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Aliases for ECT2 Gene

Aliases for ECT2 Gene

  • Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 2 3 5
  • Epithelial Cell-Transforming Sequence 2 Oncogene 3 4
  • Epithelial Cell Transforming Sequence 2 Oncogene 2
  • Protein ECT2 3
  • ARHGEF31 3

External Ids for ECT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ECT2 Gene

  • GC03P169518
  • GC03P173499
  • GC03P173870
  • GC03P173793
  • GC03P173773
  • GC03P173951
  • GC03P172468
  • GC03P169843

Summaries for ECT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ECT2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and transforming protein that is related to Rho-specific exchange factors and yeast cell cycle regulators. The expression of this gene is elevated with the onset of DNA synthesis and remains elevated during G2 and M phases. In situ hybridization analysis showed that expression is at a high level in cells undergoing mitosis in regenerating liver. Thus, this protein is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner during liver regeneration, and is thought to have an important role in the regulation of cytokinesis. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

GeneCards Summary for ECT2 Gene

ECT2 (Epithelial Cell Transforming 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling and PLK1 signaling events. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and GTPase activator activity. An important paralog of this gene is TOPBP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Rho family members of small GTPases, like RHOA, RHOC, RAC1 and CDC42. Required for signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of cytokinesis. Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Regulates the translocation of RHOA from the central spindle to the equatorial region. Plays a role in the control of mitotic spindle assembly; regulates the activation of CDC42 in metaphase for the process of spindle fibers attachment to kinetochores before chromosome congression. Involved in the regulation of epithelial cell polarity; participates in the formation of epithelial tight junctions in a polarity complex PARD3-PARD6-protein kinase PRKCQ-dependent manner. Plays a role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Inhibits phenobarbital (PB)-induced NR1I3 nuclear translocation. Stimulates the activity of RAC1 through its association with the oncogenic PARD6A-PRKCI complex in cancer cells, thereby acting to coordinately drive tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Also stimulates genotoxic stress-induced RHOB activity in breast cancer cells leading to their cell death.

Gene Wiki entry for ECT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ECT2 Gene

Genomics for ECT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ECT2 Gene

Enhancers for ECT2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03G172690 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 -58.6 -58611 2.3 ELF3 SOX13 FOXA2 SAP130 RARA TEAD3 CTBP1 NR2F6 MAFK SOX5 NCEH1 ECT2 GC03M172695 LOC100420939
GH03G171804 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.9 -942.0 -941995 9.3 MLX CREB3L1 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF263 SP3 TBX21 MEF2D PLD1 FNDC3B TMEM212 ECT2 TNIK ENSG00000234594
GH03G172747 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 5.4 -0.5 -486 4.8 HNRNPUL1 FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARNT WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 NCEH1 RNU6-547P ECT2
GH03G171787 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.5 -960.3 -960264 5.9 FOXA2 FEZF1 ZNF2 GATA2 ELK1 FOS TSHZ1 REST ZNF623 TBX21 PLD1 TMEM212 FNDC3B ECT2 ENSG00000234594
GH03G171781 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.2 -968.3 -968306 2.3 ESRRA PKNOX1 BHLHE40 ZNF7 ZNF664 HIC1 PRDM6 ZNF366 IKZF1 BCL6B PLD1 TMEM212 ECT2 ENSG00000234594
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ECT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ECT2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000162028 418 2201 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 FOS

Genomic Location for ECT2 Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
172,750,682 bp from pter
End:
172,829,265 bp from pter
Size:
78,584 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ECT2 Gene

Genes around ECT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ECT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ECT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ECT2 Gene

Proteins for ECT2 Gene

  • Protein details for ECT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9H8V3-ECT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein ECT2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9H8V3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q0MT80
    • Q2M269
    • Q6U836
    • Q9NSV8
    • Q9NVW9

    Protein attributes for ECT2 Gene

    Size:
    914 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    103505 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NR1I3 (By similarity). Homodimer. Homooligomer. Found in the centralspindlin complex. Interacts (Thr-359 phosphorylated form) with PARD6A; the interaction is observed in cancer cells. Interacts (Thr-359 phosphorylated form) with PRKCI; the interaction is observed in cancer cells. Interacts with PKP4; the interaction is observed at the midbody. Interacts with RACGAP1; the interaction is direct, occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner, is inhibited in metaphase by phosphorylation of ECT2 on Thr-373 and is stimulated in early anaphase by dephosphorylation of ECT2 probably on Thr-373 through CDK1 activity. Interacts with PLK1; the interaction is stimulated upon its phosphorylation on Thr-444. Associates with RACGAP1 at anaphase and during cytokinesis. Interacts with KIF23, PARD3, PARD6A, PARD6B and PRKCQ.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA91624.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ECT2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ECT2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ECT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ECT2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated by PLK1 in vitro. Hyperphosphorylated during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation at Thr-373 occurs during the G2/M phase, relieves its auto-inhibition status and stimulates its GEF activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-444 in G2/M phase is required for subsequent binding with PLK1 and Rho exchange activation. Dephosphorylated at the time of cytokinesis. Phosphorylation at Thr-359 is required for its transformation activity in cancer cells.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ECT2 Gene

Domains & Families for ECT2 Gene

Gene Families for ECT2 Gene

Protein Domains for ECT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ECT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9H8V3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ECT2_HUMAN :
  • The BRCT domain 1 and 2 are required for the intramolecular interaction, but not for the intermolecular oligomerization. The BRCT domains negatively inhibit its GEF activity in interphase cells. The same BRCT domains may act as a positive regulatory motif for the completion of cytokinesis after the breakdown of nuclear membrane during mitosis.
Domain:
  • The BRCT domain 1 and 2 are required for the intramolecular interaction, but not for the intermolecular oligomerization. The BRCT domains negatively inhibit its GEF activity in interphase cells. The same BRCT domains may act as a positive regulatory motif for the completion of cytokinesis after the breakdown of nuclear membrane during mitosis.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ECT2: view

