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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

F2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC11P046740

Coagulation Factor II (Thrombin)

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Coagulation Factor II (Thrombin)1 2     prothrombin2
Prepro-Coagulation Factor II1 2     Prothrombin B-Chain2
EC 3.4.21.53 8     Serine Protease2
PT2     Coagulation Factor II3
RPRGL22     EC 3.4.218
THPH12     

External Ids:    HGNC: 35351   Entrez Gene: 21472   Ensembl: ENSG000001802107   OMIM: 1769305   UniProtKB: P007343   

Export aliases for F2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11M048740 GC11P047618 GC11P046772 GC11P046705 GC11P046697 GC11P046446


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for F2 Gene:
Coagulation factor II is proteolytically cleaved to form thrombin in the first step of the coagulation cascade
which ultimately results in the stemming of blood loss. F2 also plays a role in maintaining vascular integrity
during development and postnatal life. Mutations in F2 leads to various forms of thrombosis and
dysprothrombinemia. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for F2 Gene: 
F2 (coagulation factor II (thrombin)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with F2 include prothrombin deficiency, and alcoholic hepatitis, and among its related super-pathways are Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade) and Transport of gamma-carboxylated protein precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAMR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
Function: Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V,
VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and
wound healing

Gene Wiki entry for F2 (Thrombin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_009237.18  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the F2 gene promoter:
         CREB   PPAR-gamma1   AP-1   deltaCREB   ATF-2   PPAR-gamma2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidF2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for F2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat F2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11p11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11p11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11p11.2

F2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
F2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P046740:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
46,740,730 bp from pter      End:
46,761,056 bp from pter
Size:
20,327 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prothrombin precursor  
Size: 622 amino acids; 70037 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer (named alpha-thrombin) of a light and a heavy chain; disulfide-linked. Forms a heterodimer
with SERPINA5
Subcellular location: Secreted, extracellular space
Miscellaneous: Prothrombin is activated on the surface of a phospholipid membrane that binds the amino end of
prothrombin and factors Va and Xa in Ca-dependent interactions; factor Xa removes the activation peptide and
cleaves the remaining part into light and heavy chains. The activation process starts slowly because factor V
itself has to be activated by the initial, small amounts of thrombin
Miscellaneous: It is not known whether 1 or 2 smaller activation peptides, with additional cleavage after Arg-314,
are released in natural blood clotting
Miscellaneous: Thrombin can itself cleave the N-terminal fragment (fragment 1) of the prothrombin, prior to its
activation by factor Xa
Miscellaneous: The cleavage after Arg-198, observed in vitro, does not occur in plasma
6/336 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for F2 (see all 336):
1A2C (3D)        1A3B (3D)        1A3E (3D)        1A46 (3D)        1A4W (3D)        1A5G (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R7F7 B4E1A7 Q4QZ40 Q53H04 Q53H06 Q7Z7P3 Q9UCA1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for F2: NX_P00734

Explore proteomics data for F2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: The gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues, which bind calcium ions, result from the carboxylation of glutamyl residues by
    a microsomal enzyme, the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The modified residues are necessary for the
    calcium-dependent interaction with a negatively charged phospholipid surface, which is essential for the
    conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
  • UniProtKB: N-glycosylated. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-121: Hex3HexNAc3 (minor), Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4
    (major). At Asn-143: Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major)
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P00734

  • 4/15 DME Specific Peptides for F2 (P00734) (see all 15)
     CRNPDGD  GNLEREC  VLTAAHC  WVLTAAH 

    F2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    F2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000497.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000308541   ENSP00000433907   ENSP00000387413  
    Reactome Protein details: P00734
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for F2: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for F2 (Coagulation Factor II/Thrombin)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for F2
    OriGene Purified Protein for F2
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for F2
    OriGene MassSpec for F2 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for F2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for F2
    Novus Biologicals F2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals F2 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for F2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for F2 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for F2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for F2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA9639571
    GO:0005788endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS--
    GO:0005796Golgi lumen TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--

