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Aliases for FFAR3 Gene

Aliases for FFAR3 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid Receptor 3 2 3 5
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 41 3 4
  • GPR41 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 41 2
  • FFA3R 3
  • GPR42 3

External Ids for FFAR3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FFAR3 Gene

  • GPR41

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FFAR3 Gene

  • GC19P040542
  • GC19P035850
  • GC19P035851
  • GC19P035960
  • GC19P035504
  • GC19P035514
  • GC19P035523
  • GC19P035542
  • GC19P036135

Summaries for FFAR3 Gene

GeneCards Summary for FFAR3 Gene

FFAR3 (Free Fatty Acid Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is GPR42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR3 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins. Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation (PubMed:12711604). Activated by SCFAs and by beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body produced by the liver upon starvation, it inhibits N-type calcium channels and modulates the activity of sympathetic neurons through a signaling cascade involving the beta and gamma subunits of its coupled G protein, phospholipase C and MAP kinases. Thereby, it may regulate energy expenditure through the control of the sympathetic nervous system that controls for instance heart rate. Upon activation by SCFAs accumulating in the intestine, it may also signal to the brain via neural circuits which in turn would regulate intestinal gluconeogenesis. May also control the production of hormones involved in whole-body energy homeostasis. May for instance, regulate blood pressure through renin secretion. May also regulate secretion of the PYY peptide by enteroendocrine cells and control gut motility, intestinal transit rate, and the harvesting of energy from SCFAs produced by gut microbiota. May also indirectly regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the CNS to inhibit food intake, in response to the presence of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine. Finally, may also play a role in glucose homeostasis. Besides its role in energy homeostasis, may play a role in intestinal immunity. May mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune response by SCFAs in the gut, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells. Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably propionate, butyrate and pentanoate while acetate is a poor activator (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604).

Gene Wiki entry for FFAR3 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FFAR3 Gene

Genomics for FFAR3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for FFAR3 Gene

Enhancers for FFAR3 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19G035217 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 8.4 -141.0 -141009 1.2 BCOR CTCF ESRRA ZNF777 CBX3 NR2F1 BHLHE40 ZMYM3 USF2 REST USF2 HAMP MAG FFAR3 FAM187B FXYD5 FFAR2 GC19P036380 LOC105372379
GH19G035316 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.1 -39.5 -39522 5.0 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX SIN3A ZNF2 ZBTB7B SLC30A9 ZNF766 FOS MAG KMT2B ZNF792 TMEM147-AS1 HAUS5 CD22 FFAR3 FFAR2 USF2 FXYD5
GH19G035345 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.1 -10.6 -10558 4.1 HDGF ZNF121 ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 CAVIN1 JUNB ZNF488 TBX21 ZNF592 FFAR1 TMEM147-AS1 ENSG00000267219 LINC00665 LRFN3 SDHAF1 FFAR2 FFAR3 CD22 U2AF1L4
GH19G035404 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 9.4 +47.2 47218 1.2 PKNOX1 KLF17 SIN3A BMI1 ZNF121 GLIS2 EGR1 FOS RELB ETV6 FFAR3 ENSG00000283479 LINC01531
GH19G035380 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 7.3 +22.5 22533 1.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX CREB3L1 ARNT ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 FFAR3 EEF1A1P7 GPR42
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around FFAR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for FFAR3 Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
35,358,209 bp from pter
End:
35,360,489 bp from pter
Size:
2,281 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for FFAR3 Gene

Genes around FFAR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FFAR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FFAR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FFAR3 Gene

Proteins for FFAR3 Gene

  • Protein details for FFAR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O14843-FFAR3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Free fatty acid receptor 3
    Protein Accession:
    O14843
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RWM8
    • Q14CM7

    Protein attributes for FFAR3 Gene

    Size:
    346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38649 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for FFAR3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for FFAR3 Gene

Other Protein References for FFAR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FFAR3 Gene

Domains & Families for FFAR3 Gene

Gene Families for FFAR3 Gene

Protein Domains for FFAR3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FFAR3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O14843

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

FFAR3_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FFAR3: view

Function for FFAR3 Gene

Molecular function for FFAR3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins. Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation (PubMed:12711604). Activated by SCFAs and by beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body produced by the liver upon starvation, it inhibits N-type calcium channels and modulates the activity of sympathetic neurons through a signaling cascade involving the beta and gamma subunits of its coupled G protein, phospholipase C and MAP kinases. Thereby, it may regulate energy expenditure through the control of the sympathetic nervous system that controls for instance heart rate. Upon activation by SCFAs accumulating in the intestine, it may also signal to the brain via neural circuits which in turn would regulate intestinal gluconeogenesis. May also control the production of hormones involved in whole-body energy homeostasis. May for instance, regulate blood pressure through renin secretion. May also regulate secretion of the PYY peptide by enteroendocrine cells and control gut motility, intestinal transit rate, and the harvesting of energy from SCFAs produced by gut microbiota. May also indirectly regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the CNS to inhibit food intake, in response to the presence of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine. Finally, may also play a role in glucose homeostasis. Besides its role in energy homeostasis, may play a role in intestinal immunity. May mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune response by SCFAs in the gut, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells. Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably propionate, butyrate and pentanoate while acetate is a poor activator (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FFAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IDA 12496283
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FFAR3: view

