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ENO2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC12P007149

Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal)

  See ENO2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal)1 2     HEL-S-2792
Neural Enolase2 3     Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 2792
Neuron-Specific Enolase2 3     gamma-enolase2
2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase2 3     Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase2
NSE2 3     Neurone-Specific Enolase2
EC 4.2.1.113 8     Enolase 23
2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 33531   Entrez Gene: 20262   Ensembl: ENSG000001116747   OMIM: 1313605   UniProtKB: P091043   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for ENO2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12M006942 GC12M007028 GC12P006902 GC12P006894 GC12P006897 GC12P006898 GC12P007023 GC12P007037 GC12P007067 GC12P007116


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for ENO2 Gene:
This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in
mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue
during development in rats and primates. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene:
ENO2 (enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include middle ear adenoma, and malignant granular cell myoblastoma. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphopyruvate hydratase activity and magnesium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is ENO3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104
Function: Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS)
neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By
similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 (Enolase 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NC_018923.2  NT_009759.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ENO2 gene promoter:
         GR   p53   AP-1   ATF-2   GR-beta   STAT3   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidENO2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ENO2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ENO2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12p13.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12p13

ENO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ENO2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P007149:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
7,022,909 bp from pter      End:
7,032,861 bp from pter
Size:
9,953 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Gamma-enolase  
Size: 434 amino acids; 47269 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium. Required for catalysis and for stabilizing the dimer
Subunit: Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or
heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific
Developmental stage: During ontogenesis, there is a transition from the alpha/alpha homodimer to the alpha/beta
heterodimer in striated muscle cells, and to the alpha/gamma heterodimer in nerve cells
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for ENO2 (see all 9):
1TE6 (3D)        2AKM (3D)        2AKZ (3D)        3UCC (3D)        3UCD (3D)        3UJE (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q96J33

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ENO2: NX_P09104

Explore proteomics data for ENO2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys5, Lys120, Lys343, Lys394
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for ENO2 (P09104) (see all 35)
     TGQIKTG  GKGVLKA  QEFMILP  LDGTENK 


    See ENO2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001966.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000445788   ENSP00000438873   ENSP00000441490   ENSP00000438062   ENSP00000437402  
     ENSP00000476096   ENSP00000476112   ENSP00000229277   ENSP00000446195  
    Reactome Protein details: P09104

    ENO2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for ENO2
    OriGene Purified Protein for ENO2
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for ENO2
    OriGene MassSpec for ENO2
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ENO2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ENO2
    Novus Biologicals ENO2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals ENO2 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for ENO2
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for ENO2
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for ENO2 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for ENO2 (56 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for ENO2

    ENO2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of ENO2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for ENO2 (Enolase 2/Neuron-specific Enolase)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ENO2 
    OriGene Antibodies for ENO2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ENO2
    Novus Biologicals ENO2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for ENO2 (P09104, P13929)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for ENO2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for ENO2
    antibodies-online antibodies for ENO2 (317 products) 

    ENO2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ENO2
    R&D Systems ELISAs for ENO2 (Enolase 2/Neuron-specific Enolase)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for ENO2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for ENO2 
    antibodies-online kits for ENO2 (42 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR020810 Enolase_C
     IPR020811 Enolase_N
     IPR000941 Enolase
     IPR020809 Enolase_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P09104

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P09104

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000941 Enolase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104
    Similarity: Belongs to the enolase family


    Find genes that share domains with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104
    Function: Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS)
    neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By
    similarity)
    Catalytic activity: 2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate + H(2)O
    Induction: Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for ENO2:
    enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 4.2.1.111 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0004634phosphopyruvate hydratase activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for ENO2:
     Decreased melanin production  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Eno2):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  craniofacial  nervous system  respiratory system 
     taste/olfaction 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ENO2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for ENO2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ENO2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ENO2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2:
    hsa-mir-99b-5p (MIRT044208), hsa-mir-93-3p (MIRT038722)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ENO2 using miScript Target Protectors
    5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ENO2:
    hsa-miR-4283 hsa-miR-4318 hsa-miR-1207-3p hsa-miR-3175 hsa-miR-548q
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidENO2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ENO2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ENO2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for ENO2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ENO2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ENO2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ENO2 (NM_001975)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for ENO2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ENO2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ENO2
    Addgene plasmids for ENO2 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for ENO2
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for ENO2 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ENO2