    F2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    F2 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of F2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for F2 (Coagulation Factor II/Thrombin)
    OriGene Antibodies for F2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for F2
    GenScript Superior Antibodies for F2
    Novus Biologicals F2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for F2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for F2 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for F2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for F2 

    Assay Products for F2: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for F2
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for F2 (Coagulation Factor II/Thrombin)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for F2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for F2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for F2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    5/11 InterPro protein domains (see all 11):
     IPR017857 Coagulation_fac_subgr_Gla_dom
     IPR001314 Peptidase_S1A
     IPR018056 Kringle_CS
     IPR001254 Peptidase_S1
     IPR003966 Prothrombin/thrombin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00734

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00734

    5/6 Blocks protein domains (see all 6):
    IPB000001 Kringle
    IPB000294 Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain
    IPB001254 Serine protease
    IPB001314 Chymotrypsin serine protease family (S1) signature
    IPB002383 Coagulation factor GLA domain signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase S1 family
    Similarity: Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain
    Similarity: Contains 2 kringle domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain


    F2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
    Function: Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V,
    VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and
    wound healing
    Catalytic activity: Selective cleavage of Arg- -Gly bonds in fibrinogen to form fibrin and release fibrinopeptides
    A and B
    Enzyme regulation: Inhibited by SERPINA5

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for F2:
    coagulation factor II,vitamin K-dependent (prothrombin)

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.21.51 2 EC 3.4.212

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/8 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004252serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA12855810
    GO:0005102contributes to receptor binding IPI8626514
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI14691232
         
    F2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for F2:
     Decreased homologous recombina  Increased G1 DNA content 

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for F2):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis  growth/size 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  mortality/aging 
     nervous system  normal  reproductive system  respiratory system  skeleton 

    F2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for F2: F2tm1Jes F2tm1Sjd

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for F2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for F2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for F2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for F2 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target F2:
    hsa-mir-16 (MIRT001484)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat F2
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate F2
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for F2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat F2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for F2
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of F2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for F2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for F2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: F2 (NM_013265)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for F2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for F2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat F2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of F2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of F2 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for F2
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for F2
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for F2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for F2 About   (see all 28)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade)
    Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade)0.59
    Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways0.51
    Intrinsic Pathway0.59
    Blood Clotting Cascade0.42
    2Gamma-carboxylation, transport, and amino-terminal cleavage of proteins
    Transport of gamma-carboxylated protein precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus0.89
    Gamma-carboxylation, transport, and amino-terminal cleavage of proteins0.82
    Removal of aminoterminal propeptides from gamma-carboxylated proteins0.89
    Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.67
    Gamma-carboxylation of protein precursors0.89
    3Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction0.37
    4Complement and coagulation cascades
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades0.71
    Complement and coagulation cascades0.71
    5Common Pathway
    Common Pathway0.69
    Extrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway0.69

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for F2
        Cell adhesion Integrin inside-out signaling

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for F2
        Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways

    5/9 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for F2 (see all 9)
        Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
    G12-G13 in Cellular Signaling
    JAK-STAT Pathway
    Thrombin Signaling
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for F2
        Cell adhesion Integrin inside-out signaling

    5/7 BioSystems Pathways for F2 (see all 7)
        Blood Clotting Cascade
    Selenium Pathway
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades
    Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events


    5/24        Reactome Pathways for F2 (see all 24)
        Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) Transport and Uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
    Removal of aminoterminal propeptides from gamma-carboxylated proteins
    PTM: gamma carboxylation, hypusine formation and arylsulfatase activation
    Gamma-carboxylation, transport, and amino-terminal cleavage of proteins
    Transport of gamma-carboxylated protein precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for F2
        Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    3         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for F2):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Complement and coagulation cascades
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton


    F2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for F2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/69 Interacting proteins for F2 (P007341, 3 ENSP000003085414) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 69)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    THBDP072041, 3, ENSP000003663074EBI-297094,EBI-941422 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000366307
    SERPIND1P055463, ENSP000002157274I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000215727
    FGAP026713, ENSP000003063614I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000306361
    SERPINB6P352373, ENSP000003383584I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000338358
    SERPING1P051553, ENSP000002784074I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000278407
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/30 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 30):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA7559487
    GO:0006508proteolysis TAS--
    GO:0006953acute-phase response IEA--
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway IDA1672265
    GO:0007275multicellular organismal development TAS9639571

