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Aliases for GAL Gene

Aliases for GAL Gene

  • Galanin And GMAP Prepropeptide 2
  • Galanin-Message-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide 3 5
  • GALN 3 4
  • GLNN 3 4
  • Galanin-Related Peptide 3
  • Galanin Prepropeptide 3
  • GAL-GMAP 3
  • Galanin 2
  • ETL8 3
  • GMAP 3
  • GAL1 4

External Ids for GAL Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GAL Gene

  • GALN

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GAL Gene

  • GC11P070974
  • GC11P070148
  • GC11P068227
  • GC11P068206
  • GC11P068208
  • GC11P068451
  • GC11P064788

Summaries for GAL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAL Gene

  • This gene encodes a neuroendocrine peptide that is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and also the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, adrenal gland and urogenital tract. The encoded protein is a precursor that is proteolytically processed to generate two mature peptides: galanin and galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP). Galanin has diverse physiological functions including nociception, feeding and energy homeostasis, osmotic regulation and water balance. GMAP has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity and hypothesized to be part of the innate immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GAL Gene

GAL (Galanin And GMAP Prepropeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAL include epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 and gastroenteritis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and type 2 galanin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

  • Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.

Tocris Summary for GAL Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GAL Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GAL Gene

Genomics for GAL Gene

Regulatory Elements for GAL Gene

Promoters for GAL Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GAL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GAL Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
68,683,779 bp from pter
End:
68,691,175 bp from pter
Size:
7,397 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAL Gene

Genes around GAL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GAL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GAL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAL Gene

Proteins for GAL Gene

  • Protein details for GAL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P22466-GALA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galanin peptides
    Protein Accession:
    P22466
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14413

    Protein attributes for GAL Gene

    Size:
    123 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13302 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GAL Gene

Proteomics data for GAL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GAL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr 35
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GAL Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GAL Gene

Domains & Families for GAL Gene

Gene Families for GAL Gene

Protein Domains for GAL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GAL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P22466

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALA_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the galanin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the galanin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAL: view

Function for GAL Gene

Molecular function for GAL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
preprogalanin,including galanin and galanin message associated peptide,widely distributed in peripheral and central nervous system,eliciting numerous functions,including inhibition of neurotransmitter release,regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake; also coexpressed with GALNR1 in ciliary epithelium
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAL: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GAL Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GAL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GAL:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GAL Gene

Localization for GAL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GAL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 3
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0030141 secretory granule IEA,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Pathways & Interactions for GAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GAL Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development IEA --
GO:0010737 protein kinase A signaling IDA 17982695
GO:0019933 cAMP-mediated signaling IDA 17982695
GO:0031943 regulation of glucocorticoid metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Drugs & Compounds for GAL Gene

(63) Drugs for GAL Gene - From: Novoseek, Tocris, and PharmGKB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mirtazapine Approved Pharma 78
antidepressants Pharma 0
benzodiazepine derivatives Pharma 0
opioids Pharma 0
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Pharma 0

(55) Additional Compounds for GAL Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat)
112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse)
114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human)
119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat)
141696-11-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAL: view

Transcripts for GAL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GAL Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(77) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GAL Gene

Galanin/GMAP prepropeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GAL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GAL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GAL

Expression for GAL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GAL Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x40.5) and Brain - Hypothalamus (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Rectum (34.4), Prostate (16.5), and Colon (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GAL Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAL Gene Hs.278959

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GAL: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GAL Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GAL Gene

Orthologs for GAL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GAL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
GAL 35
  • 98.64 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAL 35
  • 77.24 (n)
  • 74.8 (a)
GAL 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
GAL 35
  • 71.57 (n)
  • 64.71 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gal 16
Gal 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
Gal 35
  • 75.34 (n)
  • 70.73 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GAL 36
  • 40 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gal 35
  • 76.15 (n)
  • 69.92 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GAL 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GAL 36
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galn 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GAL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GAL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GAL (if available)

Paralogs for GAL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GAL Gene

Variants for GAL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GAL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs34725707 - 68,684,970(+) CGCCG(C/T)GGCCC reference, missense
VAR_074671 Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8)
rs2097042 -- 68,682,846(-) ATTTC(A/G)GAGCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs1893679 -- 68,682,862(-) TAGGA(C/G)TCACA upstream-variant-2KB
rs2513279 -- 68,686,698(+) CTCTG(C/T)GCGGC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832195 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv897864 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1211n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GAL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.10; 38.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GAL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GAL
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GAL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Disorders for GAL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for GAL Gene - From: OMIM, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8
  • etl8
gastroenteritis
  • cholera morbus
hyperprolactinemia
  • chiari-frommel syndrome
brachial plexus lesion
  • brachial plexus lesions
constipation
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GAL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

GALA_HUMAN
  • Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8) [MIM:616461]: A focal form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe. Seizures are usually accompanied by sensory symptoms, most often auditory in nature. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:25691535}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for GAL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GAL
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GAL
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GAL
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAL: view

No data available for Genatlas for GAL Gene

Publications for GAL Gene

  1. Genomic organization and localization of the gene encoding human preprogalanin. (PMID: 7508413) Evans H. … Herzog H. (Genomics 1993) 2 3 4 67
  2. Galanin fiber hyperinnervation preserves neuroprotective gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 19749437) Counts S.E. … Mufson E.J. (J. Alzheimers Dis. 2009) 3 23
  3. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. (PMID: 17573119) Unschuld P.G. … Keck M.E. (J Affect Disord 2008) 3 23
  4. Galanin stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through the activation of galanin receptor subtype 1 coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade. (PMID: 17982695) Belloni A.S. … Nussdorfer G.G. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2007) 3 23
  5. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. (PMID: 16314872) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Mol. Psychiatry 2006) 3 23

Products for GAL Gene

Sources for GAL Gene

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