Aliases for F2RL1 Gene
External Ids for F2RL1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for F2RL1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for F2RL1 Gene
Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1) is a member of the large family of 7-transmembrane-region receptors that couple to guanosine-nucleotide-binding proteins. F2RL1 is also a member of the protease-activated receptor family. It is activated by trypsin, but not by thrombin. It is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. The new amino terminus functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor. The F2RL1 gene contains two exons and is widely expressed in human tissues. The predicted protein sequence is 83% identical to the mouse receptor sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for F2RL1 Gene
F2RL1 (Coagulation Factor II (Thrombin) Receptor-Like 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with F2RL1 include apert syndrome and pulmonary vein stenosis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and p70S6K Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR132.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for F2RL1 Gene
Receptor for trypsin and trypsin-like enzymes coupled to G proteins. Its function is mediated through the activation of several signaling pathways including phospholipase C (PLC), intracellular calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB and Rho. Can also be transactivated by cleaved F2R/PAR1. Involved in modulation of inflammatory responses and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and acts as a sensor for proteolytic enzymes generated during infection. Generally is promoting inflammation. Can signal synergistically with TLR4 and probably TLR2 in inflammatory responses and modulates TLR3 signaling. Has a protective role in establishing the endothelial barrier; the activity involves coagulation factor X. Proposed to have a bronchoprotective role in airway epithelium, but also shown to compromise the airway epithelial barrier by interrupting E-cadherin adhesion. Involved in the regulation of vascular tone; activation results in hypotension presumably mediated by vasodilation. Associates with a subset of G proteins alpha subunits such as G alpha-q, G alpha-11, G alpha-14, G alpha-12 and G alpha-13, but probably not with G(o) alpha, G(i) subunit alpha-1 and G(i) subunit alpha-2. However, according to PubMed:21627585 can signal through G(i) subunit alpha. Believed to be a class B receptor which internalizes as a complex with arrestin and traffic with it to endosomal vesicles, presumably as desensitized receptor, for extended periods of time. Mediates inhibition of TNF-alpha stimulated JNK phosphorylation via coupling to G alpha-q/11; the function involves dissociation of RIPK1 and TRADD from TNFR1. Mediates phosphorylation of nuclear factor NF-kappa-B RELA subunit at Ser-536; the function involves IKBKB and is predominantly independent of G proteins. Involved in cellular migration. Involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and chemotaxis through beta-arrestin-promoted scaffolds; the function is independent of G alpha-q/11 and involves promotion of cofilin dephosphoryltaion and actin filament severing. Induces redistribution of COPS5 from the plasma membrane to the cytosol and activation of the JNK cascade is mediated by COPS5. Involved in the recruitment of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and is the major PAR receptor capable of modulating eosinophil function such as proinflammatory cytokine secretion, superoxide production and degranulation. During inflammation promotes dendritic cell maturation, trafficking to the lymph nodes and subsequent T-cell activation. Involved in antimicrobial response of innate immnune cells; activation enhances phagocytosis of Gram-positive and killing of Gram-negative bacteria. Acts synergistically with interferon-gamma in enhancing antiviral responses. Implicated in a number of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as of the joints, lungs, brain, gastrointestinal tract, periodontium, skin, and vascular systems, and in autoimmune disorders.
Protease-activated receptors (PARs, also known as thrombin receptors) are G-protein-coupled receptors, activated by cleavage of their N-terminal domains by serine proteases. Hydrolysis reveals a tethered peptide ligand, which interacts with the receptor within extracellular loop-2 to affect transmembrane signaling. Four subtypes of receptors have so far been cloned (PAR1-4). PAR2 is expressed in vascular tissue and highly vascular organs, which indicates a role for this receptor in the regulation of vascular tone. Trypsin is the endogenous agonist for PAR2 and receptor activation has been coupled to the nitric oxide signaling pathway, causing vasodilation and hypotension. PAR2 is implicated in chronic responses associated with vessel inflammation and wound healing. This receptor stimulates activation of T-cells and neutrophils, promotes leukocyte rolling, adhesion and extravasation, increases capillary permeability and enhances production of cytokines. In addition to its vascular roles, PAR2 has multiple functions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is strongly expressed in enterocytes and stimulates prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF1alpha synthesis. Pancreatic PAR2 expression and activation promotes secretory function, in particular increases amylin secretion.