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Aliases for FST Gene

Aliases for FST Gene

  • Follistatin 2 3 3 5
  • Activin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • FS 3 4
  • Follistatin Isoform FST317 3

External Ids for FST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FST Gene

  • GC05P052940
  • GC05P054206
  • GC05P052746
  • GC05P052792
  • GC05P052812
  • GC05P049748
  • GC05P052776

Summaries for FST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FST Gene

  • Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. The single FST gene encodes two isoforms, FST317 and FST344 containing 317 and 344 amino acids respectively, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. In a study in which 37 candidate genes were tested for linkage and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hyperandrogenemia in 150 families, evidence was found for linkage between PCOS and follistatin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for FST Gene

FST (Follistatin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FST include Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Oocyte Maturation Defect 1. Among its related pathways are Signaling by NODAL and TGF-beta Receptor Signaling (WikiPathways). GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and activin binding. An important paralog of this gene is FSTL3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

  • Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

Gene Wiki entry for FST Gene

Additional gene information for FST Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FST Gene

Genomics for FST Gene

Regulatory Elements for FST Gene

Enhancers for FST Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05H053417 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -58.2 -58162 10.3 TBP PKNOX1 FOXA2 BATF BRCA1 ZBTB40 RAD21 RFX5 YY1 GATA2 FST LOC257396 RPS19P4
GH05H054215 1.4 ENCODE 11.4 +735.2 735245 0.2 ZBTB33 ARL15 FST GC05M054128 ENSG00000279638
GH05H053429 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -50.0 -50030 2.2 CTCF FOXA2 BACH1 ZNF384 ZNF644 RAD21 YY1 TEAD3 GATA3 ZNF316 FST RPS19P4
GH05H053330 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.7 -147.1 -147141 6.4 CTCF FOXA2 CEBPB RAD21 NR2F2 FOXA1 JUND POLR2A SMC3 HNF4A FST LOC257396 ITGA2 LOC105378965 GC05M053350
GH05H053431 0.6 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -48.6 -48642 0.6 MAFK FST RPS19P4
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around FST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for FST Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000180494 459 4801 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143

Genomic Locations for FST Gene

Genomic Locations for FST Gene
6,794 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for FST Gene

Genes around FST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FST Gene

Proteins for FST Gene

  • Protein details for FST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BU94
    • Q9BTH0

    Protein attributes for FST Gene

    344 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38007 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for FST Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for FST Gene


neXtProt entry for FST Gene

Post-translational modifications for FST Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=124124 and posLast=288288
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FST Gene

Domains & Families for FST Gene

Gene Families for FST Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for FST Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Function for FST Gene

Molecular function for FST Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
follistatin,an acitivin-binding protein,expressed in numerous tissues,including the ovary,pituitary,adrenal cortex and pancreas,neutralizing the biological acitivity of activin in vivo and in vitro,plausible candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

LifeMap Function Summary for FST Gene

During embryonic development, FST as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity NAS 12702211
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16198295
GO:0043395 heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA --
GO:0048185 activin binding IPI 12697670
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FST: view

Animal Models for FST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FST:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for FST Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target FST

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FST Gene

Localization for FST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for FST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for FST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FST: view

Pathways by source for FST Gene

1 KEGG pathway for FST Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for FST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA 12702211
GO:0002244 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IDA 15451575
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0032926 negative regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway IDA 11948405
GO:0051798 positive regulation of hair follicle development IDA 12514121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FST Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FST Gene

(27) Drugs for FST Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
D-Myo-Inositol-Hexasulphate Experimental Pharma Target 0

(19) Additional Compounds for FST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FST: view

Transcripts for FST Gene

Unigene Clusters for FST Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FST Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for FST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (34.5) and Prostate (30.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for FST Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for FST Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FST Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FST Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FST Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is the predominant isoform in serum but is undetectable in follicular fluid.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FST Gene

  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FST: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FST Gene

Orthologs for FST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for FST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FST 33 34
  • 99.42 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FST 34
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FST 33 34
  • 92.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FST 33 34
  • 92.34 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FST 34
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fst 33 16 34
  • 91.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fst 33
  • 90.99 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FST 33 34
  • 83.87 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FST 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia fst 33
  • 77.18 (n)
Str.10666 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1094 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fsta 33 34
  • 73.29 (n)
fstb 34
  • 67 (a)
fst 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006282 33
  • 48.28 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fs 34
  • 16 (a)
Species where no ortholog for FST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FST Gene

Gene Tree for FST (if available)
Gene Tree for FST (if available)

Paralogs for FST Gene

Paralogs for FST Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for FST Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FST: view

Variants for FST Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FST Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000150126 -- 53,485,305(+) AGCAC(A/G)CAGAT intron-variant
rs1000552658 -- 53,487,245(+) GGGCA(A/G)TACAG downstream-variant-500B
rs1000875144 -- 53,486,832(+) ACACA(C/T)TCAAC downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1001673381 -- 53,481,756(+) GAAGT(C/T)TTCTC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1002057780 -- 53,482,531(+) TAAAA(A/G)TAAAC intron-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv328038 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv1119032 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv5666n100 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for FST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.27; 25.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for FST Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Disorders for FST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for FST Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
polycystic ovary syndrome
  • multicystic ovaries
oocyte maturation defect 1
  • oocyte maturation defect
spinal muscular atrophy-4
  • adult spinal muscular atrophy
  • brachyrachia
ovarian mucinous neoplasm
  • malignant ovarian mucinous neoplasm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for FST

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FST Gene

Publications for FST Gene

  1. Differential distribution of follistatin isoforms: application of a new FS315-specific immunoassay. (PMID: 15472207) Schneyer AL … Sluss PM (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004) 3 4 22 60
  2. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization. (PMID: 3380788) Shimasaki S … Guillemin R (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988) 2 3 4 60
  3. Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot". (PMID: 20628624) Johnatty SE … Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) (PLoS genetics 2010) 3 45 60
  4. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PMID: 20634891) Jugessur A … Murray JC (PloS one 2010) 3 45 60
  5. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 45 60

Products for FST Gene

Sources for FST Gene

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