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FOLH1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC11M049168

Folate Hydrolase (Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen) 1


(Previous symbol: FOLH)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Folate Hydrolase (Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen) 11 2     NAALAD12 3
FOLH1 2 3 5     mGCP2 3
Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II1 2 3     N-Acetylated-Alpha-Linked Acidic Dipeptidase I2 3
PSM2 3 5     NAALADase I2 3
PSMA2 3 5     EC 3.4.17.213 8
Glutamate Carboxylase II1 2     GCP22
Cell Growth-Inhibiting Gene 27 Protein2 3     NAALAdase2
Folylpoly-Gamma-Glutamate Carboxypeptidase2 3     Glutamate Carboxypeptidase 22
Membrane Glutamate Carboxypeptidase2 3     N-Acetylated Alpha-Linked Acidic Dipeptidase 12
Pteroylpoly-Gamma-Glutamate Carboxypeptidase2 3     Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Variant F2
FGCP2 3     Folate Hydrolase 13
GCPII2 3     Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen3

External Ids:    HGNC: 37881   Entrez Gene: 23462   Ensembl: ENSG000000862057   OMIM: 6009345   UniProtKB: Q046093   

Export aliases for FOLH1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11M051274 GC11M050361 GC11M049199 GC11M049132 GC11M049124 GC11M048888


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for FOLH1 Gene:
This gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the M28 peptidase family. The protein acts as
a glutamate carboxypeptidase on different alternative substrates, including the nutrient folate and the
neuropeptide N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate and is expressed in a number of tissues such as prostate, central
and peripheral nervous system and kidney. A mutation in this gene may be associated with impaired intestinal
absorption of dietary folates, resulting in low blood folate levels and consequent hyperhomocysteinemia.
Expression of this protein in the brain may be involved in a number of pathological conditions associated with
glutamate excitotoxicity. In the prostate the protein is up-regulated in cancerous cells and is used as an
effective diagnostic and prognostic indicator of prostate cancer. This gene likely arose from a duplication event
of a nearby chromosomal region. Alternative splicing gives rise to multiple transcript variants encoding several
different isoforms. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010)

GeneCards Summary for FOLH1 Gene:
FOLH1 (folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with FOLH1 include prostatitis, and hyperhomocysteinemia. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and carboxypeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is NAALADL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609
Function: Has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) activity. Has a
preference for tri-alpha-glutamate peptides. In the intestine, required for the uptake of folate. In the brain,
modulates excitatory neurotransmission through the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide, N-aceylaspartylglutamate
(NAAG), thereby releasing glutamate. Isoform PSM-4 and isoform PSM-5 would appear to be physiologically
irrelevant. Involved in prostate tumor progression
Function: Also exhibits a dipeptidyl-peptidase IV type activity. In vitro, cleaves Gly-Pro-AMC

Gene Wiki entry for FOLH1 (Glutamate carboxypeptidase II) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000011.10  NT_009237.19  NC_018922.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the FOLH1 gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AML1a   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidFOLH1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for FOLH1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat FOLH1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11p11.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11p11.12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11p11.2

FOLH1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
FOLH1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11M049168:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
49,168,187 bp from pter      End:
49,230,222 bp from pter
Size:
62,036 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2  
Size: 750 amino acids; 84331 Da
Cofactor: Binds 2 zinc ions per subunit. Required for NAALADase activity
Subunit: Homodimer
Miscellaneous: PSMA is used as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator of prostate cancer, and as a possible marker
for various neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAF31167.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for FOLH1 (see all 29):
1Z8L (3D)        2C6C (3D)        2C6G (3D)        2C6P (3D)        2CIJ (3D)        2JBJ (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A4UU12 A9CB79 B7Z312 B7Z343 D3DQS5 E9PDX8 O43748 Q16305 Q541A4 Q8TAY3
Q9NP15 Q9NYE2 Q9P1P8
Alternative splicing: 8 isoforms:  Q04609-1   Q04609-3   Q04609-4   Q04609-6   Q04609-7   Q04609-8   Q04609-9   Q04609-10   
(No experimental confirmation available. Incomplete sequence)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for FOLH1: NX_Q04609