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12278) for ENO2 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ENOG_HUMAN, P09104: Cytoplasm (By similarity). Cell membrane (By similarity). Note=Can translocate to the plasma
    membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton4
    cytosol4
    extracellular2
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    mitochondrion1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000015phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA--
    GO:0001917photoreceptor inner segment IEA--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA--
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ENO2 About   (see all 10)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map 0.60
    Glycolysis0.40
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    gluconeogenesis0.39
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    glycolysis0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Glucose metabolism
    Glucose metabolism0.44
    Gluconeogenesis0.44
    4Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38
    Biosynthesis of amino acids0.38
    5Deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay
    RNA degradation0.48


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for ENO2
        Neuroscience
    Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for ENO2
        Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for ENO2
        Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    glycolysis
    gluconeogenesis
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    2 Reactome Pathways for ENO2
        Gluconeogenesis
    Glycolysis


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ENO2) (see all 6):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Biosynthesis of amino acids
    RNA degradation

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104
    Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ENO2: 

              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ENO2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ENO2 (P091042, 3 ENSP000002292774) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 216)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TUBA4AP683662, 3, ENSP000002484374MINT-63433 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000248437
    IL17BQ9UHF52, 3MINT-63443 I2D: score=5 
    C16orf45Q96MC52, 3MINT-65236 I2D: score=4 
    ENSAO437682, 3MINT-63435 I2D: score=4 
    HK1P193672, 3MINT-63432 I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005975carbohydrate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006094gluconeogenesis TAS--
    GO:0006096glycolytic process TAS--
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ENO2 (ENOG)

    6 HMDB Compounds for ENO2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid2-Phospho-D-glycerate (see all 7)----
    3-Dehydroquinate3-Dehydroquinic acid (see all 4)----
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--
    Phosphoenolpyruvic acid2-hydroxy-Acrylic acid dihydrogen phosphate (see all 6)138-08-9--
    WaterDihydrogen oxide (see all 2)7732-18-5--

    1 DrugBank Compound for ENO2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    2-Phosphoglycolic Acid-- 13147-57-4target--17139284 17016423 10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ENO2 gene (see all 99)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    s 100 54.6 15 8878020 (4), 17335582 (2), 11253120 (2), 17438351 (1) (see all 5)
    askin 54.6 2 2173115 (1), 8176303 (1)
    smcc 53.7 2 14652811 (1)
    paraffin 49 18 1693875 (1), 7843005 (1), 17614779 (1), 8672200 (1) (see all 16)
    vanillylmandelic acid 48.4 15 12932669 (3), 8071687 (2), 7971442 (2), 1755298 (1) (see all 5)
    estracyt 46 1 1715080 (1)
    mibg 40 10 11470071 (6), 8071687 (1), 8028223 (1), 14971604 (1)
    etoposide 39.6 3 15894559 (1), 11125949 (1), 10690544 (1)
    2-phosphoglycerate 37.2 1 7520111 (1)
    acth 35.9 24 9008036 (2), 10657486 (2), 1876589 (1), 8606042 (1) (see all 20)



    Find genes that share compounds with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for ENO2 gene: 
    NM_001975.2  

    Unigene Cluster for ENO2:

    Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)
    Hs.511915  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK124656
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000537688 ENST00000541477(uc009zfi.1) ENST00000537838 ENST00000536199
    ENST00000538763 ENST00000539713 ENST00000542509 ENST00000545045 ENST00000535366(uc001qrv.1)
    ENST00000441285 ENST00000535275 ENST00000543975 ENST00000534977 ENST00000229277(uc001qru.1 uc010sfq.1)
    ENST00000544774
    miRNA
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    5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ENO2:
    hsa-miR-4283 hsa-miR-4318 hsa-miR-1207-3p hsa-miR-3175 hsa-miR-548q
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidENO2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ENO2
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ENO2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ENO2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ENO2 (NM_001975)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ENO2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ENO2
    Addgene plasmids for ENO2 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for ENO2
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ENO2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat ENO2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ENO2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ENO2
    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12278) for ENO2 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK124656.1 AK290525.1 AK295220.1 AK312402.1 BC002745.2 BT007383.1 CR536582.1 M22349.1 
    M36768.1 X13120.1 X14327.1 Y00691.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 44):

