Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

  • Enolase 2 2 3 4
  • Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal) 2 3 5
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase 3 4
  • Neuronal Enriched Enolase 2 3
  • Neuron-Specific Enolase 3 4
  • Neural Enolase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • NSE 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 279 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase 3
  • Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase 3
  • Neurone-Specific Enolase 3
  • Gamma-Enolase 2
  • HEL-S-279 3

External Ids for ENO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENO2 Gene

  • GC12M006942
  • GC12M007028
  • GC12P006902
  • GC12P006894
  • GC12P006897
  • GC12P006898
  • GC12P007023
  • GC12P007037
  • GC12P007067
  • GC12P007116
  • GC12P007149

Summaries for ENO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ENO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene

ENO2 (Enolase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include Neuroendocrine Tumor and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Among its related pathways are Glycosaminoglycan metabolism and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphopyruvate hydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

  • Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ENO2 Gene

Genomics for ENO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ENO2 Gene

Enhancers for ENO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ENO2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene

6,913,745 bp from pter
6,923,698 bp from pter
9,954 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ENO2 Gene

Genes around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ENO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ENO2 Gene

Proteins for ENO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ENO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2X9
    • Q96J33

    Protein attributes for ENO2 Gene

    434 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47269 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.
    • Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ENO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ENO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ENO2 Gene

Proteomics data for ENO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ENO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 120 and Lys 343
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for ENO2 Gene

Protein Domains for ENO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ENO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the enolase family.
  • Belongs to the enolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ENO2: view

No data available for Gene Families for ENO2 Gene

Function for ENO2 Gene

Molecular function for ENO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ENO2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ENO2

miRNA for ENO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ENO2 Gene

Localization for ENO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ENO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ENO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
vacuole 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000015 phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
GO:0043204 perikaryon IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ENO2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09104-ENOG_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5.

Interacting Proteins for ENO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ENO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ENO2 Gene

(50) Drugs for ENO2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
phosphoenolpyruvate Experimental Pharma 0
Phosphoglycolic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid Experimental Pharma 0
calcium Nutra 0
Magnesium Nutra 0

(53) Additional Compounds for ENO2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 3-Dehydroquinic acid
  • 5-Dehydroquinate
  • 5-Dehydroquinic acid
  • Cyclohexan-1,4,5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ENO2: view

Transcripts for ENO2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ENO2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(12) Additional mRNA sequences :
(11) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(14) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ENO2 Gene

Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - -

ExUns: 12b

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ENO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ENO2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x6.0), Brain - Cerebellum (x5.5), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.6), and Brain - Cortex (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (17.2), Brain (13.9), and Saliva (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ENO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ENO2 Gene Hs.511915

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ENO2 Gene

Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ENO2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ENO2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 92.78 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 93.78 (n)
  • 98.85 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eno2 35
  • 91.71 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
Eno2 16
Eno2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911625 35
  • 91.4 (n)
  • 97.93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ENO2 35
  • 80.11 (n)
  • 91.47 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ENO2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eno2 35
  • 74.73 (n)
  • 83.64 (a)
eno2 36
  • 84 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eno 37
  • 72 (a)
Eno 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea enol-1 36
  • 69 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER294C 35
  • 62.6 (n)
  • 64.75 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09185g 35
  • 60.7 (n)
  • 65.12 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ENO1 35
  • 60.31 (n)
  • 63.02 (a)
ENO1 36
  • 62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 60 (a)
ERR1 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR2 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR3 36
  • 59 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10042 35
  • 63.17 (n)
  • 63.87 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eno101 35
  • 61.33 (n)
  • 63.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10219 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ENO2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ENO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ENO2: view

Variants for ENO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ENO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_002354 -
VAR_002355 -
rs2071074 -- 6,916,599(+) GCATG(C/G)CTTCC intron-variant
rs2071417 -- 6,917,143(+) CGTCA(C/G)GGTGG intron-variant
rs2071418 -- 6,917,755(+) CGGGT(A/C/G/T)GGGGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ENO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832324 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv898641 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv898642 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509453 CNV Insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for ENO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.56; 12.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

Disorders for ENO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(141) MalaCards diseases for ENO2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
neuroendocrine tumor
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm
creutzfeldt-jakob disease
  • creutzfeldt-jakob disease, variant
pediatric ovarian dysgerminoma
  • childhood ovarian dysgerminoma
lung cancer
  • lung cancer, protection against
  • pediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococcus infections
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ENO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ENO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ENO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ENO2 Gene

Publications for ENO2 Gene

  1. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PMID: 18460190) Olsen L. … Werge T. (BMC Med. Genet. 2008) 3 23 48 67
  2. Serum concentrations of s100b and NSE in migraine. (PMID: 18783450) Teepker M. … Schepelmann K. (Headache 2009) 3 23
  3. [Changes in plasma S-100 beta and neuron-specific enolase in peri-operative period of orthotopic liver transplantation and its relationship with encephalopathy after operation]. (PMID: 19220958) Sun H.Y. … Li S.R. (Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2009) 3 23
  4. [Relation between the level of TPS, NSE, CEA and beta2-mG in the serum and the biological behavior of small cell lung cancer]. (PMID: 17618570) Chen M.S. … Liu T. (Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007) 3 23
  5. Proteomic characterization of protein phosphatase 1 complexes in ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic tolerance. (PMID: 17683050) Cid C. … Alcazar A. (Proteomics 2007) 3 23

Products for ENO2 Gene

Sources for ENO2 Gene