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GAL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC11P068451

Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide

(Previous names: galanin, galanin prepropeptide)
(Previous symbol: GALN)
  See GAL-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide1 2     GAL-GMAP2
GALN1 2 3 5     GMAP2
GLNN2 3 5     Galanin Peptides2
Galanin Prepropeptide1 2     Galanin-Related Peptide2
Galanin-Message-Associated Peptide1 2     GAL13
galanin1     

External Ids:    HGNC: 41141   Entrez Gene: 510832   Ensembl: ENSG000000694827   OMIM: 1370355   UniProtKB: P224663   

Export aliases for GAL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P070974 GC11P070148 GC11P068701 GC11P068227 GC11P068206 GC11P068208 GC11P064788


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for GAL Gene:
Galanin is small neuropeptide that functions as a cellular messenger within the central and peripheral nervous
systems, modulating diverse physiologic functions (Mechenthaler, 2008 (PubMed 18500643)).(supplied by OMIM, Jan
2009)

GeneCards Summary for GAL Gene:
GAL (galanin/GMAP prepropeptide) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with GAL include normal pressure hydrocephalus, and pain disorder. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
Function: Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone
release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

summary for GAL Gene:
Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three
different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly
expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of
the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal
tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of
glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal
motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes
and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral
conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include
Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GAL (Galanin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NT_167190.2  NC_018922.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the GAL gene promoter:
         GR   p53   AP-1   ATF-2   CREB   deltaCREB   c-Jun   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidGAL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for GAL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat GAL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q13.2

GAL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
GAL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P068451:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
68,451,247 bp from pter      End:
68,458,643 bp from pter
Size:
7,397 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Galanin peptides precursor  
Size: 123 amino acids; 13302 Da
Secondary accessions: Q14413

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for GAL: NX_P22466

Explore proteomics data for GAL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Thr35
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See GAL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_057057.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000265643  
    Reactome Protein details: P22466

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008174 Galanin
     IPR013068 GMAP
     IPR008175 Galanin_pre

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P22466

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P22466

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB008174 Galanin
    IPB013068 Galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
    Similarity: Belongs to the galanin family


    Find genes that share domains with GAL           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: GALA_HUMAN, P22466
    Function: Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone
    release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for GAL:
    preprogalanin,including galanin and galanin message associated peptide,widely distributed in peripheral and
    central nervous system,eliciting numerous functions,including inhibition of neurotransmitter release,regulation
    of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake; also coexpressed with GALNR1 in ciliary epithelium

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005179hormone activity ----
    GO:0005184neuropeptide hormone activity NAS1722333
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with GAL           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for GAL:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Gal):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     integument  nervous system  reproductive system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with GAL           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Galtm1Wyn for GAL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for GAL
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       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for GAL

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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for GAL
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    GALA_HUMAN, P22466: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus3
    cytoskeleton2
    golgi apparatus2
    plasma membrane2
    cytosol1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IEA--
    GO:0030141secretory granule IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GAL           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for GAL About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3Neuropeptides signaling through G protein alpha i and G protein alpha q
    Neuropeptides signaling through G protein alpha i and G protein alpha q0.46
    4Selected targets of ESR1
    Selected targets of ESR1
    5Selected targets of CREB1
    Selected targets of CREB1


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with GAL           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    2 Reactome Pathways for GAL
        Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    G alpha (i) signalling events


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GAL: 
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Neurotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for GAL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for GAL (P224661, 2, 3 ENSP000002656434) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 146)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GALR2O436031, 3, ENSP000003296844EBI-6624800,EBI-6624855 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000329684
    GALR1P472111, 3, ENSP000002997274EBI-6624800,EBI-6624741 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000299727
    GPR151Q8TDV03, ENSP000003087334I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000308733
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 14):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006939smooth muscle contraction ----
    GO:0006954inflammatory response IEA--
    GO:0007218neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA--
    GO:0007399nervous system development IEA--
    GO:0007631feeding behavior IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with GAL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for GAL available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    M617Selective GAL1 agonist[860790-38-1]
    Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist[114547-31-8]
    M40 Potent, non-selective galanin receptor antagonist [143896-17-7]
    M 1145Potent and selective GAL2 agonist[1172089-00-7]
    M871Selective GAL2 antagonist[908844-75-7]