    DT.100816849  DT.95367177  DT.121157852  DT.92451384  DT.100816857  DT.100804014  DT.100816859  DT.450294 
    DT.100816865  DT.97766751  DT.100816866  DT.121157259  DT.100686581  DT.100652376  DT.100816854  DT.100816847 
    DT.121157788  DT.100660963  DT.100816850  DT.121157706  DT.121157523  DT.97817774  DT.121157290  DT.100816867 

    11 AceView cDNA sequences:

    AK124656 BC002745 NM_001975 CR607583 CR536582 M22349 X14327 BT007383 
    X13120 M36768 Y00691 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 (see all 13)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
    SP1:              -     -     -                             -     -     -           -     -                                         -                           
    SP2:                                                        -     -     -           -     -                                         -                           
    SP3:              -     -     -                             -     -     -           -     -                                                                     
    SP4:              -     -     -     -                       -     -     -           -     -                                                                     
    SP5:              -     -     -                             -     -     -                                                                                       

    ExUns: 12b
    SP1:      
    SP2:      
    SP3:      
    SP4:      
    SP5:      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ENO2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    ENO2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCACGTTCCA
    ENO2 Expression
    About this image


    ENO2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     NULL (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             B27-induced amniotic-derived mesenchymal stem cells
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human embryonic stem cells (family)
    ENO2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ENO2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.511915

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ENOG_HUMAN, P09104
    Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta
    heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the
    gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ENO2: 
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              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ENO2
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ENO2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for ENO2 gene from Selected species (see all 20)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Eno21 , 5 enolase 2, gamma neuronal1, 5 91.71(n)1
    98.62(a)1
      6 (59.17 cM)5
    138071  NM_013509.21  NP_038537.11 
     1247600535 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ENO21 enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal) 80.11(n)
    91.47(a)
      395689  NM_204876.1  NP_990207.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ENO26
    enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)
    93(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343453.1(496168-521759)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii eno21 enolase 2 74.73(n)
    83.64(a)
      402874  NM_001003848.2  NP_001003848.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Eno3 glycolysis phosphopyruvate hydratase 72(a)   22B1   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea enol-16
    Protein ENOL-1, isoform c
    69(a)
    1 → many
    II(8930985-8933799) WBGene00011884
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes ENO11 ENO1 60.31(n)
    63.02(a)
      853169   NP_011770.3 
    soybean
    (Glycine max)
    eudicotyledons 445213852   -- 74.06(n)  
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida AK069316.12   -- 74.91(n)    AK069316.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ENO2 gene
    ENO32  ENO12  ENO42  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 using alignment to 7 protein entries:     ENOG_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    ENO1    ENO3    EDARADD    TMEM237

    Find genes that share paralogs with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ENO2 (see all 221)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1922948871,2
    --7024048(+) CTCTCC/TACCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs22391661,2
    C--7024187(+) CTCACC/TGTTCC 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- T:0.17EA NA 1622
    rs1432584691,2
    C--7024264(+) TCGCGA/CTTCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1162985821,2
    C,F--7024537(+) TTAAGT/CTGGGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1830023431,2
    C--7024626(+) CATTCC/TGCTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs110644611,2
    C--7024666(+) GCCAAC/GCTGCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1153397971,2
    C,F--7024728(+) TCCCAT/GCTCAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.04WA 118
    rs1160380311,2
    C,F--7024871(+) CCCACC/TCACTG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.02WA 118
    rs1880733851,2
    C--7024977(+) TCCACA/CCGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs110644621,2
    C--7025155(+) GTTCGA/GAGGCC 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ENO2 (7022909 - 7032861 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for ENO2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv509453CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv898642CNV Loss21882294
    nsv898641CNV Loss21882294
    nsv832324CNV Loss17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ENO2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 131360    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for ENO2 (see all 48):    
    About MalaCards
    middle ear adenoma    malignant granular cell myoblastoma    pediatric ovarian dysgerminoma    pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation
    central nervous system cancer    persistent vegetative state    nervous system cancer    small cell carcinoma of the bladder
    myoblastoma    gastric small cell carcinoma    rhabdoid cancer    epulis
    bednar's tumor    congenital granular cell tumor    middle cerebral artery infarction    autoimmune retinopathy
    adrenal neuroblastoma    cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma    miliary tuberculosis    epithelioid leiomyosarcoma

