Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

  • Enolase 2 2 3 4 5
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase 3 4
  • Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal) 2 3
  • Neuronal Enriched Enolase 2 3
  • Neuron-Specific Enolase 3 4
  • Neural Enolase 3 4
  • Gamma-Enolase 2 3
  • EC 4 58
  • NSE 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 279 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase 3
  • Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase 3
  • Neurone-Specific Enolase 3
  • HEL-S-279 3

External Ids for ENO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENO2 Gene

  • GC12M006942
  • GC12M007028
  • GC12P006902
  • GC12P006894
  • GC12P006897
  • GC12P006898
  • GC12P007023
  • GC12P007037
  • GC12P007067
  • GC12P007116
  • GC12P007149

Summaries for ENO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ENO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene

ENO2 (Enolase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include Granular Cell Tumor and Neuroendocrine Tumor. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glucose metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphopyruvate hydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

  • Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 Gene

Additional gene information for ENO2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ENO2 Gene

Genomics for ENO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ENO2 Gene

Enhancers for ENO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12H006459 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -451.6 -451602 6.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ZFP64 BMI1 ZNF143 ZNF207 ATF7 ETV6 RUNX3 CREM ZNF384 ENSG00000219410 CHD4 ENSG00000247853 TAPBPL MRPL51 VAMP1 P3H3 NOP2 SCARNA12
GH12H006197 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.2 -710.7 -710744 11 SIN3A ETS1 ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS SP3 REST NBN CTCF KLF1 ENO2 ING4 CD9 ENSG00000202318 GC12M006235
GH12H006885 0.5 ENCODE 12.8 -26.9 -26895 2.6 CEBPA IKZF1 SIN3A SPSB2 ENO2 ATN1 USP5 CDCA3 C12orf57 RNU7-1 EMG1 PHB2 SCARNA12
GH12H006762 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 2.4 -147.3 -147341 7.2 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B ENSG00000219410 ZNF384 CHD4 NCAPD2 EMG1 ENSG00000247853 PTPN6 SPSB2 GDF3 TNFRSF1A
GH12H006839 0.6 ENCODE 6.6 -73.3 -73349 2 MAZ TAL1 ZNF398 TCF12 GLIS2 POLR2A NCOR1 EZH2 GNB3 SPSB2 ENO2 GC12P006844
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ENO2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000048368 955 1001 HDGF ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 FOS YY2 KAT8 ZNF292 ETV4 WT1

Genomic Locations for ENO2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ENO2 Gene
9,954 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ENO2 Gene

Genes around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ENO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ENO2 Gene

Proteins for ENO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ENO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2X9
    • Q96J33

    Protein attributes for ENO2 Gene

    434 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47269 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.
    • Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ENO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ENO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ENO2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ENO2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for ENO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=120120 and posLast=343343
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for ENO2 Gene

Gene Families for ENO2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ENO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the enolase family.
  • Belongs to the enolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ENO2: view

Function for ENO2 Gene

Molecular function for ENO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ENO2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ENO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004634 phosphopyruvate hydratase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ENO2: view

miRNA for ENO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ENO2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ENO2 Gene

Localization for ENO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ENO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleus (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000015 phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22664934
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ENO2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09104-ENOG_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process ISS 22087329
GO:0061621 canonical glycolysis TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ENO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ENO2 Gene

(55) Drugs for ENO2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Water Approved Pharma 0
phosphoenolpyruvate Experimental Pharma 0
Phosphoglycolic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-phospho-D-glyceric acid Experimental Pharma 0
calcium Nutra 0

(49) Additional Compounds for ENO2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 3-Dehydroquinic acid
  • 5-Dehydroquinate
  • 5-Dehydroquinic acid
  • Cyclohexan-1,4,5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid

(1) ApexBio Compounds for ENO2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AP-III-a4 1177827-73-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ENO2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ENO2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ENO2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(12) Additional mRNA sequences :
(11) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(14) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ENO2 Gene

Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ENO2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - -

ExUns: 12b

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ENO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ENO2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x6.0), Brain - Cerebellum (x5.5), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.6), and Brain - Cortex (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (17.2), Brain (13.9), and Saliva (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ENO2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ENO2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ENO2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ENO2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ENO2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ENO2 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.9)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.1)
  • Lung(3.4)
  • Intestine(3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Pancreas(2.8)
  • Skin(2.7)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Stomach(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ENO2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ENO2 Gene

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ENO2 34 33
  • 93.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ENO2 34 33
  • 92.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eno2 16 34 33
  • 91.71 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911625 33
  • 91.4 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ENO2 34
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ENO2 34
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ENO2 34 33
  • 80.11 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ENO2 34
  • 93 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eno2 34 33
  • 74.73 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eno 35 34
  • 72 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea enol-1 34
  • 69 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER294C 33
  • 62.6 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09185g 33
  • 60.7 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ENO1 33 34
  • 60.31 (n)
ENO2 34
  • 60 (a)
ERR3 34
  • 59 (a)
ERR2 34
  • 59 (a)
ERR1 34
  • 59 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10219 34
  • 71 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10042 33
  • 63.17 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eno101 33
  • 61.33 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ENO2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ENO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ENO2: view

Variants for ENO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ENO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000634103 -- 6,916,457(+) ACGGG(C/T)ATCTA reference, synonymous-codon
rs1001276024 -- 6,923,220(+) GTGAA(C/T)TGTGC upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1001391324 -- 6,916,164(+) TGTGC(A/C)GACGT intron-variant
rs1002345369 -- 6,923,375(+) CTGAC(C/T)TGGGG upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1002861692 -- 6,919,881(+) AACCT(A/G)AGAAC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ENO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832324 CNV loss 17160897
nsv557261 CNV loss 21841781
nsv509453 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv1129363 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1047373 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1035811 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for ENO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.56; 12.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Disorders for ENO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(237) MalaCards diseases for ENO2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
granular cell tumor
  • granular cell tumor nos
neuroendocrine tumor
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm
melanotic neuroectodermal tumor
  • infantile melanotic neuroectodermal neoplasm
askin's tumor
  • askin tumor
cranial nerve malignant neoplasm
  • malignant neoplasm of cranial nerve
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ENO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ENO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ENO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ENO2 Gene

Publications for ENO2 Gene

  1. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PMID: 18460190) Olsen L … Werge T (BMC medical genetics 2008) 3 22 45 60
  2. Serum concentrations of s100b and NSE in migraine. (PMID: 18783450) Teepker M … Schepelmann K (Headache 2009) 3 22 60
  3. Transcriptomic and genetic studies identify IL-33 as a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 19204726) Chapuis J … Lambert JC (Molecular psychiatry 2009) 3 45 60
  4. [Changes in plasma S-100 beta and neuron-specific enolase in peri-operative period of orthotopic liver transplantation and its relationship with encephalopathy after operation]. (PMID: 19220958) Sun HY … Li SR (Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue 2009) 3 22 60
  5. Genetic variants in apoptosis and immunoregulation-related genes are associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (PMID: 19074885) Enjuanes A … Campo E (Cancer research 2008) 3 45 60

Products for ENO2 Gene

Sources for ENO2 Gene

Loading form....