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAL gene (see all 108)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gal 1 92.8 185 9455920 (10), 10764829 (8), 19011096 (6), 19407817 (5) (see all 83)
    (h,g)-a-l 86.7 8 7686918 (1), 7534460 (1), 7539818 (1), 8930940 (1) (see all 7)
    galantide 84.2 21 18362840 (3), 17477304 (3), 7518053 (3), 11005758 (1) (see all 7)
    enterostatin 78.5 7 11732637 (1), 12612162 (1), 8221149 (1), 16149568 (1) (see all 7)
    galp 71.1 20 17604107 (2), 15099568 (2), 16787232 (2), 14988032 (2) (see all 9)
    helospectin 69.1 2 1335445 (1), 1605004 (1)
    pgal 61.4 1 9061507 (1)
    hexarelin 54.5 17 9854683 (6), 10754475 (1)
    pyridostigmine 52.4 47 9026681 (4), 1283383 (4), 10754475 (3), 1692988 (2) (see all 8)
    norepinephrine 51.3 101 11409758 (5), 15944024 (5), 12801593 (5), 9032095 (4) (see all 43)

    4 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GAL gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsCA  
    antidepressantsCA  
    benzodiazepine derivativesCA  
    mirtazapineCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with GAL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for GAL gene: 
    NM_015973.3  

    Unigene Cluster for GAL:

    Galanin/GMAP prepropeptide
    Hs.278959  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ888773
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000538401 ENST00000265643(uc001oob.3)
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF077047.1 BC030241.1 M77140.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.108209  DT.91765148 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 77):

    BM129549 BE503279 BF059503 AW590258 BC030241 BM841367 AA760994 BM745398 
    BE672134 AV745385 AV745387 BM846531 AI337122 AV745443 BU930913 M77140 
    AV745983 BM794204 AL556409 BM764944 BG675116 BM764546 NM_015973 BM740781 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    GAL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    GAL Expression
    About this image


    GAL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             hIPS1
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Atrioventricular Canal Cells Atrioventricular Canal
             Outflow Tract
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced 4D20.8 cells
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced 4D20.8 cells
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells
    GAL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    GAL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.278959
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including GAL: 
              Obesity in human mouse rat
              Neurotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Embryonic Stem Cells in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for GAL gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Gal1 , 5 galanin1, 5 75.34(n)1
    70.73(a)1
      19 (3.16 cM)5
    144191  NM_010253.31  NP_034383.11 
     34099175 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves GAL6
    Gallus gallus galanin prepropeptide (GAL), transcr...
    50(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(15915784-15924615) ENSGALG00000007047
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia GAL6
    galanin/GMAP prepropeptide
    48(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(75795625-75806633)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii galn6
    galanin/GMAP prepropeptide
    42(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    25(10767417-10775864) ENSDARG00000091377


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for GAL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for GAL (see all 162)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs9488541,2
    C,F,A,H--68450203(-) GAGGCA/GGAGGA 1 -- us2k113Minor allele frequency- G:0.30NA WA CSA EA 380
    rs1426927501,2
    --68450210(+) CCTCTC/TGGCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1160242951,2
    C,F--68450211(+) CTCTCG/AGCTGT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.09WA 118
    rs20970421,2
    C,F,A,H--68450314(-) ATTTCA/GGAGCC 1 -- us2k125Minor allele frequency- G:0.28NS EA NA WA CSA 2353
    rs1510088171,2
    C--68450316(+) CTCCGA/TAATCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs18936791,2
    C,F,O,A,H--68450330(-) TAGGAG/CTCACA 1 -- us2k118Minor allele frequency- C:0.43MN NS EA NA WA CSA 1150
    rs9488531,2
    F,A--68450567(-) TCTGGC/TGAAGG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00MN 184
    rs9488521,2
    C,F,A--68450573(-) AAGAAA/CTCTGG 1 -- us2k110Minor allele frequency- C:0.21MN WA NA CSA EA 554
    rs753501021,2
    F--68450846(+) GAGGGG/AAGGTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs1913120591,2
    C--68450885(+) CTCTTC/TGGAAG 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for GAL (68451247 - 68458643 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for GAL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv1211n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv897864CNV Loss21882294
    nsv832195CNV Loss17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): GAL
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing GAL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for GAL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 137035    OMIM disorders: --