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ENO2 (see all 23):
    Carcinoma     Lung cancer     Granular cell tumor     Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
    Neuroblastoma     Merkel cell carcinoma     Paraganglioma     Central nervous system cancer
    Sarcoma     Brain disease     Ganglioneuroma     Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor
    Neurilemmoma     Rhabdomyosarcoma     Teratoma     Malignant granular cell myoblastoma
    Middle ear adenoma     Melanoma     Rhabdoid cancer     Malignant glioma

    Find genes that share disorders with ENO2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ENO2 gene (see all 96)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    small cell lung cancer 87.1 143 10460660 (4), 1684395 (3), 7915589 (3), 9176714 (2) (see all 92)
    carcinoma neuroendocrine 80.8 3 11353063 (1), 12229180 (1), 15010880 (1)
    tumors 74.9 677 14654716 (4), 9008332 (4), 1380226 (4), 1290031 (4) (see all 99)
    granular cell tumor 73.9 4 17511737 (1), 9176790 (1), 11168695 (1), 7857416 (1)
    carcinoid 73.2 23 1477975 (3), 12190042 (3), 2279307 (1), 20504634 (1) (see all 17)
    cancer lung 68.1 184 12581971 (5), 12479076 (5), 16317269 (4), 8380696 (4) (see all 98)
    nsclc 68 154 11956631 (6), 16793621 (4), 16398403 (4), 20032442 (4) (see all 64)
    carcinoma merkel cell 67.9 2 9870679 (1), 8539236 (1)
    neuroendocrine tumors 67.9 21 9253344 (3), 10463986 (2), 18452460 (1), 10514916 (1) (see all 12)
    metastasis 63.1 51 1739633 (3), 1347764 (2), 1329221 (2), 1965899 (2) (see all 37)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ENO2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ENO2 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for ENO2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ENO2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1448):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ENO2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PubMed id 18460190)1, 4, 9 Olsen L....Werge T. (BMC Med. Genet. 2008)
    2. Transcriptomic and genetic studies identify IL-33 as a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 19204726)1, 4 Chapuis J....Lambert J.C. (Mol. Psychiatry 2009)
    3. Genetic variants in apoptosis and immunoregulation-related genes are associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (PubMed id 19074885)1, 4 Enjuanes A....Campo E. (Cancer Res. 2008)
    4. Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. (PubMed id 15592455)1, 2 Rush J.... Comb M.J. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Expression, purification and the 1.8 angstroms resolution crystal structure of human neuron specific enolase. (PubMed id 15289101)1, 2 Chai G.... Lebioda L. (J. Mol. Biol. 2004)
    7. Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental and computational gene structure determination. (PubMed id 9074930)1, 2 Ansari-Lari M.A.... Gibbs R.A. (Genome Res. 1997)
    8. Complete structure of the human gene encoding neuron-specific enolase. (PubMed id 2045099)1, 2 Oliva D.... Giallongo A. (Genomics 1991)
    9. Cloning, expression and sequence homologies of cDNA for human gamma enolase. (PubMed id 2792767)1, 2 Oliva D.... Feo S. (Gene 1989)
    10. Complete amino acid sequence of the neurone-specific gamma isozyme of enolase (NSE) from human brain and comparison with the non-neuronal alpha form (NNE). (PubMed id 3208766)1, 2 McAleese S.M.... Day I.N.M. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1988)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2026 HGNC: 3353 AceView: ENO2 Ensembl:ENSG00000111674 euGenes: HUgn2026
    ECgene: ENO2 Kegg: 2026 H-InvDB: ENO2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ENO2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ENO2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ENO2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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