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Aliases for ECT2 Gene

Aliases for ECT2 Gene

  • Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 2 3
  • Epithelial Cell Transforming Sequence 2 Oncogene 2 3
  • Epithelial Cell-Transforming Sequence 2 Oncogene 3 4
  • Protein ECT2 3
  • ARHGEF31 3

External Ids for ECT2 Gene

Summaries for ECT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ECT2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and transforming protein that is related to Rho-specific exchange factors and yeast cell cycle regulators. The expression of this gene is elevated with the onset of DNA synthesis and remains elevated during G2 and M phases. In situ hybridization analysis showed that expression is at a high level in cells undergoing mitosis in regenerating liver. Thus, this protein is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner during liver regeneration, and is thought to have an important role in the regulation of cytokinesis. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GeneCards Summary for ECT2 Gene

ECT2 (Epithelial Cell Transforming 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by FGFR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is TOPBP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Rho family members of small GTPases, like RHOA, RHOC, RAC1 and CDC42. Required for signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of cytokinesis. Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Regulates the translocation of RHOA from the central spindle to the equatorial region. Plays a role in the control of mitotic spindle assembly; regulates the activation of CDC42 in metaphase for the process of spindle fibers attachment to kinetochores before chromosome congression. Involved in the regulation of epithelial cell polarity; participates in the formation of epithelial tight junctions in a polarity complex PARD3-PARD6-protein kinase PRKCQ-dependent manner. Plays a role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Inhibits phenobarbital (PB)-induced NR1I3 nuclear translocation. Stimulates the activity of RAC1 through its association with the oncogenic PARD6A-PRKCI complex in cancer cells, thereby acting to coordinately drive tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Also stimulates genotoxic stress-induced RHOB activity in breast cancer cells leading to their cell death.

Gene Wiki entry for ECT2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ECT2 Gene

Genomics for ECT2 Gene

Genomic Location for ECT2 Gene

Start:
172,750,646 bp from pter
End:
172,829,265 bp from pter
Size:
78,620 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ECT2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ECT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ECT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ECT2 Gene

Proteins for ECT2 Gene

  • Protein details for ECT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9H8V3-ECT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein ECT2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9H8V3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q0MT80
    • Q2M269
    • Q6U836
    • Q9NSV8
    • Q9NVW9

    Protein attributes for ECT2 Gene

    Size:
    914 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    103505 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NR1I3 (By similarity). Homodimer. Homooligomer. Found in the centralspindlin complex. Interacts (Thr-359 phosphorylated form) with PARD6A; the interaction is observed in cancer cells. Interacts (Thr-359 phosphorylated form) with PRKCI; the interaction is observed in cancer cells. Interacts with PKP4; the interaction is observed at the midbody. Interacts with RACGAP1; the interaction is direct, occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner, is inhibited in metaphase by phosphorylation of ECT2 on Thr-373 and is stimulated in early anaphase by dephosphorylation of ECT2 probably on Thr-373 through CDK1 activity. Interacts with PLK1; the interaction is stimulated upon its phosphorylation on Thr-444. Associates with RACGAP1 at anaphase and during cytokinesis. Interacts with KIF23, PARD3, PARD6A, PARD6B and PRKCQ.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA91624.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ECT2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ECT2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ECT2 Gene

Proteomics data for ECT2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ECT2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated by PLK1 in vitro. Hyperphosphorylated during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation at Thr-373 occurs during the G2/M phase, relieves its auto-inhibition status and stimulates its GEF activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-444 in G2/M phase is required for subsequent binding with PLK1 and Rho exchange activation. Dephosphorylated at the time of cytokinesis. Phosphorylation at Thr-359 is required for its transformation activity in cancer cells.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ECT2 Gene

Domains for ECT2 Gene

Gene Families for ECT2 Gene

HGNC:
  • ARHGEF :Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors

Protein Domains for ECT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ECT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9H8V3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ECT2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The BRCT domain 1 and 2 are required for the intramolecular interaction, but not for the intermolecular oligomerization. The BRCT domains negatively inhibit its GEF activity in interphase cells. The same BRCT domains may act as a positive regulatory motif for the completion of cytokinesis after the breakdown of nuclear membrane during mitosis:
    • Q9H8V3
  • Contains 2 BRCT domains.:
    • Q9H8V3
  • Contains 1 DH (DBL-homology) domain.:
    • Q9H8V3
  • Contains 1 PH domain.:
    • Q9H8V3
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ECT2: view

