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Aliases for F2 Gene

Aliases for F2 Gene

  • Coagulation Factor II (Thrombin) 2 3
  • Prepro-Coagulation Factor II 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • Coagulation Factor II 4
  • Prothrombin B-Chain 3
  • Serine Protease 3
  • EC 3.4.21 63
  • RPRGL2 3
  • THPH1 3
  • PT 3

External Ids for F2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for F2 Gene

  • GC11M048740
  • GC11P047618
  • GC11P046772
  • GC11P046705
  • GC11P046697
  • GC11P046446

Summaries for F2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for F2 Gene

  • Coagulation factor II is proteolytically cleaved to form thrombin in the first step of the coagulation cascade which ultimately results in the stemming of blood loss. F2 also plays a role in maintaining vascular integrity during development and postnatal life. Peptides derived from the C-terminus of this protein have antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Mutations in F2 lead to various forms of thrombosis and dysprothrombinemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]

GeneCards Summary for F2 Gene

F2 (Coagulation Factor II (Thrombin)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with F2 include hypoprothrombinemia and prothrombin deficiency. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Regulation of actin cytoskeleton. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HP.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for F2 Gene

  • Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.

Gene Wiki entry for F2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for F2 Gene

Genomics for F2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for F2 Gene

Genomic Location for F2 Gene

46,719,180 bp from pter
46,739,506 bp from pter
20,327 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for F2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for F2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for F2 Gene

Proteins for F2 Gene

  • Protein details for F2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R7F7
    • B4E1A7
    • Q4QZ40
    • Q53H04
    • Q53H06
    • Q69EZ7
    • Q7Z7P3
    • Q9UCA1

    Protein attributes for F2 Gene

    622 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70037 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer (named alpha-thrombin) of a light and a heavy chain; disulfide-linked. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5.
    • It is not known whether 1 or 2 smaller activation peptides, with additional cleavage after Arg-314, are released in natural blood clotting
    • Prothrombin is activated on the surface of a phospholipid membrane that binds the amino end of prothrombin and factors Va and Xa in Ca-dependent interactions; factor Xa removes the activation peptide and cleaves the remaining part into light and heavy chains. The activation process starts slowly because factor V itself has to be activated by the initial, small amounts of thrombin
    • The cleavage after Arg-198, observed in vitro, does not occur in plasma
    • Thrombin can itself cleave the N-terminal fragment (fragment 1) of the prothrombin, prior to its activation by factor Xa

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for F2 Gene

neXtProt entry for F2 Gene

Proteomics data for F2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for F2 Gene

  • N-glycosylated. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-121: Hex3HexNAc3 (minor), Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major). At Asn-143: Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major).
  • The gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues, which bind calcium ions, result from the carboxylation of glutamyl residues by a microsomal enzyme, the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The modified residues are necessary for the calcium-dependent interaction with a negatively charged phospholipid surface, which is essential for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 121, Asn 143, and Asn 416
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for F2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for F2 (Coagulation Factor II/Thrombin)

Protein Products

Domains & Families for F2 Gene

Gene Families for F2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for F2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
  • Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain.
  • Contains 2 kringle domains.
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with F2: view

Function for F2 Gene

Molecular function for F2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
coagulation factor II,vitamin K-dependent (prothrombin)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Selective cleavage of Arg- -Gly bonds in fibrinogen to form fibrin and release fibrinopeptides A and B
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by SERPINA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for F2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for F2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA 1672265
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 8626514
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 3279057
GO:0008083 growth factor activity TAS 8626514
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with F2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with F2: view

Animal Models for F2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for F2:
  • F2 tm1Sjd
  • F2 tm1Jes

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for F2 Gene

Localization for F2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for F2 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for F2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for F2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
chloroplast 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for F2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 9639571
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA 19052258
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with F2: view

Pathways & Interactions for F2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with F2: view

PCR Array Products

SIGNOR curated interactions for F2 Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for F2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 7559487
GO:0006508 proteolysis TAS --
GO:0006953 acute-phase response IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway IDA 1672265
GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development TAS 9639571
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with F2: view

Drugs & Compounds for F2 Gene

(185) Drugs for F2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, DGIdb, DrugBank, PharmGKB, and ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Argatroban Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target Thrombin mediated fibrinogen cleavage inhibitor 18
Bivalirudin Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 63
Ximelagatran Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma inhibitor, Target 2
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist, inhibitor, cofactor 672,226
Lepirudin Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 5