Explore proteomics data for FOLH1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The first two amino acids at the N-terminus of isoform PSMA' appear to be cleaved by limited proteolysis1
  • The N-terminus is blocked1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn76, Asn121, Asn140, Asn153, Asn195, Asn336, Asn459, Asn476, Asn638
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for FOLH1 (Q04609) (see all 6)
     SFDSLFSAV  ILYSDPADYF  LERAFIDPLGLP  EPDRYVILGGHRD 


    See FOLH1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001014986.1  NP_001180400.1  NP_001180401.1  NP_001180402.1  NP_004467.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000256999   ENSP00000349129   ENSP00000434928   ENSP00000344131   ENSP00000431463  
     ENSP00000436569   ENSP00000431577   ENSP00000431263   ENSP00000344086  

    FOLH1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals FOLH1 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for FOLH1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for FOLH1
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for FOLH1
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1
    Metallocarboxypeptidases

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR007365 TFR-like_dimer_dom
     IPR007484 Peptidase_M28
     IPR003137 Protease-assoc_domain

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q04609

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q04609

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB003137 Protease-associated PA
    IPB007365 Transferrin receptor-like dimerisation domain
    IPB007484 Peptidase family M28


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609
    Domain: The NAALADase activity is found in the central region, the dipeptidyl peptidase IV type activity in the
    C-terminal
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase M28 family. M28B subfamily


    FOLH1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609
    Function: Has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) activity. Has a
    preference for tri-alpha-glutamate peptides. In the intestine, required for the uptake of folate. In the brain,
    modulates excitatory neurotransmission through the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide, N-aceylaspartylglutamate
    (NAAG), thereby releasing glutamate. Isoform PSM-4 and isoform PSM-5 would appear to be physiologically
    irrelevant. Involved in prostate tumor progression
    Function: Also exhibits a dipeptidyl-peptidase IV type activity. In vitro, cleaves Gly-Pro-AMC
    Catalytic activity: Release of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from Ac-Asp-Glu or
    folylpoly-gamma-glutamates
    Enzyme regulation: The NAALADase activity is inhibited by beta-NAAG, quisqualic acid, 2-(phosphonomethyl)
    pentanedioic acid (PMPA) and EDTA. Activated by cobalt
    Biophysicochemical properties: pH dependence: Stable at pH greater than 6.5;
    Induction: In the prostate, up-regulated in response to androgen deprivation

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.17.211 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004180carboxypeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0008233peptidase activity NAS9375657
    GO:0008237metallopeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0016805dipeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    FOLH1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Folh1):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  homeostasis/metabolism  nervous system 

    FOLH1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Folh1tm1Nle for FOLH1

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for FOLH1
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for FOLH1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for FOLH1

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target FOLH1:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029538)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat FOLH1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate FOLH1
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidFOLH1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for FOLH1
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for FOLH1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609: Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein
    FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609: Isoform PSMA': Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    nucleus4
    cytosol3
    extracellular2
    cytoskeleton1
    endosome1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane NAS9375657
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

    FOLH1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for FOLH1 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1One carbon pool by folate
    One Carbon Metabolism0.53
    2Vitamin digestion and absorption
    Vitamin digestion and absorption
    3Glutamic acid signaling
    Synaptic Neurotransmission: Glutamatergic Excitation0.00

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for FOLH1
        Synaptic Neurotransmission: Glutamatergic Excitation


    1 BioSystems Pathway for FOLH1
        One Carbon Metabolism



    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for FOLH1):
        Vitamin digestion and absorption


    FOLH1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for FOLH1
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for FOLH1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 21)

    Selected Interacting proteins for FOLH1 (Q046092, 3 ENSP000002569994) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 22)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MMEP084733, ENSP000003536794I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000353679
    UBBENSP000003046974STRING: ENSP00000304697
    UBCENSP000003448184STRING: ENSP00000344818
    MAD2L1ENSP000002965094STRING: ENSP00000296509
    MTAPENSP000003695194STRING: ENSP00000369519
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis NAS9375657
    GO:0006760folic acid-containing compound metabolic process IEA--