Function for ECT2 Gene

Molecular function for ECT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
mouse Ect2 related proto-oncogene 2
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Rho family members of small GTPases, like RHOA, RHOC, RAC1 and CDC42. Required for signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of cytokinesis. Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Regulates the translocation of RHOA from the central spindle to the equatorial region. Plays a role in the control of mitotic spindle assembly; regulates the activation of CDC42 in metaphase for the process of spindle fibers attachment to kinetochores before chromosome congression. Involved in the regulation of epithelial cell polarity; participates in the formation of epithelial tight junctions in a polarity complex PARD3-PARD6-protein kinase PRKCQ-dependent manner. Plays a role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Inhibits phenobarbital (PB)-induced NR1I3 nuclear translocation. Stimulates the activity of RAC1 through its association with the oncogenic PARD6A-PRKCI complex in cancer cells, thereby acting to coordinately drive tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Also stimulates genotoxic stress-induced RHOB activity in breast cancer cells leading to their cell death.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by calcium in cells forming cell-cell contact sites. Up-regulated by DNA damaging agents like H(2)O(2) or ionizing radiation (IR).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0005089 Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0005096 GTPase activator activity IMP 15642749
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15254234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ECT2: view

Animal Models for ECT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ECT2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ECT2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ECT2 Gene

Localization for ECT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Cell junction. Cell junction, tight junction. Note=Sequestered within the nucleus during interphase. Dispersed throughout the cytoplasm upon breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Colocalizes with the centralspindlin complex to the mitotic spindles during anaphase/metaphase, the cleavage furrow during telophase and at the midbody at the end of cytokinesis. Colocalized with RhoA at the midbody. Its subcellular localization to tight junction is increased by calcium. Localized predominantly in the cytoplasm of numerous carcinoma cells.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ECT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 15254234
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 19617897
GO:0005819 spindle IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ECT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ECT2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for ECT2 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0000910 cytokinesis IMP 16236794
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0007049 cell cycle IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ECT2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for ECT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ECT2 Gene

Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 oncogene:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ECT2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ECT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3: - - -
SP4:
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7: - - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - -
SP10: -
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:

ExUns: 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3:
SP4: - - -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12:
SP13:

Relevant External Links for ECT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ECT2

Expression for ECT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ECT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ECT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (61.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ECT2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ECT2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ECT2 Gene:

ECT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ECT2 Gene:

Hs.518299

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ECT2 Gene:

Q9H8V3-ECT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in lung epithelial cells (at protein level). Expressed in squamous cell carcinoma, primary non-small cell lung cancer tumors and lung adenocarcinoma.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ECT2 Gene

  • Lung(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ECT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ECT2 Gene

Orthologs for ECT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ECT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ECT2 34 35
  • 99.64 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ECT2 34 35
  • 93.22 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ECT2 34 35
  • 92.89 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ECT2 35
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ect2 34 16 35
  • 87.15 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ect2 34
  • 86.67 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ECT2 34 35
  • 78.93 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ECT2 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ect2 34
  • 74.46 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ect2 34 35
  • 65.64 (n)
Dr.12679 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta pbl 35 34
  • 47.41 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005796 34
  • 47.1 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ect-2 35
  • 18 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for ECT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ECT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ECT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ECT2 (if available)

Paralogs for ECT2 Gene

Paralogs for ECT2 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ECT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ECT2: view

Variants for ECT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ECT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_035975 A breast cancer sample
rs1000025914 -- 172,754,149(+) TGGGA(A/G)GTGTG intron-variant
rs1000027206 -- 172,777,976(+) TGTTA(C/T)TTTAG intron-variant
rs1000053279 -- 172,829,297(+) AATTA(C/T)AGATT downstream-variant-500B
rs1000062501 -- 172,794,778(+) GGCAC(A/G)GTCTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ECT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4983n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv8731n54 CNV loss 21841781
nsv472498 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv7356 OTHER inversion 18451855

Variation tolerance for ECT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 19.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.07; 60.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ECT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ECT2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

Disorders for ECT2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ECT2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ECT2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ECT2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ECT2

No disorders were found for ECT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ECT2 Gene

Publications for ECT2 Gene

  1. Polo-like kinase 1 directs assembly of the HsCyk-4 RhoGAP/Ect2 RhoGEF complex to initiate cleavage furrow formation. (PMID: 19468300) Wolfe B.A. … Glotzer M. (PLoS Biol. 2009) 3 4 22 64
  2. Phosphorylation of the cytokinesis regulator ECT2 at G2/M phase stimulates association of the mitotic kinase Plk1 and accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA. (PMID: 16247472) Niiya F. … Miki T. (Oncogene 2006) 3 4 22 64
  3. The armadillo protein p0071 regulates Rho signalling during cytokinesis. (PMID: 17115030) Wolf A. … Hatzfeld M. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2006) 3 4 22 64
  4. The tandem BRCT domains of Ect2 are required for both negative and positive regulation of Ect2 in cytokinesis. (PMID: 15545273) Kim J.E. … Chen J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 22 64
  5. Rho exchange factor ECT2 is induced by growth factors and regulates cytokinesis through the N-terminal cell cycle regulator-related domains. (PMID: 14587037) Saito S. … Miki T. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2003) 3 4 22 64

Products for ECT2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ECT2

Sources for ECT2 Gene

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