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Aliases for ENO2 Gene

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

  • Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal) 2 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase 3 4
  • Neuron-Specific Enolase 3 4
  • Neural Enolase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • NSE 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 279 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase 3
  • Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase 3
  • Neurone-Specific Enolase 3
  • HEL-S-279 3
  • Enolase 2 4

External Ids for ENO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENO2 Gene

  • GC12M006942
  • GC12M007028
  • GC12P006902
  • GC12P006894
  • GC12P006897
  • GC12P006898
  • GC12P007023
  • GC12P007037
  • GC12P007067
  • GC12P007116
  • GC12P007149

Summaries for ENO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ENO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene

ENO2 (Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include pandas and pediatric ovarian dysgerminoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphopyruvate hydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENO4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

  • Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ENO2 Gene

Genomics for ENO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ENO2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene

6,913,745 bp from pter
6,923,698 bp from pter
9,954 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ENO2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ENO2 Gene

Proteins for ENO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ENO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2X9
    • Q96J33

    Protein attributes for ENO2 Gene

    434 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47269 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Note=Mg(2+) is required for catalysis and for stabilizing the dimer.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.
    • Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ENO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ENO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ENO2 Gene

Proteomics data for ENO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ENO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 120 and Lys 343
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for ENO2 (Enolase 2/Neuron-specific Enolase)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ENO2 (ENO2)

Domains & Families for ENO2 Gene

Protein Domains for ENO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ENO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the enolase family.
  • Belongs to the enolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ENO2: view

No data available for Gene Families for ENO2 Gene

Function for ENO2 Gene

Molecular function for ENO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ENO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004634 phosphopyruvate hydratase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ENO2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ENO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ENO2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ENO2 Gene

Localization for ENO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ENO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ENO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 3
plasma membrane 3
nucleus 2
vacuole 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000015 phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA --
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22664934
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ENO2: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09104-ENOG_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5

Interacting Proteins for ENO2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)
Selected Interacting proteins: P09104-ENOG_HUMAN ENSP00000229277 for ENO2 Gene via I2D MINT STRING

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ENO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ENO2 Gene

(50) Drugs for ENO2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 1812
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Platinum, Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3 2437
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist 1806
Diethylstilbestrol Approved Pharma Antagonist 5
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes 1792

(53) Additional Compounds for ENO2 Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 3-Dehydroquinic acid
  • 5-Dehydroquinate
  • 5-Dehydroquinic acid
  • Cyclohexan-1,4,5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ENO2: view

Transcripts for ENO2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ENO2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(12) Additional mRNA sequences :
(11) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(14) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ENO2 Gene

Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ENO2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - -

ExUns: 12b

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ENO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ENO2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x6.0), Brain - Cerebellum (x5.5), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.6), and Brain - Cortex (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (17.2), Brain (13.9), and Saliva (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ENO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ENO2 Gene Hs.511915

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ENO2 Gene

Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ENO2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ENO2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 92.78 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 93.78 (n)
  • 98.85 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eno2 35
  • 91.71 (n)
  • 98.62 (a)
Eno2 16
Eno2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911625 35
  • 91.4 (n)
  • 97.93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ENO2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ENO2 35
  • 80.11 (n)
  • 91.47 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ENO2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eno2 35
  • 74.73 (n)
  • 83.64 (a)
eno2 36
  • 84 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eno 37
  • 72 (a)
Eno 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea enol-1 36
  • 69 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER294C 35
  • 62.6 (n)
  • 64.75 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09185g 35
  • 60.7 (n)
  • 65.12 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ENO1 35
  • 60.31 (n)
  • 63.02 (a)
ENO1 36
  • 62 (a)
ENO2 36
  • 60 (a)
ERR1 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR2 36
  • 59 (a)
ERR3 36
  • 59 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10042 35
  • 63.17 (n)
  • 63.87 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eno101 35
  • 61.33 (n)
  • 63.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10219 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ENO2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ENO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ENO2: view

Variants for ENO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ENO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2071074 -- 6,916,599(+) GCATG(C/G)CTTCC intron-variant
rs2071417 -- 6,917,143(+) CGTCA(C/G)GGTGG intron-variant
rs2071418 -- 6,917,755(+) CGGGT(A/C/G/T)GGGGA intron-variant
rs2071419 -- 6,917,768(+) GAGCA(C/T)GCAAC intron-variant
rs2239166 -- 6,915,023(+) CTCAC(C/T)GTTCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ENO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832324 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv898641 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv898642 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509453 CNV Insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for ENO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.56; 12.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Disorders for ENO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(154) MalaCards diseases for ENO2 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections
pediatric ovarian dysgerminoma
  • childhood ovarian dysgerminoma
pediatric ovarian germ cell tumor
  • pediatric ovarian germ cell neoplasm
ureter small cell carcinoma
  • ureteral small cell carcinoma
urinary bladder small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma
  • small cell/neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder
- elite association
Search ENO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ENO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ENO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ENO2 Gene

Publications for ENO2 Gene

  1. The prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase in head trauma patients. (PMID: 18499387) Meric E. … Yandi M. (J Emerg Med 2010) 23 67
  2. Carcinoid tumor of the verumontanum (colliculus seminalis) of the prostatic urethra with a coexisting prostatic adenocarcinoma: a case report. (PMID: 20205830) Smith M. … La Rosa F.G. (J Med Case Rep 2010) 23 67
  3. Neuronal hypertrophy and mast cells in histologically negative, clinically diagnosed acute appendicitis: a quantitative immunophenotypical analysis. (PMID: 20443104) Amber S. … Prasad K. (Indian J Gastroenterol 2010) 23 67
  4. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma--pleomorphic sarcoma, NOS gene expression, histology, and clinical course. A pilot study. (PMID: 19159951) Daigeler A. … Marcus L. (Langenbecks Arch Surg 2010) 23 67
  5. Prognostic value of biochemical markers of brain damage and oxidative stress in post-surgical aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. (PMID: 19887101) Kaneda K. … Maekawa T. (Brain Res. Bull. 2010) 23 67

Products for ENO2 Gene

Sources for ENO2 Gene

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