    FOLH1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
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      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for FOLH1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    PMPA (NAALADase inhibitor)GCP II inhibitor[173039-10-6]

    2 HMDB Compounds for FOLH1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CobaltCo (see all 6)7440-48-4--
    L-Glutamic acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate (see all 49)56-86-0--

    4 DrugBank Compounds for FOLH1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    CapromabCapromab pendetide (see all 3)145464-28-4targetother/unknown11752352 9508077 11016653 9792131 15882479
    L-Glutamic Acid(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid (see all 15)56-86-0target--15837926 15336276 17139284 17016423 11916141
    (2S)-2-{[HYDROXY(4-IODOBENZYL)PHOSPHORYL]METHYL}PENTANEDIOIC ACID-- --target--10592235
    N-({(1R)-1-carboxy-2-[(4-fluorobenzyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)-L-glutamic acid-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for FOLH1 gene (see all 41)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    naag 93.7 109 7575102 (6), 10991955 (5), 12213057 (4), 12358725 (4) (see all 41)
    n-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate 93.3 48 17150306 (2), 10861758 (2), 9622670 (2), 11102961 (2) (see all 27)
    prostascint 90.3 18 9397201 (3), 15882479 (1), 15225091 (1), 9792131 (1) (see all 10)
    pmsa 72.1 3 11432343 (1), 11170145 (1), 12750292 (1)
    glutamate 65.8 277 7575102 (6), 11905994 (5), 12826236 (5), 12213057 (4) (see all 93)
    l-serine o-sulfate 65.4 2 17567119 (1)
    folate 64.6 150 19830782 (7), 18974153 (5), 11210180 (3), 12949938 (3) (see all 39)
    pmpa 64.6 5 19706750 (2), 12213057 (1)
    n-acetylaspartate 62.3 36 7575102 (2), 9376025 (2), 12826236 (2), 9882712 (1) (see all 16)
    lutetium 53.9 1 16729907 (1)



    FOLH1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for FOLH1 gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001014986.1  NM_001193471.1  NM_001193472.1  NM_001193473.1  NM_004476.1  

    Unigene Cluster for FOLH1:

    Folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1
    Hs.654487  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001193471
    14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000458311(uc001ngx.3) ENST00000256999(uc001ngy.3 uc001ngz.3 uc009yma.3)
    ENST00000356696 ENST00000525826 ENST00000340334(uc009yly.3 uc009ylz.3 uc001nha.3)
    ENST00000533034 ENST00000532018 ENST00000525629 ENST00000526226 ENST00000529646
    ENST00000533510 ENST00000529117 ENST00000529648 ENST00000343844
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat FOLH1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB231784.1 AF176574.1 AF254357.1 AF254358.1 AJ007318.1 AK295368.1 AK295470.1 AK300532.1 
    AK312366.1 AY101595.1 BC025672.1 BC108719.1 DQ088979.1 EF488811.2 EF488812.1 M99487.1 
    S76978.1 

    12 DOTS entries:

    DT.443715  DT.100758065  DT.120728868  DT.120698266  DT.100758067  DT.120728886  DT.120728878  DT.120728891 
    DT.120728892  DT.40106202  DT.87078118  DT.91946447 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 89):

    AF176574 CB216928 CF146716 AI478207 BF438644 CF147222 AF254357 BX643466 
    CA489536 BX281833 M99487 AW000926 CR619031 NM_004476 AY101595 AJ007318 
    BC025672 AL563971 N52932 CF145338 N62491 N48056 BQ712351 AI672408 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FOLH1 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9
    SP1:                                -     -     -     -     -                             -                     
    SP2:                                -     -     -           -                                                   
    SP3:                                -     -     -     -     -           -     -           -                     
    SP4:                                -     -     -     -                                                         
    SP5:                                -                 -     -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for FOLH1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    FOLH1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCATCTATGC
    FOLH1 Expression
    About this image


