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Aliases for EXTL2 Gene

Aliases for EXTL2 Gene

  • Exostosin Like Glycosyltransferase 2 2 3 5
  • Glucuronyl-Galactosyl-Proteoglycan 4-Alpha-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase 3 4
  • Alpha-1,4-N-Acetylhexosaminyltransferase EXTL2 3 4
  • Exostoses (Multiple)-Like 2 2 3
  • EXT-Related Protein 2 3 4
  • Alpha-GalNAcT EXTL2 3 4
  • EXTR2 3 4
  • Alpha-1,4-N-Acteylhexosaminyltransferase 2
  • Processed Exostosin-Like 2 3
  • Exostosin-Like 2 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for EXTL2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EXTL2 Gene

  • GC01M102128
  • GC01M100519
  • GC01M100629
  • GC01M100800
  • GC01M101049
  • GC01M101110
  • GC01M101337
  • GC01M099463

Summaries for EXTL2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for EXTL2 Gene

EXTL2 (Exostosin Like Glycosyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EXTL2 include Hereditary Multiple Osteochondromas and Mucopolysaccharidoses. Among its related pathways are heparan sulfate biosynthesis and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups and alpha-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is EXT2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EXTL2 Gene

  • Glycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of heparan-sulfate and responsible for the alternating addition of beta-1-4-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA) and alpha-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) units to nascent heparan sulfate chains.

Gene Wiki entry for EXTL2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for EXTL2 Gene

Genomics for EXTL2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for EXTL2 Gene

Enhancers for EXTL2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01F100130 1.2 ENCODE 20 +763.9 763930 4.1 PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF207 EXTL2 SLC35A3 TRMT13 SASS6 RTCA BRI3P1 FRRS1 ENSG00000226952
GH01F101290 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12.7 -396.1 -396103 4.2 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 CBX5 ZNF263 JUNB REST EXTL2 ENSG00000252765 LOC102723784 PPIAP7
GH01F100924 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.9 -30.7 -30713 5.0 CTCF ZNF680 RAD21 SLC30A7 EXTL2 ENSG00000252765 DPH5 LOC102606465 S1PR1 HNRNPA1P68
GH01F101174 1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.7 -279.4 -279363 1.8 ZFP64 JUN ZNF266 SIN3A ZNF140 ZNF101 ZNF354C ZNF680 BHLHE40 REST S1PR1 EXTL2 ENSG00000252765 GPR88 ENSG00000271578 LOC101928334
GH01F100265 1.1 ENCODE 11 +629.7 629657 2.6 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF2 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF143 YY2 RTCA EXTL2 RTCA-AS1 GC01P100282
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around EXTL2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for EXTL2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000541830 498 4601 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9

Genomic Location for EXTL2 Gene

100,872,372 bp from pter
100,895,998 bp from pter
23,627 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for EXTL2 Gene

Genes around EXTL2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
EXTL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for EXTL2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EXTL2 Gene

Proteins for EXTL2 Gene

  • Protein details for EXTL2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Exostosin-like 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R795
    • D3DT60

    Protein attributes for EXTL2 Gene

    330 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37466 Da
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for EXTL2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for EXTL2 Gene

  • The soluble form derives from the membrane form by proteolytic processing.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 74
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for EXTL2 Gene

Domains & Families for EXTL2 Gene

Gene Families for EXTL2 Gene

Protein Domains for EXTL2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 47 family.
  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 47 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EXTL2: view

Function for EXTL2 Gene

Molecular function for EXTL2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
EXT-like 2,ubiquitously expressed,alpha 1,4-N-acetylhexosamynyltransferase,transferring N-acetylgalactosamine to the common glycosaminoglycan protein linkage region most likely critical for the synthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-xylosyl-proteoglycan = UDP + alpha-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-xylosyl-proteoglycan.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Glycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of heparan-sulfate and responsible for the alternating addition of beta-1-4-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA) and alpha-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) units to nascent heparan sulfate chains.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for EXTL2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EXTL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001888 glucuronyl-galactosyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity IDA 10318803
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
GO:0035248 alpha-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity IDA 10318803
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EXTL2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EXTL2: view

Animal Models for EXTL2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for EXTL2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for EXTL2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target EXTL2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EXTL2 Gene

Localization for EXTL2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EXTL2 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.
Processed exostosin-like 2: Secreted. Note=A soluble form is found in the serum.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EXTL2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EXTL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 10639137
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EXTL2: view

Pathways & Interactions for EXTL2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EXTL2: view

Pathways by source for EXTL2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9UBQ6-EXTL2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Glycan metabolism; heparan sulfate biosynthesis.

