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Aliases for EPO Gene

Aliases for EPO Gene

  • Erythropoietin 2 3
  • Epoetin 3 4
  • MVCD2 3 6
  • EP 3

External Ids for EPO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EPO Gene

  • GC07P098853
  • GC07P099916
  • GC07P099929
  • GC07P099963
  • GC07P100156
  • GC07P100318
  • GC07P094949

Summaries for EPO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for EPO Gene

  • This gene is a member of the EPO/TPO family and encodes a secreted, glycosylated cytokine composed of four alpha helical bundles. The protein is found in the plasma and regulates red cell production by promoting erythroid differentiation and initiating hemoglobin synthesis. This protein also has neuroprotective activity against a variety of potential brain injuries and antiapoptotic functions in several tissue types. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for EPO Gene

EPO (Erythropoietin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EPO include microvascular complications of diabetes 2 and end stage renal failure. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and TGF-Beta Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and erythropoietin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EPO Gene

  • Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass

Gene Wiki entry for EPO Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for EPO Gene

Genomics for EPO Gene

Regulatory Elements for EPO Gene

Genomic Location for EPO Gene

100,720,800 bp from pter
100,723,700 bp from pter
2,901 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for EPO Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for EPO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EPO Gene

Proteins for EPO Gene

  • Protein details for EPO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M2L6
    • Q549U2
    • Q9UDZ0
    • Q9UEZ5
    • Q9UHA0

    Protein attributes for EPO Gene

    193 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21307 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for EPO Gene

neXtProt entry for EPO Gene

Proteomics data for EPO Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for EPO Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn51, Asn65, Asn110, and Ser153
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for EPO Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for EPO Gene

Domains for EPO Gene

Gene Families for EPO Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for EPO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the EPO/TPO family.
  • Belongs to the EPO/TPO family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EPO: view

Function for EPO Gene

Molecular function for EPO Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
erythropoietin,46kDa,expressed in liver and kidney,stimulating cellular differentiation of bone marrow cells at an early stage,activating a voltage independent calcium channel dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass

LifeMap Function Summary for EPO Gene

EPO as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005128 erythropoietin receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9774108
GO:0030295 protein kinase activator activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EPO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EPO: view

Animal Models for EPO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for EPO:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for EPO

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EPO Gene

Localization for EPO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EPO Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for EPO Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EPO gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 14569084
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 14569084
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EPO: view

Pathways for EPO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EPO: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 3838366
GO:0007566 embryo implantation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EPO: view

Drugs for EPO Gene


Pharmaceutical: Used for the treatment of anemia. Available under the names Epogen (Amgen), Epogin (Chugai), Epomax (Elanex), Eprex (Janssen-Cilag), NeoRecormon or Recormon (Roche), Dynepo (Shire Pharmaceuticals) and Procrit (Ortho Biotech). Variations in the glycosylation pattern of EPO distinguishes these products. Epogen, Epogin, Eprex and Procrit are generically known as epoetin alfa, NeoRecormon and Recormon as epoetin beta, Dynepo as epoetin delta and Epomax as epoetin omega. Epoetin zeta is the name used for some biosimilars forms of epoetin alfa and is available under the names Silapo (Stada) and Retacrit (Hospira). Darbepoetin alfa is a form created by 5 substitutions (Asn-57, Thr-59, Val-114, Asn-115 and Thr-117) that create 2 new N-glycosylation sites. It has a longer circulating half-life in vivo. It is available under the name Aranesp (Amgen). EPO is being much misused as a performance-enhancing drug in endurance athletes

(134) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for EPO Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
iron sucrose 89.9 103
iron 89.6 413
eprex 88.5 42
nesp 86.5 80
epoetin beta 81.9 22
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EPO: view

Transcripts for EPO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for EPO Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(12) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for EPO Gene

Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for EPO

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EPO Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for EPO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for EPO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for EPO Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for EPO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (36.9) and Pancreas (5.4).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EPO Gene Hs.2303

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EPO Gene

Tissue specificity: Produced by kidney or liver of adult mammals and by liver of fetal or neonatal mammals
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with EPO: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Expression partners for EPO Gene

Orthologs for EPO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for EPO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EPO 35
  • 85.69 (n)
  • 80.1 (a)
EPO 36
  • 80 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EPO 35
  • 86.75 (n)
  • 81.33 (a)
EPO 36
  • 76 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Epo 35
  • 80.52 (n)
  • 80.12 (a)
Epo 16
Epo 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EPO 35
  • 99.48 (n)
  • 99.48 (a)
EPO 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Epo 35
  • 79.92 (n)
  • 82.53 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia EPO 36
  • 55 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia epo 35
  • 49.56 (n)
  • 39.47 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii epo 35
  • 48.83 (n)
  • 38.85 (a)
epo 36
  • 36 (a)
Species with no ortholog for EPO:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for EPO Gene

Gene Tree for EPO (if available)
Gene Tree for EPO (if available)

Paralogs for EPO Gene

No data available for Paralogs for EPO Gene

Variants for EPO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for EPO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_009871 A hepatocellular carcinoma
rs578191720 -- 100,723,688(+) AAGAA(C/G)TGAAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs577308816 -- 100,722,934(+) CCTTC(C/G)CTTTC intron-variant
rs570738458 -- 100,720,479(+) CCAGA(C/T)AGCAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs570715685 -- 100,722,017(+) CACCA(A/G)AGTTA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EPO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2734888 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv831072 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv888791 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470381 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv8184 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv888792 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv888796 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for EPO Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EPO Gene

Disorders for EPO Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for EPO Gene (133170)


  • Microvascular complications of diabetes 2 (MVCD2) [MIM:612623]: Pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for EPO Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for EPO Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
anemia 96.8 444
erythrocytosis 89.7 162
iron deficiency 89.2 133
renal failure chronic 89 213
polycythemia 85.6 130

Relevant External Links for EPO

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EPO: view

No data available for Genatlas for EPO Gene

Publications for EPO Gene

  1. Gene expression of mutant erythropoietin in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 8396923) Funakoshi A. … Shimizu S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993) 3 4 23
  2. Large-scale sequencing of two regions in human chromosome 7q22: analysis of 650 kb of genomic sequence around the EPO and CUTL1 loci reveals 17 genes. (PMID: 9799793) Gloeckner G. … Rosenthal A. (Genome Res. 1998) 2 3 4
  3. Isolation and characterization of genomic and cDNA clones of human erythropoietin. (PMID: 3838366) Jacobs K. … Miyake T. (Nature 1985) 2 3 4
  4. Promoter polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene in severe diabetic eye and kidney complications. (PMID: 18458324) Tong Z. … Zhang K. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 4 48
  5. Genetic contributions to the development of retinopathy of prematurity. (PMID: 18787502) Mohamed S. … Dagle J.M. (Pediatr. Res. 2009) 3 48

Products for EPO Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for EPO

Sources for EPO Gene

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