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Aliases for EIF2AK3 Gene

Aliases for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2 Alpha Kinase 3 2 3 5
  • PRKR-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase 3 4
  • Pancreatic EIF2-Alpha Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 63
  • PERK 3 4
  • PEK 3 4
  • HsPEK 4
  • WRS 3

External Ids for EIF2AK3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • GC02M088410
  • GC02M089149
  • GC02M088741
  • GC02M088758
  • GC02M088695
  • GC02M087778
  • GC02M088857

Summaries for EIF2AK3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2, leading to its inactivation, and thus to a rapid reduction of translational initiation and repression of global protein synthesis. This protein is thought to modulate mitochondrial function. It is a type I membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is induced by ER stress caused by malfolded proteins. Mutations in this gene are associated with Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]

GeneCards Summary for EIF2AK3 Gene

EIF2AK3 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2 Alpha Kinase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EIF2AK3 include wolcott-rallison syndrome and mitchell-riley syndrome. Among its related pathways are Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups. An important paralog of this gene is EIF2AK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • Metabolic-stress sensing protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1) on Ser-52 during the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in response to low amino acid availability. Converts phosphorylated eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1 either in a global protein synthesis inhibitor, leading to a reduced overall utilization of amino acids, or to a translation initiation activator of specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4, and hence allowing ATF4-mediated reprogramming of amino acid biosynthetic gene expression to alleviate nutrient depletion. Serves as a critical effector of unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced G1 growth arrest due to the loss of cyclin-D1 (CCND1). Involved in control of mitochondrial morphology and function.

Tocris Summary for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • PKR-like ER kinase (PERK, EIF2AK3) is an elF2alpha kinase that inhibits protein translation. PERK is a type one endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein which is involved in both the integrated stress response (ISR) and unfolded protein response (UPR).

Gene Wiki entry for EIF2AK3 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for EIF2AK3 Gene

Genomics for EIF2AK3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for EIF2AK3 Gene

Promoters for EIF2AK3 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around EIF2AK3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for EIF2AK3 Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
88,556,741 bp from pter
End:
88,627,576 bp from pter
Size:
70,836 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for EIF2AK3 Gene

Genes around EIF2AK3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
EIF2AK3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for EIF2AK3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EIF2AK3 Gene

Proteins for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • Protein details for EIF2AK3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NZJ5-E2AK3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NZJ5
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVH1
    • A0AVH2
    • B2RCU9
    • O95846
    • Q53QY0
    • Q53SB1

    Protein attributes for EIF2AK3 Gene

    Size:
    1116 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    125216 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms dimers with HSPA5/BIP in resting cells. Oligomerizes in ER-stressed cells. Interacts with DNAJC3 and MFN2 (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for EIF2AK3 Gene

neXtProt entry for EIF2AK3 Gene

Proteomics data for EIF2AK3 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for EIF2AK3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for EIF2AK3 Gene

  • ADP-ribosylated by PARP16 upon ER stress, which increases kinase activity.
  • N-glycosylated.
  • Oligomerization of the N-terminal ER luminal domain by ER stress promotes PERK trans-autophosphorylation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic kinase domain at multiple residues including Thr-982 on the kinase activation loop (By similarity). Autophosphorylated. Phosphorylated at Tyr-619 following endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to activate its tyrosine-protein kinase activity. Dephosphorylated by PTPN1/TP1B, leading to inactivate its enzyme activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 258
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for EIF2AK3 Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for EIF2AK3 Gene

Gene Families for EIF2AK3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for EIF2AK3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NZJ5

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

E2AK3_HUMAN :
  • The lumenal domain senses perturbations in protein folding in the ER, probably through reversible interaction with HSPA5/BIP.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The lumenal domain senses perturbations in protein folding in the ER, probably through reversible interaction with HSPA5/BIP.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EIF2AK3: view

Function for EIF2AK3 Gene

Molecular function for EIF2AK3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
elongation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3,mainly expressed in pancreas,colocolizing with somatostatin in islet delta-cells,putatively involved in regulating protein synthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Perturbation in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes reversible dissociation from HSPA5/BIP and oligomerization, resulting in transautophosphorylation and kinase activity induction.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Metabolic-stress sensing protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1) on Ser-52 during the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in response to low amino acid availability. Converts phosphorylated eIF-2-alpha/EIF2S1 either in a global protein synthesis inhibitor, leading to a reduced overall utilization of amino acids, or to a translation initiation activator of specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4, and hence allowing ATF4-mediated reprogramming of amino acid biosynthetic gene expression to alleviate nutrient depletion. Serves as a critical effector of unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced G1 growth arrest due to the loss of cyclin-D1 (CCND1). Involved in control of mitochondrial morphology and function.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for EIF2AK3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EIF2AK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity TAS 22934019
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EIF2AK3: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for EIF2AK3 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for EIF2AK3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for EIF2AK3:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for EIF2AK3 Gene

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EIF2AK3 Gene

Localization for EIF2AK3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EIF2AK3 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for EIF2AK3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EIF2AK3 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 3
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
golgi apparatus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EIF2AK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK3: view

Pathways & Interactions for EIF2AK3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EIF2AK3: view

