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Aliases for GAL Gene

Aliases for GAL Gene

  • Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide 2 3 2
  • GALN 3 4 6
  • GLNN 3 4 6
  • Galanin-Message-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Galanin Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Galanin-Related Peptide 3
  • Galanin Peptides 3
  • GAL-GMAP 3
  • Galanin 2
  • GMAP 3
  • GAL1 4

External Ids for GAL Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GAL Gene

  • GALN

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GAL Gene

  • GC11P070974
  • GC11P070148
  • GC11P068227
  • GC11P068206
  • GC11P068208
  • GC11P068451
  • GC11P064788

Summaries for GAL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAL Gene

  • Galanin is small neuropeptide that functions as a cellular messenger within the central and peripheral nervous systems, modulating diverse physiologic functions (Mechenthaler, 2008 [PubMed 18500643]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GAL Gene

GAL (Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAL include normal pressure hydrocephalus and pain disorder. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

  • Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

Tocris Summary for GAL Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified which are Gi/o-protein-coupled. They are highly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem. In addition, they are found in proliferating zones of the fetal and adult brain and in peripheral tissues including the pancreas, heart, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion, stimulation of growth hormone release and modulation of gastrointestinal motility. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes and feeding. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer.

Gene Wiki entry for GAL Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GAL Gene

Genomics for GAL Gene

Regulatory Elements for GAL Gene

Genomic Location for GAL Gene

68,683,779 bp from pter
68,691,175 bp from pter
7,397 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAL Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GAL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAL Gene

Proteins for GAL Gene

  • Protein details for GAL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin peptides
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14413

    Protein attributes for GAL Gene

    123 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13302 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GAL Gene

Proteomics data for GAL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GAL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr35
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GAL Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GAL Gene

Domains for GAL Gene

Gene Families for GAL Gene


Protein Domains for GAL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GAL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P22466
  • Belongs to the galanin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAL: view

Function for GAL Gene

Molecular function for GAL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: preprogalanin,including galanin and galanin message associated peptide,widely distributed in peripheral and central nervous system,eliciting numerous functions,including inhibition of neurotransmitter release,regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake; also coexpressed with GALNR1 in ciliary epithelium
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity --
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity NAS 1722333
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0031764 type 1 galanin receptor binding IDA 24517231
GO:0031765 type 2 galanin receptor binding IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAL: view

Animal Models for GAL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GAL:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GAL Gene

Localization for GAL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GAL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
golgi apparatus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 9402244
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0030141 secretory granule IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Pathways for GAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAL: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development IEA --
GO:0007631 feeding behavior IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Compounds for GAL Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for GAL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist [114547-31-8]
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist [119418-04-1]
M 1145 Potent and selective GAL2 agonist [1172089-00-7]
M617 Selective GAL1 agonist [860790-38-1]
M871 Selective GAL2 antagonist [908844-75-7]

(108) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GAL Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gal 1 92.8 136
(h,g)-a-l 86.7 7
galantide 84.2 13
enterostatin 78.5 7
galp 71.1 14

(4) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for GAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAL: view

Transcripts for GAL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GAL Gene

(77) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GAL Gene

Galanin/GMAP prepropeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GAL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GAL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GAL Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (40.5) and Brain - Hypothalamus (4.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GAL Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAL Gene Hs.278959

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GAL: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GAL Gene

Orthologs for GAL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GAL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAL 35
  • 98.64 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
GAL 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAL 35
  • 77.24 (n)
  • 74.8 (a)
GAL 36
  • 75 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAL 35
  • 71.57 (n)
  • 64.71 (a)
GAL 36
  • 65 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gal 35
  • 75.34 (n)
  • 70.73 (a)
Gal 16
Gal 36
  • 70 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 64 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 40 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gal 35
  • 76.15 (n)
  • 69.92 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GAL 36
  • 50 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GAL 36
  • 48 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galn 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GAL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GAL Gene

Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
Gene Tree for GAL (if available)

Paralogs for GAL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GAL Gene

Variants for GAL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GAL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs631097 -- 68,686,639(+) AGAGC(C/T)GCCTG intron-variant
rs694066 -- 68,685,517(+) ATGCC(A/G)GGAAA intron-variant
rs948852 -- 68,683,105(-) AAGAA(A/C)TCTGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs948853 -- 68,683,099(-) TCTGG(C/T)GAAGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs948854 -- 68,682,735(-) GAGGC(A/G)GAGGA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832195 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv897864 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1211n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GAL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Disorders for GAL Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GAL Gene

(77) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GAL Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
trophoblastic tumor 50.5 3
alzheimers disease 41.5 41
pituitary tumors 36.3 4
acromegaly 34 21
pituitary adenoma 30.3 8

Relevant External Links for GAL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Publications for GAL Gene

  1. Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells. (PMID: 1370155) McKnight G.L. … Taborsky G.L. (Diabetes 1992) 3 4 23
  2. Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30- residue nonamidated neuropeptide. (PMID: 1722333) Schmidt W.E. … Creutzfeldt W. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 3 4 23
  3. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. (PMID: 16314872) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Mol. Psychiatry 2006) 3 23 48
  4. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 23 48
  5. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. (PMID: 17573119) Unschuld P.G. … Keck M.E. (J Affect Disord 2008) 3 23 48

Products for GAL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GAL

Sources for GAL Gene

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