    10 diseases for GAL:    
    About MalaCards
    normal pressure hydrocephalus    pain disorder    mononeuropathy    hyperprolactinemia
    ganglioneuroma    chronic pain    seasonal affective disorder    acromegaly
    anorexia nervosa    narcolepsy

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for GAL:
    Alzheimer's disease     Hepatitis     Mononeuropathy

    Find genes that share disorders with GAL           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAL gene (see all 77)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    trophoblastic tumor 50.5 5 15221419 (2), 16607538 (1)
    alzheimers disease 41.5 63 7510783 (4), 9928179 (3), 11826038 (2), 14993421 (2) (see all 30)
    pituitary tumors 36.3 4 10098517 (2), 7694774 (1), 10199778 (1)
    acromegaly 34 22 18617732 (5), 7536207 (4), 7680832 (4), 7508379 (3) (see all 7)
    pituitary adenoma 30.3 9 10199778 (2), 11940053 (2), 14700749 (2), 1719117 (1) (see all 5)
    ganglioneuroma 28.7 3 1718239 (1), 11857022 (1), 11867941 (1)
    prolactinoma 27.5 2 10686432 (1), 9928158 (1)
    insulinoma 27.1 6 1699538 (2), 7536469 (1), 1370155 (1)
    neuroendocrine tumors 22.8 9 1718239 (4), 12966352 (1), 18288336 (1), 15944034 (1) (see all 6)
    small cell lung cancer 22.3 5 1314136 (1), 1711414 (1), 17906699 (1), 1705478 (1) (see all 5)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): GAL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: GAL (53 documents)

    Export disorders for GAL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for GAL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 845):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with GAL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genomic organization and localization of the gene encoding human preprogalanin. (PubMed id 7508413)1, 2, 3 Evans H.... Herzog H. (Genomics 1993)
    2. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. (PubMed id 16314872)1, 4, 9 Belfer I....Enoch M.A. (Mol. Psychiatry 2006)
    3. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. (PubMed id 15930442)1, 4, 9 SchAouble N....Hinney A. (J. Nutr. 2005)
    4. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PubMed id 17083333)1, 4, 9 Belfer I....Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007)
    5. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. (PubMed id 17573119)1, 4, 9 Unschuld P.G....Keck M.E. (J Affect Disord 2008)
    6. Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells. (PubMed id 1370155)1, 2, 9 McKnight G.L.... Taborsky G.L. (Diabetes 1992)
    7. Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30- residue nonamidated neuropeptide. (PubMed id 1722333)1, 2, 9 Schmidt W.E.... Creutzfeldt W. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991)
    8. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PubMed id 20602615)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Wu A.H. (Pharmacogenomics 2010)
    9. Gender-specific association of galanin polymorphisms with HPA-axis dysregulation, symptom severity, and antidepressant treatment response. (PubMed id 20237460)1, 4 Unschuld P.G....Binder E.B. (Neuropsychopharmacology 2010)
    10. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PubMed id 20468064)1, 4 Pinheiro A.P....Woodside D.B. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 51083 HGNC: 4114 AceView: GAL Ensembl:ENSG00000069482 euGenes: HUgn51083
    ECgene: GAL H-InvDB: GAL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for GAL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for GAL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving GAL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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