    FOLH1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Visceral White Adipocytes Visceral White Adipose
             Visceral White Adipose
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Mature Mesothelial Cells Hepatic Mesenchyme
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
     
     Spleen (Hematopoietic System)
     
     Prostate (Endocrine System)
    FOLH1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    FOLH1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.654487

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in prostate epithelium. Detected in urinary bladder, kidney, testis, ovary,
    fallopian tube, breast, adrenal gland, liver, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and brain (at protein
    level). Detected in the small intestine, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, colon, trachea, spinal cord and the
    capillary endothelium of a variety of tumors. Expressed specifically in jejunum brush border membranes. In the
    brain, highly expressed in the ventral striatum and brain stem. Also expressed in fetal liver and kidney. Isoform
    PSMA' is the most abundant form in normal prostate. Isoform PSMA-1 is the most abundant form in primary prostate
    tumors. Isoform PSMA-2 is also found in normal prostate as well as in brain and liver. Isoform PSMA-9 is
    specifically expressed in prostate cancer

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for FOLH1 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Folh15 folate hydrolase   --   7 (48.51 cM) 86719352 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves FOLH16
    folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antig...
    74(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(186845641-186876181) ENSGALG00000017234
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia FOLH16
    folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antig...
    72(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(198775103-198822428)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.87392 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 75.41(n)    141999532 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc564292 similar to folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane more 73.83(n)   393247  BC049312.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C35C5.23   -- 32(a)   X(11573200-11580288)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes VPS706
    Protein of unknown function involved in vacuolar p...
    22(a)
    1 → many
    X(656254-658689) YJR126C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for FOLH1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for FOLH1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for FOLH1 gene
    NAALADL12  NAALADL22  TFRC2  TFR22  NAALAD22  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for FOLH1 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     FOLH1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    FOLH1B    NAALAD2    NAALADL1    TFR2

    FOLH1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for FOLH1 (see all 6)
    PGOHUM00000242409 PGOHUM00000242694 PGOHUM00000258597 PGOHUM00000258599 PGOHUM00000242852


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    FOLH1_HUMAN, Q04609: Genetic variation in FOLH1 may be associated with low folate levels and consequent
    hyperhomocysteinemia. This condition can result in increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects,
    and cognitive deficits


    Selected SNPs for FOLH1 (see all 1505)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0363984
    A colorectal cancer sample4--see VAR_0363982 A T mis40--------
    rs123633921,2
    C--48948948(-) TCTGTT/CACCAG 5 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- C:0.20NA WA EA 364
    rs1913308501,2
    --48949208(-) CCCTCA/GAAATA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1442665661,2
    --48949244(-) ACACAC/GTTTAT 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs787552491,2
    C--48949261(-) TCTCAT/CGGATT 5 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.23NA 122
    rs1865544691,2
    --48949297(-) GCTTCA/CATAAA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs122815831,2
    C--48949450(-) TCTCCT/CTTTCT 5 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.19NA 122
    rs110186921,2
    C--48949528(-) TTTGCG/TCAGAA 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs110186911,2
    C--48949563(-) CATTGC/TTGACA 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs1456283431,2
    --48949564(-) TCATTG/TCTGAC 5 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for FOLH1 (49168187 - 49230222 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for FOLH1 (see all 11):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2744485CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2666171CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv525454CNV Loss19592680
    nsv469956CNV Gain18288195
    nsv518571CNV Gain19592680
    nsv467874CNV Gain19166990
    nsv832145CNV Gain17160897
    essv23230CNV CNV17122850
    esv542CNV CNV17122850
    essv4365CNV CNV17122850

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): FOLH1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing FOLH1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for FOLH1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 600934    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for FOLH1 (see all 47):    
    About MalaCards
    prostatitis    hyperhomocysteinemia    canavan disease    prostate small cell carcinoma
    prostate disease    prostate adenocarcinoma    progressive muscular atrophy    small cell carcinoma
    renal clear cell carcinoma    prostate cancer    phenylketonuria    neural tube defects
    neuroendocrine carcinoma    huntington's disease    spina bifida    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    endometrial adenocarcinoma    lateral sclerosis    hypogonadism    abdominal aortic aneurysm

