Aliases for ESR2 Gene
External Ids for ESR2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ESR2 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for ESR2 Gene
ESR2 (Estrogen Receptor 2 (ER Beta)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ESR2 include gender identity disorder and serous cystadenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity and transcription coactivator activity. An important paralog of this gene is AR.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ESR2 Gene
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Estrogen controls many cellular processes including growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system. In females, estrogen's main targets are the ovaries, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. In the male, target organs are the testes, prostate and epididymis. Estrogen is also responsible for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton and the normal functioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Estrogen exerts most of its actions via estrogen receptors (ER). Estrogen receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Today, two estrogen receptors are known, ERalpha and ERbeta. ERalpha protein is highly homologous to ERbeta protein, especially in the DNA and ligand binding domains, although divergence exists in the N-terminal transactivation domain. Both receptors interact with the same DNA response element and show a similar ligand binding profile. Upon ligand binding estrogen receptors undergo a conformational change allowing spontaneous dimerization to form either homo- or heterodimers. As a dimer, the estrogen receptor binds to the estrogen response element (ERE) in the promoter region of target genes. ERalpha and ERbeta which are present in a broad spectrum of tissues.