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Aliases for FFAR2 Gene

Aliases for FFAR2 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 2 3
  • GPR43 3 4 6
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 43 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 43 3 4
  • Free Fatty Acid Activated Receptor 2 3
  • GPCR43 4
  • FFA2R 3
  • FFA2 4

External Ids for FFAR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FFAR2 Gene

  • GPR43

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FFAR2 Gene

  • GC19P040633
  • GC19P035940
  • GC19P032447
  • GC19P036042

Summaries for FFAR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FFAR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for short chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the inflammatory response and in regulating lipid plasma levels. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for FFAR2 Gene

FFAR2 (Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is GPR132.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids accumulating in the intestine. May also regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the central nervous system to inhibit food intake. Finally, may also regulate whole-body energy homeostasis through adipogenesis regulating both differentiation and lipid storage of adipocytes. In parallel to its role in energy homeostasis, may also mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune responses by SCFA in the intestine, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines. May also play a role in the resolution of the inflammatory response and control chemotaxis in neutrophils. In addition to SCFAs, may also be activated by the extracellular lectin FCN1 in a process leading to activation of monocytes and inducing the secretion of interleukin-8/IL-8 in response to the presence of microbes (PubMed:21037097). Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably acetate, propionate and butyrate (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604). Exhibits a SCFA-independent constitutive G protein-coupled receptor activity (PubMed:23066016).

Tocris Summary for FFAR2 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptors are a group of Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors that are currently divided into FFA1, FFA2 and FFA3 subtypes. They are concentrated in the pancreatic islet cells (particularly FFA1) and in the brain, with lower expression levels found in adipose tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, neutrophils and monocytes. FFA receptors are involved in adenylate cyclase inhibition, phospholipase C stimulation and cause leptin, insulin and glucagon secretion.

Gene Wiki entry for FFAR2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FFAR2 Gene

Genomics for FFAR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for FFAR2 Gene

Genomic Location for FFAR2 Gene

Start:
35,443,907 bp from pter
End:
35,451,767 bp from pter
Size:
7,861 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for FFAR2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for FFAR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FFAR2 Gene

Proteins for FFAR2 Gene

  • Protein details for FFAR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O15552-FFAR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Free fatty acid receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    O15552
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0J9
    • Q4VAZ3
    • Q4VAZ5
    • Q4VBL5

    Protein attributes for FFAR2 Gene

    Size:
    330 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37144 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with FCN1 (via Fibrinogen C-terminal domain).

neXtProt entry for FFAR2 Gene

Proteomics data for FFAR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for FFAR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn151 and Asn167
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for FFAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FFAR2 Gene

Domains for FFAR2 Gene

Gene Families for FFAR2 Gene

HGNC:
  • FFAR :GPCR / Class A : Fatty acid receptors
IUPHAR :

Protein Domains for FFAR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FFAR2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O15552

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

FFAR2_HUMAN :
  • O15552
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FFAR2: view

Function for FFAR2 Gene

Molecular function for FFAR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids accumulating in the intestine. May also regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the central nervous system to inhibit food intake. Finally, may also regulate whole-body energy homeostasis through adipogenesis regulating both differentiation and lipid storage of adipocytes. In parallel to its role in energy homeostasis, may also mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune responses by SCFA in the intestine, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines. May also play a role in the resolution of the inflammatory response and control chemotaxis in neutrophils. In addition to SCFAs, may also be activated by the extracellular lectin FCN1 in a process leading to activation of monocytes and inducing the secretion of interleukin-8/IL-8 in response to the presence of microbes (PubMed:21037097). Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably acetate, propionate and butyrate (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604). Exhibits a SCFA-independent constitutive G protein-coupled receptor activity (PubMed:23066016).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IDA 12496283
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21037097
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FFAR2: view

Animal Models for FFAR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FFAR2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for FFAR2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for FFAR2 Gene

Localization for FFAR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for FFAR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FFAR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9344866
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0042995 cell projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view

Pathways for FFAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FFAR2: view

Pathways by source for FFAR2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002232 leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0002385 mucosal immune response ISS --
GO:0002673 regulation of acute inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0002720 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response ISS --
GO:0002752 cell surface pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway IMP 21037097
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view

Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-CMTB FFA2 agonist; also exhibits positive allosteric modulatory activity [300851-67-6]
AH 7614 Selective FFA4 (GPR120) antagonist [6326-06-3]
GW 9508 Potent and selective FFA1 (GPR40) agonist [885101-89-3]
MEDICA 16 FFA1 (GPR40) agonist; also inhibits ATP citrate lyase [87272-20-6]
TUG 424 FFA1 (GPR40) agonist [1082058-99-8]

(1) HMDB Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Calcium
  • Ca
7440-70-2

(7) IUPHAR Ligand for FFAR2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
(S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(5-fluorothiazol-2-yl)-3-methylbutanamide Agonist Full agonist 6.4
AMG7703 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.35
propanoic acid Agonist Full agonist 5.7
pentanoic acid Agonist Full agonist 5.4
butyric acid Agonist Full agonist 4.9
isobutyric acid Agonist Full agonist 4.8
acetic acid Agonist Full agonist 3.9

(5) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for FFAR2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
propionate 78.7 4
butyrate 75.7 3
valerate 74 1
fatty acid 50.2 6
calcium 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FFAR2: view

Transcripts for FFAR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FFAR2 Gene

(20) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for FFAR2 Gene

Free fatty acid receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for FFAR2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FFAR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FFAR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
FFAR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
FFAR2

Expression for FFAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for FFAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FFAR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (47.3).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FFAR2 Gene Hs.248056

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FFAR2 Gene

O15552-FFAR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at relatively high levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and, to lesser extent, in spleen.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with FFAR2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Expression partners for FFAR2 Gene

Orthologs for FFAR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FFAR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FFAR2 35
  • 81.36 (n)
  • 76.6 (a)
GPR43 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FFAR2 35
  • 83.49 (n)
  • 82.37 (a)
FFAR2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ffar2 35
  • 81.82 (n)
  • 84.55 (a)
Ffar2 16
Ffar2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FFAR2 35
  • 99.39 (n)
  • 99.09 (a)
FFAR2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ffar2 35
  • 82.22 (n)
  • 85.45 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FFAR2 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FFAR2 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC101749787 35
  • 63.33 (n)
  • 55 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FFAR2 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100486488 35
  • 60.22 (n)
  • 54.48 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100004095 35
  • 56.47 (n)
  • 50.18 (a)
CU855821.1 36
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
CU855821.2 36
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
lpar5b 36
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch211-231m23.4 36
  • 37 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch73-90p23.1 36
  • 49 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.6 36
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.7 36
  • 33 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for FFAR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FFAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for FFAR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for FFAR2 (if available)

Paralogs for FFAR2 Gene

Paralogs for FFAR2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for FFAR2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FFAR2: view

Variants for FFAR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FFAR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs409093 - 35,450,346(+) GCCCC(A/T)TGTGG missense, reference
rs416633 -- 35,450,977(+) agaac(A/T)ttggg utr-variant-3-prime
rs2074056 -- 35,449,385(+) ACTGG(C/T)AACAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs2301642 -- 35,451,553(+) TGTTG(C/G)CTTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs3815025 -- 35,451,998(+) TTCAC(A/T)GTCAT downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FFAR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833810 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv833811 CNV Gain 17160897

Relevant External Links for FFAR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
FFAR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

Disorders for FFAR2 Gene

No disorders were found for FFAR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Novoseek inferred disease relationships , Genatlas and External Links for FFAR2 Gene

Publications for FFAR2 Gene

  1. The orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. (PMID: 12496283) Brown A.J. … Dowell S.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  2. Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids. (PMID: 12684041) Nilsson N.E. … Olde B. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. (PMID: 12711604) Le Poul E. … Detheux M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  4. A cluster of four novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes occurring in close proximity to CD22 gene on chromosome 19q13.1. (PMID: 9344866) Sawzdargo M. … O'Dowd B.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997) 2 3 4
  5. Expression of the short-chain fatty acid receptor, GPR43, in the human colon. (PMID: 17899402) Karaki S. … Kuwahara A. (J. Mol. Histol. 2008) 3 23

Products for FFAR2 Gene

Sources for FFAR2 Gene

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