    F2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    F2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for F2:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for F2

    Browse Tocris compounds for F2 (THRB)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
    Pharmaceutical: The peptide TP508 also known as Chrysalin (Orthologic) could be used to accelerate repair of both
    soft and hard tissues

    10/101 DrugBank Compounds for F2 (see all 101)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Argatroban-- 74863-84-6targetinhibitor10608050 10353669 10608016 11752352 10226408 10362188
    Bivalirudin-- 128270-60-0targetinhibitor11833835 11929334 11752352 11923794 11504570 11060732
    Lepirudin-- 120993-53-5targetinhibitor10912644 10505536 11807012 11055889 11752352 11467439
    Proflavine-- 92-62-6targetother/unknown4857231 7837275 7407200 1711542 6722124 10592235
    Antihemophilic FactorAHF (see all 3)--enzymeactivator3099625 2402772 10688826 12463731 1139038
    Coagulation Factor IXChristmas factor (see all 4)9001-28-9target--10499904 10648407 10499905 10498586 11019961
    Drotrecogin alfaAnticoagulant protein C (see all 4)60202-16-6target--12208873 12070133 12062545 12296618 10463819
    Menadione2-Methyl-1,4-Naphthalenedione (see all 7)58-27-5targetactivator7657295 10469489 2484931 2922761 6867080
    Ximelagatran-- 192939-46-1targetinhibitor17688383 17319469 11752352 17516699 17532684
    Dabigatran etexilateDabigatran (see all 2)211915-06-9targetinhibitor20424539 19756950 17061960

    10/128 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for F2 gene (see all 128)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    fibrinogen 92.9 1392 2037675 (5), 9746270 (4), 11979291 (4), 16454558 (4) (see all 99)
    warfarin 89.4 481 7586953 (6), 8018915 (5), 14616410 (5), 1562730 (4) (see all 99)
    mnpt 81.9 16 9233567 (1), 10926265 (1), 9365404 (1), 9462248 (1) (see all 12)
    hepaplastin 81.4 35 1766133 (1), 7874270 (1), 7782035 (1), 10590673 (1) (see all 32)
    heparin 80.8 239 2294105 (3), 9863704 (3), 8388583 (3), 1730217 (3) (see all 99)
    ecarin 78.1 28 8165613 (2), 9869177 (2), 7900080 (1), 9211628 (1) (see all 23)
    gamma-carboxyglutamic acid 77.5 103 1699555 (5), 10094467 (4), 2277030 (4), 16413375 (4) (see all 36)
    vitamin k1 75.9 64 9362192 (6), 1325077 (3), 15867043 (2), 17101711 (2) (see all 36)
    s-warfarin 74.9 20 10702890 (2), 17192504 (2), 9839766 (2), 15632222 (1) (see all 15)
    hirudin 72.7 58 11053617 (4), 8349581 (3), 9863704 (3), 7740455 (3) (see all 40)

    1 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotation for F2 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    tamoxifen

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about F2 / THRB

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for F2 gene: 
    NM_000506.3  

    Unigene Cluster for F2:

    Coagulation factor II (thrombin)
    Hs.655207  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000506
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000311907(uc001ndf.4) ENST00000469189 ENST00000530231 ENST00000442468
    ENST00000490274
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate F2
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for F2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat F2
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for F2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for F2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: F2 (NM_013265)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for F2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat F2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of F2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of F2 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for F2
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for F2
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat F2
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat F2
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat F2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AJ972449.1 AK222775.1 AK222777.1 AK293326.1 AK303747.1 AK312965.1 AY344793.1 AY344794.1 
    BC051332.1 M33031.1 V00595.1 

    4 DOTS entries:

    DT.115445  DT.40132890  DT.100834099  DT.95360807 

    24/89 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 89):