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for FOLH1:
    Prostate cancer

    FOLH1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for FOLH1 gene (see all 42)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prostate cancer 89 647 15705868 (6), 9508077 (5), 12949815 (5), 18297820 (4) (see all 99)
    prostate carcinoma 76 82 10640975 (5), 9111600 (5), 15733392 (5), 7669565 (3) (see all 34)
    prostatic adenocarcinoma 70.8 27 9763084 (2), 17448023 (2), 7497608 (2), 9815541 (1) (see all 16)
    recurrent prostate cancer 64.2 4 14571413 (1), 19619001 (1), 10579800 (1)
    benign prostatic hyperplasia 59.2 18 9537248 (1), 19084862 (1), 17929272 (1), 7511053 (1) (see all 13)
    tumors 58.8 200 9815541 (4), 7882349 (3), 12679407 (3), 12712410 (3) (see all 99)
    cancer 55.1 84 9763084 (4), 14583590 (3), 9112573 (3), 9192800 (2) (see all 45)
    metastasis 52.5 48 9763084 (4), 17320151 (2), 19343734 (2), 19716160 (2) (see all 30)
    solid tumor 47.2 44 17290063 (3), 15800947 (2), 14610416 (2), 16713605 (2) (see all 20)
    prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia 43.7 5 15168332 (2), 9610707 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): FOLH1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: FOLH1 (40 documents)

    Export disorders for FOLH1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for FOLH1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 522):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with FOLH1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Mapping, genomic organization and promoter analysis of the human prostate-specific membrane antigen gene. (PubMed id 9838072)1, 2, 3, 9 O'Keefe D.S.... Heston W.D.W. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998)
    2. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II: a polymorphism associated with lower levels of serum folate and hyperhomocysteinemia. (PubMed id 11092759)1, 2, 4, 9 Devlin A.M.... Halsted C.H. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2000)
    3. Alternatively spliced variants of prostate-specific membrane antigen RNA: ratio of expression as a potential measurement of progression. (PubMed id 7882349)1, 2, 9 Su S.L.... Heston W.D.W. (Cancer Res. 1995)
    4. Expression of glutamate carboxypeptidase II in human brain. (PubMed id 17150306)1, 2, 9 Sacha P.... Konvalinka J. (Neuroscience 2007)
    5. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) versus a prostate-specific membrane antigen-like gene. (PubMed id 14716746)1, 2, 9 O'Keefe D.S.... Heston W.D.W. (Prostate 2004)
    6. Structural basis of interactions between human glutamate carboxypeptidase II and its substrate analogs. (PubMed id 18234225)1, 2, 9 Barinka C.... Lubkowski J. (J. Mol. Biol. 2008)
    7. Identification of the N-glycosylation sites on glutamate carboxypeptidase II necessary for proteolytic activity. (PubMed id 15152093)1, 2, 9 Barinka C....Konvalinka J. (Protein Sci. 2004)
    8. Identification, purification, and subcellular localization of prostate-specific membrane antigen PSM' protein in the LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cell line. (PubMed id 9809977)1, 2, 9 Grauer L.S....Wolfert R.L. (Cancer Res. 1998)
    9. Molecular characterization of human brain N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase). (PubMed id 9694964)1, 2, 9 Luthi-Carter R.... Coyle J.T. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998)
    10. Interactions between human glutamate carboxypeptidase II and urea- based inhibitors: structural characterization. (PubMed id 19053759)1, 2, 9 Barinka C.... Lubkowski J. (J. Med. Chem. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2346 HGNC: 3788 AceView: FOLH1 Ensembl:ENSG00000086205 euGenes: HUgn2346
    ECgene: FOLH1 Kegg: 2346 H-InvDB: FOLH1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for FOLH1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for FOLH1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for FOLH1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving FOLH1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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