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30- residue nonamidated neuropeptide. (PubMed id 1722333)1, 2, 9 Schmidt W.E.... Creutzfeldt W. (1991)
    8. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: do main-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PubMed id 20602615)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Wu A.H. (2010)
    9. Gender-specific association of galanin polymorphisms with HPA-axis dysregulation, symptom severity, and antidepressant treatment res ponse. (PubMed id 20237460)1, 4 Unschuld P.G....Binder E.B. (2010)
    10. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PubMed id 20468064)1, 4 Pinheiro A.P....Woodside D.B. (2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 51083 HGNC: 4114 AceView: GAL Ensembl:ENSG00000069482 euGenes: HUgn51083
    ECgene: GAL H-InvDB: GAL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GAL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for GAL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GAL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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