    CB124824 BQ653592 R90940 CB111898 C21032 CB148992 BC051332 CR594467 
    CB156997 AV661218 CB147238 CR617821 T55195 AL564436 CB120344 R09741 
    CB161488 AA331389 AW303323 CB116984 BG567010 T28286 BX463016 AL531046 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for F2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15
    SP1:              -           -                                                                                       
    SP2:                          -                                                                                       
    SP3:              -                                                                                                   
    SP4:                                                                                                                  


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for F2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    F2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      F2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGTTCCGCCT
    F2 Expression
    About this image


    F2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/8 selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Breast (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             breast ; myoepithelial cells   
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Posterior foregut-like cells ( A scalable, suspension protocol for derivation of...
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Adrenal Gland (Endocrine System)
             adrenal gland ; glandular cells   
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Embryoid bodies ( Two-step protocol for endothelial differentiation by embryoid...

    See F2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for F2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.655207

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
    Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including F2: 
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for F2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for F2 gene from 5/13 species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia F21 , 5 coagulation factor II1, 5 82.47(n)1
    81.98(a)1
      2 (50.63 cM)5
    140611  NM_010168.21  NP_034298.11 
     916253295 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves F21 coagulation factor II (thrombin) 65.4(n)
    63.04(a)
      395306  NM_204605.1  NP_989936.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia F26
    Uncharacterized protein
    62(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(43136103-43162495)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.294092 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 76.83(n)    48021727 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.268552 Danio rerio cDNA clone MGC66319 IMAGE5601571, complete more 76.37(n)    BC055596.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for F2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for F2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for F2 gene
    PAMR12  PROZ2  C1S2  C1R2  C1RL2  F92  F102  MASP12  
    HPR2  PROC2  HP2  F72  MASP22  
    18/45 SIMAP similar genes for F2 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     THRB_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    PRRG3    PROS1    PROC1    PRRG1    PRSS21    TMPRSS11B
    F7    PROZ    PROC    HGF    KLK11    HP
    TMPRSS11A    F9    F9 p22    factor IX F9    GAS6    TMPRSS13

    F2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/526 SNPs in F2 are shown (see all 526)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0067134
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067132 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0067124
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067122 R C mis40--------
    VAR_0067174
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067172 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0067164
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067162 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0067194
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067192 G V mis40--------
    VAR_0067184
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067182 E A mis40--------
    VAR_0067144
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067142 M T mis40--------
    VAR_0552324
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0552322 E G mis40--------
    VAR_0067154
    Factor II deficiency (FA2D)4--see VAR_0067152 R C mis40--------
    rs626234591,2,4
    C,FFactor II deficiency (FA2D)4 pathogenic146673207(+) GCTCCG/AAAGGC 2 /K /E mis12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA EU 5765

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for F2 (46740730 - 46761056 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for F2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv897322CNV Gain21882294


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): F2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing F2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for F2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 176930   
    OMIM disorders: 613679  188050  601367  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: THRB_HUMAN, P00734
  • Factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]: A very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by
    mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II
    levels. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]: A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural
    tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes,
    resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of
    heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Note=Disease susceptibility is
    associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]: A multifactorial disorder of hemostasis
    characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation.
    Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A common genetic variation
    in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels
    and an increased risk of venous thrombosis
  • Pregnancy loss, recurrent, 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]: A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in
    spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of
    conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous
    abortions. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 20/354 diseases for F2 (see all 354):    About MalaCards
    prothrombin deficiency    alcoholic hepatitis    fulminant viral hepatitis    varicose veins
    atrial fibrillation and stroke    prothrombin-related thrombophilia    hemangioma of spleen    anterior spinal artery syndrome
    hansen's disease    stroke, ischemic    thrombosis    liver cirrhosis
    acute liver failure    factor vii deficiency    acute fatty liver of pregnancy    hepatic tuberculosis
    binder syndrome    hepatoportal sclerosis    hypersplenism    hepatic coma