Pathways by source for EIF2AK3 Gene

1 GeneTex pathway for EIF2AK3 Gene
2 BioSystems pathways for EIF2AK3 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for EIF2AK3 Gene
2 Qiagen pathways for EIF2AK3 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for EIF2AK3 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EIF2AK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development ISS --
GO:0001503 ossification IMP 12086964
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,ISS --
GO:0006983 ER overload response IDA 10677345
GO:0007029 endoplasmic reticulum organization ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK3: view

Drugs & Compounds for EIF2AK3 Gene

(18) Drugs for EIF2AK3 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, ApexBio, DGIdb, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
GSK2606414 Pharma PERK inhibitor,potent and selective, Potent and selective PERK inhibitor; orally bioavailable 0
GSK2656157 Pharma PERK inhibitor 0

(11) Additional Compounds for EIF2AK3 Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
AMG PERK 44
trans-ISRIB
1597403-47-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EIF2AK3: view

Transcripts for EIF2AK3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for EIF2AK3 Gene

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EIF2AK3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:

ExUns: 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:

Relevant External Links for EIF2AK3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
EIF2AK3
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
EIF2AK3

Expression for EIF2AK3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for EIF2AK3 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for EIF2AK3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix (45.7), Plasma (9.7), and Monocytes (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for EIF2AK3 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EIF2AK3 Gene Hs.591589

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EIF2AK3 Gene

Q9NZJ5-E2AK3_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous. A high level expression is seen in secretory tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with EIF2AK3: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for EIF2AK3 Gene

Orthologs for EIF2AK3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for EIF2AK3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EIF2AK3 35
  • 99.55 (n)
  • 99.46 (a)
EIF2AK3 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EIF2AK3 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
EIF2AK3 35
  • 86.95 (n)
  • 89.53 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EIF2AK3 35
  • 90.21 (n)
  • 91.73 (a)
EIF2AK3 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eif2ak3 16
Eif2ak3 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Eif2ak3 35
  • 82.76 (n)
  • 87.83 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia EIF2AK3 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia EIF2AK3 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Eif2ak3 35
  • 83.3 (n)
  • 87.99 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves EIF2AK3 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
EIF2AK3 35
  • 77.03 (n)
  • 81.93 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia EIF2AK3 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia eif2ak3 35
  • 69.18 (n)
  • 71.9 (a)
Str.7282 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eif2ak3 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
eif2ak3 35
  • 62.25 (n)
  • 64.56 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP013266 35
  • 45.73 (n)
  • 39.34 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta PEK 36
  • 31 (a)
OneToOne
PEK 37
  • 31 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pek-1 36
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
Y38E10A.8 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GCN2 36
  • 10 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13424 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for EIF2AK3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for EIF2AK3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for EIF2AK3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for EIF2AK3 (if available)

Paralogs for EIF2AK3 Gene

Paralogs for EIF2AK3 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for EIF2AK3 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with EIF2AK3: view

Variants for EIF2AK3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for EIF2AK3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_011408 Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS)
rs867529 - 88,613,755(+) CCAAG(C/G)AACCG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs13045 - 88,595,605(-) GGACC(A/G)AGACC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
VAR_011411 -
rs55791823 - 88,583,496(+) CAGAA(A/C/T)CATAT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EIF2AK3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv61n16 CNV Deletion 17901297
nsv470476 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv507022 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv874582 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for EIF2AK3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.17; 90.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for EIF2AK3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
EIF2AK3
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
EIF2AK3

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EIF2AK3 Gene

Disorders for EIF2AK3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for EIF2AK3 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
wolcott-rallison syndrome
  • romano-ward syndrome
mitchell-riley syndrome
  • mtchrs
ehlers-danlos syndrome, progeroid type, 2
  • ehlers-danlos syndrome, progeroid type 2
epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, miura type
  • ecdm
diversion colitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

E2AK3_HUMAN
  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) [MIM:226980]: A rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes and, at a later age, epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, growth retardation and other multisystem manifestations, such as hepatic and renal dysfunctions, mental retardation and cardiovascular abnormalities. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10932183}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for EIF2AK3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
EIF2AK3
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
EIF2AK3
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
EIF2AK3
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EIF2AK3: view

No data available for Genatlas for EIF2AK3 Gene

Publications for EIF2AK3 Gene

  1. Characterization of a mutant pancreatic eIF-2alpha kinase, PEK, and co-localization with somatostatin in islet delta cells. (PMID: 10026192) Shi Y. … Yang N.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. PERK-dependent regulation of ceramide synthase 6 and thioredoxin play a key role in mda-7/IL-24-induced killing of primary human glioblastoma multiforme cells. (PMID: 20103619) Yacoub A. … Dent P. (Cancer Res. 2010) 3 23
  3. Activation of the unfolded protein response contributes toward the antitumor activity of vorinostat. (PMID: 20072656) Kahali S. … Chinnaiyan P. (Neoplasia 2010) 3 23
  4. Treatment with panobinostat induces glucose-regulated protein 78 acetylation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in breast cancer cells. (PMID: 20371724) Rao R. … Bhalla K.N. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2010) 3 23
  5. Activation of PERK signaling attenuates Abeta-mediated ER stress. (PMID: 20463975) Lee d.o. .Y. … Kim S.S. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 23

Products for EIF2AK3 Gene

Sources for EIF2AK3 Gene

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