Animal Models for FFAR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FFAR3:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for FFAR3

CRISPR Products

miRNA for FFAR3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target FFAR3

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FFAR3 Gene

Localization for FFAR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR3 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FFAR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FFAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9344866
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR3: view

Pathways & Interactions for FFAR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FFAR3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FFAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002385 mucosal immune response ISS --
GO:0002720 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response ISS --
GO:0002879 positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus ISS --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FFAR3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FFAR3 Gene

(10) Drugs for FFAR3 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
acetic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 112
Butyric Acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 380
isobutyric acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
propanoic acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
pentanoic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(3) ApexBio Compounds for FFAR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-CMTB 300851-67-6
MEDICA 16 87272-20-6
TUG 424 1082058-99-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FFAR3: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for FFAR3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FFAR3 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for FFAR3 Gene

Free fatty acid receptor 3:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FFAR3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FFAR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
FFAR3
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
FFAR3

Expression for FFAR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FFAR3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FFAR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x29.0) and Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x4.3).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FFAR3 Gene:

FFAR3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FFAR3 Gene:

Hs.248055

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FFAR3 Gene:

O14843-FFAR3_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highest level in adipose tissue, and lower expression across all tissues tested. Expressed in sympathetic ganglia.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FFAR3 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Intestine(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FFAR3: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FFAR3 Gene

Orthologs for FFAR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FFAR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FFAR3 34
  • 98.94 (n)
-- 35
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FFAR3 34
  • 83.23 (n)
GPR41 35
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FFAR3 34
  • 82.3 (n)
-- 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ffar3 34 16 35
  • 76.58 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ffar3 34
  • 75.58 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100489751 34
  • 54.32 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100333904 34
  • 55.1 (n)
si:ch73-90p23.1 35
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
CU855821.1 35
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
CU855821.2 35
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.6 35
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.7 35
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for FFAR3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FFAR3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for FFAR3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for FFAR3 (if available)

Paralogs for FFAR3 Gene

Paralogs for FFAR3 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for FFAR3 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FFAR3: view

Variants for FFAR3 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR3 Gene

FFAR3_HUMAN-O14843
The 6 amino acid differences at positions 44, 45, 174, 227, 256 and 346 between GPR42 and FFAR3, are polymorphic in the human population. The frequency of the probable inactive allele of FFAR3, with a Trp at position 174 was estimated to 1%.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FFAR3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000331574 -- 35,357,481(+) CTGCT(G/T)TGAAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000390325 -- 35,358,130(+) CCTAC(A/T)TATTG upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1000783467 -- 35,360,130(+) ATGGA(C/T)TGGGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000845896 -- 35,357,892(+) ATGAC(A/G)TAAAA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001121906 -- 35,356,367(+) TTTTT(G/T)TTTTT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FFAR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv141n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv3518n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv3519n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv3520n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv3521n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv637e199 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv6420n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2421571 CNV deletion 20811451
esv25268 CNV loss 19812545
esv2718493 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2758758 CNV loss 17122850
esv2760519 CNV loss 21179565
esv2762943 CNV gain+loss 21179565
esv32683 CNV gain+loss 17666407
esv3574419 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1160606 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv173 CNV deletion 15895083
nsv2471 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv442764 CNV gain+loss 18776908
nsv498899 CNV loss 21111241
nsv510765 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv514897 CNV loss 21397061
nsv820224 CNV gain 19587683
nsv828536 CNV loss 20364138
nsv828537 CNV loss 20364138
nsv833810 CNV gain 17160897
nsv833811 CNV gain 17160897
nsv953284 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv9712 CNV loss 18304495
nsv978808 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for FFAR3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.28; 25.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for FFAR3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
FFAR3

Disorders for FFAR3 Gene

Relevant External Links for FFAR3

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
FFAR3

No disorders were found for FFAR3 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FFAR3 Gene

Publications for FFAR3 Gene

  1. Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. (PMID: 12711604) Le Poul E. … Detheux M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  2. A cluster of four novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes occurring in close proximity to CD22 gene on chromosome 19q13.1. (PMID: 9344866) Sawzdargo M. … O'Dowd B.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997) 2 3 4 64
  3. GPR41 gene expression is mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation of bicistronic mRNA encoding GPR40 and GPR41 proteins. (PMID: 22493486) Bahar Halpern K. … Walker M.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2012) 2 3 64
  4. Extracellular ionic locks determine variation in constitutive activity and ligand potency between species orthologs of the free fatty acid receptors FFA2 and FFA3. (PMID: 23066016) Hudson B.D. … Milligan G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2012) 3 4 64
  5. Sequence polymorphisms provide a common consensus sequence for GPR41 and GPR42. (PMID: 19630535) Liaw C.W. … Connolly D.T. (DNA Cell Biol. 2009) 3 4 64

Products for FFAR3 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR3

Sources for FFAR3 Gene

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