    20/37 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for F2 (see all 37):
    Thrombophilia     Liver disease     Vitamin K deficiency hemorrhagic disease     Antiphospholipid syndrome
    Thrombocytopenia     Pulmonary embolism     Protein C deficiency     Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Heart disease     Cerebrovascular accident     Factor X deficiency     Factor VII deficiency
    Esophageal varix     Lupus erythematosus     Hyperhomocysteinemia     Hepatitis B
    Varicose veins     Blood protein disease     Hemophilia B     Placental abruption

    F2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/98 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for F2 gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pt prolonged 92.9 96 11700191 (2), 7703488 (2), 1331349 (1), 8826562 (1) (see all 83)
    coagulopathy 89.9 123 8192064 (2), 17160994 (2), 19444412 (2), 1550472 (1) (see all 99)
    hypoprothrombinemias 87.7 85 9863703 (4), 14629473 (4), 19598065 (4), 11241228 (3) (see all 45)
    thrombophilia 87.1 93 9219324 (2), 16256098 (2), 8171409 (1), 9238178 (1) (see all 83)
    bleeding 85.3 532 8402023 (3), 8259040 (3), 2383699 (3), 19444412 (3) (see all 99)
    thrombosis 84.1 133 10744139 (4), 10974339 (2), 16231514 (2), 17205928 (2) (see all 99)
    disseminated intravascular coagulation 82.2 29 16828603 (2), 11985056 (2), 10410587 (1), 12227006 (1) (see all 27)
    dysprothrombinemia 81.1 5 1334372 (2), 11341500 (1), 15039280 (1), 9490687 (1)
    vitamin k deficiency 80.8 28 2277030 (2), 11338219 (1), 11787707 (1), 10870812 (1) (see all 23)
    venous thrombosis 80.7 87 8339409 (3), 17059428 (3), 9364981 (3), 12871361 (2) (see all 70)

    GeneTests: F2
    GeneReviews: F2
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): F2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: F2 (697 documents)

    Export disorders for F2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for F2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 4366):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with F2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. (PubMed id 15534175)1, 2, 4 Casas J.P.... Sharma P. (2004)
    2. Thrombophilic gene mutations and recurrent spontaneous abortion: prothrombin mutation increases the risk in the first trimester. (PubMed id 11506076)1, 2, 4 Pihusch R....Thaler C.J. (2001)
    3. G20210A prothrombin gene polymorphism and prothrombin activity in subjects with or without angiographically documented coronary artery disease. (PubMed id 11369682)1, 4, 9 Russo C....Corrocher R. (2001)
    4. Prevalence of factor V G1691A (Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T thrombophilic mutations in children with inflammatory bowel disease. (PubMed id 12454577)1, 4, 9 Kader H.A....Treem W.R. (2002)
    5. Elevated prothrombin is a risk factor for cerebral arterial ischemia in young adults. (PubMed id 12140089)1, 4, 9 Gomez Garcia E.B....Dippel D.W. (2002)
    6. Risk factors for failure of heparin thromboprophylaxi s in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. (PubMed id 19853891)1, 4, 9 Rubin-Asher D....Lubetsky A. (2009)
    7. Prevalence of factor V Leiden, prothrombin and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutations in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Lebanon. (PubMed id 17000243)1, 4, 9 Zahed L.F....Nassar A.H. (2006)
    8. Combined factor V Leiden and prothrombin genotyping in patients presenting with thromboembolic episodes. (PubMed id 11151062)1, 4, 9 Friedline J.A....Crisan D. (2001)
    9. Thrombotic genetic risk factors and warfarin pharmaco genetic variants in SALo Miguel's healthy population (Azores). (PubMed id 19538716)1, 4, 9 Branco C.C....Mota-Vieira L. (2009)
    10. Frequency of thrombophilia-related genetic variations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism in an urban emergency department. (PubMed id 16574759)1, 4, 9 Kruse L....Kline J.A. (2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 2147 HGNC: 3535 AceView: F2 Ensembl:ENSG00000180210 euGenes: HUgn2147
    ECgene: F2 Kegg: 2147 H-InvDB: F2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for F2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for F2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrombin
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/F2
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/f2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for F2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving F2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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