Function for ECT2 Gene

Molecular function for ECT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: mouse Ect2 related proto-oncogene 2
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Rho family members of small GTPases, like RHOA, RHOC, RAC1 and CDC42. Required for signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of cytokinesis. Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Regulates the translocation of RHOA from the central spindle to the equatorial region. Plays a role in the control of mitotic spindle assembly; regulates the activation of CDC42 in metaphase for the process of spindle fibers attachment to kinetochores before chromosome congression. Involved in the regulation of epithelial cell polarity; participates in the formation of epithelial tight junctions in a polarity complex PARD3-PARD6-protein kinase PRKCQ-dependent manner. Plays a role in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Inhibits phenobarbital (PB)-induced NR1I3 nuclear translocation. Stimulates the activity of RAC1 through its association with the oncogenic PARD6A-PRKCI complex in cancer cells, thereby acting to coordinately drive tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Also stimulates genotoxic stress-induced RHOB activity in breast cancer cells leading to their cell death.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Up-regulated by calcium in cells forming cell-cell contact sites. Up-regulated by DNA damaging agents like H(2)O(2) or ionizing radiation (IR).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity --
GO:0005089 Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IDA 12761501
GO:0005096 GTPase activator activity IMP 15642749
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15254234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ECT2: view

Animal Models for ECT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ECT2:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ECT2 Gene

Localization for ECT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Cell junction. Cell junction, tight junction. Note=Sequestered within the nucleus during interphase. Dispersed throughout the cytoplasm upon breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Colocalizes with the centralspindlin complex to the mitotic spindles during anaphase/metaphase, the cleavage furrow during telophase and at the midbody at the end of cytokinesis. Colocalized with RhoA at the midbody. Its subcellular localization to tight junction is increased by calcium. Localized predominantly in the cytoplasm of numerous carcinoma cells.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ECT2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ECT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005911 cell-cell junction IDA 15254234
GO:0005923 bicellular tight junction IDA 15254234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view

Pathways for ECT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ECT2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ECT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0000910 cytokinesis IMP 16236794
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS --
GO:0015031 protein transport IEA --
GO:0032147 activation of protein kinase activity IDA 15254234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ECT2: view

Transcripts for ECT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ECT2 Gene

Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 oncogene:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ECT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3: - - -
SP4:
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7: - - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - -
SP10: -
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:

ExUns: 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3:
SP4: - - -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12:
SP13:

Relevant External Links for ECT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ECT2

Expression for ECT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ECT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ECT2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ECT2 Gene Hs.518299

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ECT2 Gene

Q9H8V3-ECT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in lung epithelial cells (at protein level). Expressed in squamous cell carcinoma, primary non-small cell lung cancer tumors and lung adenocarcinoma.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ECT2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ECT2 Gene

Orthologs for ECT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ECT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ECT2 35
  • 99.64 (n)
  • 99.89 (a)
ECT2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ECT2 35
  • 93.22 (n)
  • 93.98 (a)
ECT2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ECT2 35
  • 92.89 (n)
  • 94.64 (a)
ECT2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ect2 35
  • 87.15 (n)
  • 91.35 (a)
Ect2 16
Ect2 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ECT2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ect2 35
  • 86.67 (n)
  • 90.47 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ECT2 35
  • 78.93 (n)
  • 83.13 (a)
ECT2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ECT2 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ect2 35
  • 74.46 (n)
  • 77.99 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.12679 35
ect2 35
  • 65.64 (n)
  • 70.94 (a)
ect2 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005796 35
  • 47.1 (n)
  • 40.77 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta pbl 35
  • 47.41 (n)
  • 39.45 (a)
pbl 36
  • 20 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ect-2 36
  • 18 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for ECT2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ECT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ECT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ECT2 (if available)

Paralogs for ECT2 Gene

Paralogs for ECT2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for ECT2 Gene using alignment to 10 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ECT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ECT2: view

Variants for ECT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ECT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs939865 -- 172,756,297(-) AAATT(C/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs1403088 -- 172,755,694(+) AATGA(A/G)TAGAA intron-variant
rs1983412 -- 172,750,277(+) TTAAC(C/T)CAAAT upstream-variant-2KB
rs2049230 -- 172,763,232(+) AACTT(A/T)GACTT intron-variant
rs2861004 -- 172,752,318(+) agaga(C/T)ggggt intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ECT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7356 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv877990 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv877991 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for ECT2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ECT2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

Disorders for ECT2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ECT2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ECT2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ECT2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ECT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ECT2 Gene

Publications for ECT2 Gene

  1. Rho exchange factor ECT2 is induced by growth factors and regulates cytokinesis through the N-terminal cell cycle regulator-related domains. (PMID: 14587037) Saito S. … Miki T. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2003) 3 4 23
  2. The tandem BRCT domains of Ect2 are required for both negative and positive regulation of Ect2 in cytokinesis. (PMID: 15545273) Kim J.E. … Chen J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Phosphorylation of the cytokinesis regulator ECT2 at G2/M phase stimulates association of the mitotic kinase Plk1 and accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA. (PMID: 16247472) Niiya F. … Miki T. (Oncogene 2006) 3 4 23
  4. The armadillo protein p0071 regulates Rho signalling during cytokinesis. (PMID: 17115030) Wolf A. … Hatzfeld M. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2006) 3 4 23
  5. Polo-like kinase 1 directs assembly of the HsCyk-4 RhoGAP/Ect2 RhoGEF complex to initiate cleavage furrow formation. (PMID: 19468300) Wolfe B.A. … Glotzer M. (PLoS Biol. 2009) 3 4 23

Products for ECT2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ECT2

Sources for ECT2 Gene

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