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Aliases for FMO2 Gene

Aliases for FMO2 Gene

  • Flavin Containing Monooxygenase 2 2 3 5
  • Flavin Containing Monooxygenase 2 (Non-Functional) 2 3
  • Pulmonary Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 2 3 4
  • Dimethylaniline Oxidase 2 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • Dimethylaniline Monooxygenase [N-Oxide-Forming] 2 3
  • FMO, Pulmonary 3
  • FMO 1B1 4
  • FMO1B1 3
  • FMO 2 4

External Ids for FMO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FMO2 Gene

  • GC01P168718
  • GC01P166783
  • GC01P167735
  • GC01P168393
  • GC01P167886
  • GC01P169420
  • GC01P142377

Summaries for FMO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FMO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a flavin-containing monooxygenase family member. It is an NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the N-oxidation of some primary alkylamines through an N-hydroxylamine intermediate. However, some human populations contain an allele (FMO2*2A) with a premature stop codon, resulting in a protein that is C-terminally-truncated, has no catalytic activity, and is likely degraded rapidly. This gene is found in a cluster with other related family members on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

GeneCards Summary for FMO2 Gene

FMO2 (Flavin Containing Monooxygenase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FMO2 include Trimethylaminuria and Noonan Syndrome 1. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and monooxygenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is FMO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FMO2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the N-oxidation of certain primary alkylamines to their oximes via an N-hydroxylamine intermediate. Inactive toward certain tertiary amines, such as imipramine or chloropromazine. Can catalyze the S-oxidation of methimazole. The truncated form is catalytically inactive.

Gene Wiki entry for FMO2 Gene

Additional gene information for FMO2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FMO2 Gene

Genomics for FMO2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FMO2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FMO2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I171185 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 +0.1 73 0.1 FMO2 ENSG00000225243 LOC105371611
GH01I171247 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 22.3 +68.3 68328 11.9 FOXA2 NFIB ZSCAN4 BMI1 RAD21 ZNF335 GLIS2 SCRT2 ZNF143 FOS FMO1 ENSG00000231424 GC01M171253 LOC105371611 ENSG00000206692 FMO2 FMO4
GH01I171217 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 24.1 +35.3 35349 5.3 SP1 POLR2A EBF1 RUNX3 PRDM1 FMO2 ENSG00000231424 FMO3 MROH9 ENSG00000225243 LOC105371611
GH01I171209 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 26.6 +25.5 25528 1.5 FOXA2 RXRA MAX RAD21 FOXA1 JUND GATA3 HNF4A ZBTB33 FMO2 ENSG00000225243 LOC105371611
GH01I171194 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.7 +10.7 10712 1.9 ELF3 SOX5 FOXA2 TEAD1 MLX MAX HMG20A RAD21 YY1 JUND FMO2 FMO3 ENSG00000225243 LOC105371611
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around FMO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FMO2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for FMO2 Gene

Genomic Locations for FMO2 Gene
27,476 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for FMO2 Gene

Genes around FMO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FMO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FMO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FMO2 Gene

Proteins for FMO2 Gene

  • Protein details for FMO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5EBX4
    • Q86U73
    • Q9BRX1

    Protein attributes for FMO2 Gene

    471 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53644 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for FMO2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for FMO2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for FMO2 Gene

Other Protein References for FMO2 Gene

Domains & Families for FMO2 Gene

Gene Families for FMO2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FMO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FMO family.
  • Belongs to the FMO family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FMO2: view

Function for FMO2 Gene

Molecular function for FMO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
flavin containing monooxygenase 2,microsomal,pulmonary,protein catalyzing the N-oxidation of primary alkylamines
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
N,N-dimethylaniline + NADPH + O(2) = N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxide + NADP(+) + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the N-oxidation of certain primary alkylamines to their oximes via an N-hydroxylamine intermediate. Inactive toward certain tertiary amines, such as imipramine or chloropromazine. Can catalyze the S-oxidation of methimazole. The truncated form is catalytically inactive.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for FMO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FMO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004497 monooxygenase activity TAS --
GO:0004499 N,N-dimethylaniline monooxygenase activity IDA,IEA 11744609
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0050661 NADP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FMO2: view

Phenotypes for FMO2 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for FMO2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FMO2: view

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FMO2 Gene

Localization for FMO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FMO2 Gene

Microsome membrane. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FMO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 3
peroxisome 2
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FMO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,IDA 9804831
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0031090 organelle membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FMO2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for FMO2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for FMO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FMO2: view

Pathways by source for FMO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FMO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006082 organic acid metabolic process IDA 11744609
GO:0006739 NADP metabolic process IDA 11744609
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process IDA,TAS --
GO:0009404 toxin metabolic process IDA 11744609
GO:0017144 drug metabolic process IDA 11744609
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FMO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FMO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FMO2 Gene

(7) Drugs for FMO2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Imipramine Approved Pharma Antagonist 31
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Tamoxifen Approved Pharma Antagonist TGF-β modulatory and PKC inhibitory effects, ER antagonist, Anti-Estrogens 408
Water Approved Pharma 0