Interacting Proteins for EXTL2 Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q9UBQ6-EXTL2_HUMAN for EXTL2 Gene via IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EXTL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006024 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006044 N-acetylglucosamine metabolic process IDA 10318803
GO:0015012 heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019276 UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine metabolic process IDA 10318803
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EXTL2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for EXTL2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for EXTL2 Gene

(4) Drugs for EXTL2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Uridine-5'-Diphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
Uridine-Diphosphate-N-Acetylgalactosamine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Uridine-Diphosphate-N-Acetylglucosamine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(2) Additional Compounds for EXTL2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine
  • N-[2-[[[5-[(2,4-Dioxo-1H-pyrimidin-1-yl)]-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphinoyl]oxy-hydroxy-phosphinoyl]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-3-yl]acetamide
  • UDP-a-D-N-Acetylglucosamine
  • UDP-Acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • UDP-Acetyl-delta-glucosamine
  • UDP-Acetylglucosamine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EXTL2: view

Transcripts for EXTL2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for EXTL2 Gene

Exostosin-like glycosyltransferase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EXTL2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for EXTL2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for EXTL2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for EXTL2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for EXTL2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (32.3), Cerebrospinal fluid (13.8), and Vitreous humor (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for EXTL2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of EXTL2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EXTL2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EXTL2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with EXTL2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for EXTL2 Gene

Orthologs for EXTL2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for EXTL2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EXTL2 34 35
  • 99.7 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EXTL2 34 35
  • 89.49 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EXTL2 34 35
  • 87.47 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Extl2 34 16 35
  • 83.79 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Extl2 34
  • 83.08 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia EXTL2 35
  • 83 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia EXTL2 35
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves EXTL2 34 35
  • 74.77 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia EXTL2 35
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia extl2 34
  • 67.35 (n)
Str.8466 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.19970 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii extl2 34 35
  • 62.24 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ext2 35
  • 13 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons EPC1 34
  • 49.01 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 25 (a)
-- 35
  • 2 (a)
Species where no ortholog for EXTL2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for EXTL2 Gene

Gene Tree for EXTL2 (if available)
Gene Tree for EXTL2 (if available)

Paralogs for EXTL2 Gene

Paralogs for EXTL2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for EXTL2 Gene using alignment to 9 proteins: Pseudogenes for EXTL2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with EXTL2: view

Variants for EXTL2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for EXTL2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10218565 -- 100,886,105(+) TGTTA(C/T)GGACT intron-variant
rs10218688 -- 100,886,151(+) GACAA(C/T)AGAAT intron-variant
rs1040668 -- 100,880,734(+) ATAAA(C/G)AATCA intron-variant
rs10493937 -- 100,877,094(+) CATCA(A/T)CCTAG intron-variant
rs10493938 -- 100,881,472(+) TAAAC(A/G)TAAGC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EXTL2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv522064 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for EXTL2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.88; 18.37% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for EXTL2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EXTL2 Gene

Disorders for EXTL2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for EXTL2 Gene - From: Novoseek and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hereditary multiple osteochondromas
  • diaphyseal aclasis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search EXTL2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for EXTL2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EXTL2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for EXTL2 Gene

Publications for EXTL2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel member of the EXT gene family, EXTL2. (PMID: 9450183) Wuyts W. … Willems P.J. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 1997) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Two-step mechanism that determines the donor binding specificity of human UDP-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase. (PMID: 15831490) Sobhany M. … Negishi M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 2 3 22 64
  3. Structure, chromosomal location, and expression profile of EXTR1 and EXTR2, new members of the multiple exostoses gene family. (PMID: 9473480) Saito T. … Hori T.-A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 3 4 22 64
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4 64
  5. The putative tumor suppressors EXT1 and EXT2 form a stable complex that accumulates in the Golgi apparatus and catalyzes the synthesis of heparan sulfate. (PMID: 10639137) McCormick C. … Tufaro F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000) 3 4 64

Products for EXTL2 Gene

Sources for EXTL2 Gene

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