(64) Additional Compounds for F2 Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
11-dehydrothromboxane b2
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
alpha-tocopheryl acetate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with F2: view

Transcripts for F2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for F2 Gene

Coagulation factor II (thrombin):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for F2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for F2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for F2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for F2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for F2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x52.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for F2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (18.4), Plasma (16.2), Synovial fluid (10.3), and Monocytes (8.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for F2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for F2 Gene Hs.655207

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for F2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with F2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for F2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for F2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for F2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia F2 35
  • 83.52 (n)
  • 81.8 (a)
F2 36
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia F2 35
  • 86.62 (n)
  • 84.47 (a)
F2 36
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia F2 35
  • 82.47 (n)
  • 81.98 (a)
F2 16
F2 36
  • 82 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia F2 35
  • 99.25 (n)
  • 99.36 (a)
F2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia F2 35
  • 81.62 (n)
  • 80.75 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia F2 36
  • 55 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia F2 36
  • 51 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves F2 35
  • 65.4 (n)
  • 63.04 (a)
F2 36
  • 63 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia F2 36
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia f2 35
  • 63.21 (n)
  • 61.2 (a)
Str.8528 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.29409 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.26855 35
f2 35
  • 61.38 (n)
  • 56.41 (a)
f2 36
  • 52 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11579 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 17 (a)
Species with no ortholog for F2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for F2 Gene

Gene Tree for F2 (if available)
Gene Tree for F2 (if available)

Paralogs for F2 Gene

Paralogs for F2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with F2: view

Variants for F2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for F2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5896 - 46,723,453(+) CACCA(C/T)GGGAC reference, missense, nc-transcript-variant
rs5897 - 46,728,021(+) AGAGT(A/C)CCCAG missense, reference, nc-transcript-variant
rs5898 -- 46,728,098(+) TACCC(A/G)CCCTG synonymous-codon, reference, nc-transcript-variant
rs5899 -- 46,726,112(+) GAGGG(C/T)GTGTG reference, synonymous-codon, nc-transcript-variant
rs5900 -- 46,729,509(+) CGGCC(A/C/G)GTCTG synonymous-codon, reference, intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for F2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv897322 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for F2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.90; 79.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for F2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for F2 Gene

Disorders for F2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(178) MalaCards diseases for F2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • dysprothrombinemia
prothrombin deficiency
  • hypoprothrombinemia
congenital factor ii deficiency
  • hypoprothrombinemia
pregnancy loss, recurrent 2
  • pregnancy loss, recurrent, susceptibility to, 2
prothrombin-related thrombophilia
  • f2-related thrombophilia
- elite association
Search F2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]: A very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1349838, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1354985, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1421398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:14962227, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2719946, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3242619, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3567158, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3771562, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3801671, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6405779, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7792730, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7865694}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]: A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15534175}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Pregnancy loss, recurrent, 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]: A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11506076}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]: A multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis.

Relevant External Links for F2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with F2: view

No data available for Genatlas for F2 Gene

Publications for F2 Gene

  1. Pharmacodynamic profile of the direct thrombin antagonist bivalirudin given in combination with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist eptifibatide. (PMID: 11923794) Kleiman N.S. … DeLao T. (Am. Heart J. 2002) 23 25 67
  2. No effect of the novel antidiabetic agent nateglinide on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant properties of warfarin in healthy volunteers. (PMID: 12463731) Anderson D.M. … Buraglio M. (J Clin Pharmacol 2002) 23 25 67
  3. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on platelet function and aspirin resistance. (PMID: 19923980) Pamukcu B. … Nisanci Y. (Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis 2010) 23 67
  4. Anti-factor IXa Aptamer reduces propagation of thrombin generation in plasma anticoagulated with warfarin. (PMID: 20004955) Szlam F. … Tanaka K.A. (Thromb. Res. 2010) 23 67
  5. Amphipathic peptides can act as an anticoagulant by competing with phospholipid membranes for blood coagulation factors. (PMID: 20005198) Charbonneau S. … Blostein M.D. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010) 23 67

Products for F2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for F2

Sources for F2 Gene

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