(9) Additional Compounds for FMO2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Dimethyl(phenyl)amine oxide
  • Dimethylaniline N-oxide
  • N,N-Dimethylaniline N-oxide
  • Nn-dimethylaniline-N-oxide
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • Dimethylaminobenzene
  • Dimethylaniline
  • Dimethylphenylamine
  • N,N-(Dimethylamino)benzene
  • N,N-Dimethyl-Benzenamine
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-NADP
  • b-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-TPN
  • beta-NADP
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FMO2: view

Transcripts for FMO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for FMO2 Gene

Flavin containing monooxygenase 2 (non-functional):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FMO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for FMO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FMO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FMO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FMO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Aorta (x7.1) and Lung (x5.5).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FMO2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FMO2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FMO2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in lung (at protein level). Expressed predominantly in lung, and at a much lesser extent in kidney. Also expressed in fetal lung, but not in liver, kidney and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FMO2 Gene

  • Lung(4.7)
  • Muscle(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FMO2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FMO2 Gene

Orthologs for FMO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for FMO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FMO2 33 34
  • 99.36 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FMO2 33 34
  • 88.61 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FMO2 33 34
  • 87.02 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fmo2 33 16 34
  • 82.94 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fmo2 33
  • 82.52 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FMO2 34
  • 68 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FMO2 34
  • 65 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FMO2 34
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia MGC89174 33
  • 63.88 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fmo5 34
  • 46 (a)
si:dkey-239i20.2 34
  • 44 (a)
si:dkey-239i20.4 34
  • 42 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fmo-1 34
  • 29 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea fmo-11 35
  • 42 (a)
fmo-13 35
  • 42 (a)
fmo-15 35
  • 42 (a)
fmo-12 35
  • 40 (a)
fmo-3 34
  • 39 (a)
fmo-5 34
  • 39 (a)
fmo-14 35
  • 36 (a)
fmo-1 34
  • 36 (a)
fmo-2 34
  • 36 (a)
C01H6.4 35
  • 33 (a)
fmo-4 34
  • 31 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes FMO1 34
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 42 (a)
-- 34
  • 38 (a)
-- 34
  • 38 (a)
Species where no ortholog for FMO2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for FMO2 Gene

Gene Tree for FMO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for FMO2 (if available)

Paralogs for FMO2 Gene

Paralogs for FMO2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for FMO2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for FMO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FMO2: view

Variants for FMO2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FMO2 Gene

The sequence shown is that of the allele FMO2*2A. There are two alleles; one major, FMO2*2A (truncated form) and one minor, FMO2*1 (full-length form similar to the protein found in other mammals) (PubMed:9804831). A nonsense mutation transforms the Gln-472 of FMO2*1 in a premature stop codon (PubMed:9804831). FMO2*2A occurs in essentially 100% of Caucasians and Asians (PubMed:9804831). FMO2*1 is present at a frequency of approximately 4% to 13% in the sample of population of African descent (PubMed:9804831, PubMed:11042094, PubMed:18794725). FMO2*2A is catalytically inactive (PubMed:9804831).

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FMO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs28369860 benign, not specified 171,196,664(+) G/ 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, stop_gained
rs1000197051 -- 171,201,444(+) CTTCT/CT intron_variant
rs1000255077 -- 171,211,147(+) A/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000297217 -- 171,201,778(+) A/C intron_variant
rs1000497999 -- 171,192,532(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FMO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1702263 CNV deletion 17803354
esv2090208 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2719450 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2719461 CNV deletion 23290073
esv28731 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv3302661 CNV tandem duplication 20981092
esv3383592 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv831882 CNV loss 17160897
nsv954755 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for FMO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 98.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 25.28; 99.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FMO2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for FMO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for FMO2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • tmau
noonan syndrome 1
  • ns1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FMO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FMO2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FMO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FMO2 Gene

Publications for FMO2 Gene

  1. The potentially deleterious functional variant flavin-containing monooxygenase 2*1 is at high frequency throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (PMID: 18794725) Veeramah KR … Phillips IR (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2008) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Ethnic differences in human flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 (FMO2) polymorphisms: detection of expressed protein in African-Americans. (PMID: 11042094) Whetstine JR … Hines RN (Toxicology and applied pharmacology 2000) 3 4 22 44 58
  3. The flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 gene (FMO2) of humans, but not of other primates, encodes a truncated, nonfunctional protein. (PMID: 9804831) Dolphin CT … Phillips IR (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  4. Haplotype and functional analysis of four flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 2 (FMO2) polymorphisms in Hispanics. (PMID: 15864117) Krueger SK … Williams DE (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2005) 3 22 44 58
  5. Differences in FMO2*1 allelic frequency between Hispanics of Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. (PMID: 15355885) Krueger SK … Williams DE (Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 2004) 3 22 44 58

Products for FMO2 Gene

Sources for FMO2 Gene

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