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Aliases for EARS2 Gene

Aliases for EARS2 Gene

  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • GluRS 3 4
  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2
  • Probable Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Glutamate TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Glutamate TRNA Ligase 2 2
  • Glutamate--TRNA Ligase 3
  • Mitochondrial 2
  • KIAA1970 4
  • COXPD12 3
  • MSE1 3

External Ids for EARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EARS2 Gene

  • GC16M023440
  • GC16M021624

Summaries for EARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for EARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of glutamate to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for EARS2 Gene

EARS2 (Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EARS2 include leukoencephalopathy - thalamus and brainstem anomalies - high lactate and combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EARS2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for EARS2 Gene

Genomics for EARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for EARS2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for EARS2 Gene

23,522,013 bp from pter
23,557,731 bp from pter
35,719 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for EARS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for EARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EARS2 Gene

Proteins for EARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for EARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KTT2
    • D3DWF1
    • Q86YH3
    • Q8TF31

    Protein attributes for EARS2 Gene

    523 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58689 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for EARS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for EARS2 Gene

Proteomics data for EARS2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for EARS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for EARS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 480
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for EARS2 Gene

Gene Families for EARS2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for EARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EARS2: view

Function for EARS2 Gene

Molecular function for EARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for EARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004818 glutamate-tRNA ligase activity IDA 19805282
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view

Phenotypes for EARS2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for EARS2:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for EARS2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EARS2: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EARS2 Gene

Localization for EARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for EARS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 19805282
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for EARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EARS2: view

Pathways by source for EARS2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for EARS2 Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q5JPH6-SYEM_HUMAN for EARS2 Gene via I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006424 glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA 19805282
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation --
GO:0070127 tRNA aminoacylation for mitochondrial protein translation IDA 19805282
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for EARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for EARS2 Gene

(6) Drugs for EARS2 Gene - From: HMDB and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 51
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0

(1) Additional Compounds for EARS2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EARS2: view

Transcripts for EARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for EARS2 Gene

(5) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(17) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for EARS2 Gene

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP2: - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for EARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for EARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for EARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for EARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (37.5) and Salivary gland (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for EARS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EARS2 Gene Hs.620541

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with EARS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for EARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EARS2 Gene

Orthologs for EARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for EARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EARS2 35
  • 87.7 (n)
  • 86.42 (a)
EARS2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EARS2 35
  • 86.62 (n)
  • 86.04 (a)
EARS2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ears2 35
  • 85.34 (n)
  • 86.19 (a)
Ears2 16
Ears2 36
  • 85 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EARS2 35
  • 99.04 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
EARS2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ears2 35
  • 85.04 (n)
  • 86.22 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
-- 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia EARS2 36
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves EARS2 35
  • 69.45 (n)
  • 68.64 (a)
EARS2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia EARS2 36
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ears2 35
  • 64.03 (n)
  • 64.91 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:153247 35
  • 62.26 (n)
  • 60.12 (a)
CABZ01117079.1 36
  • 47 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002570 35
  • 54.55 (n)
  • 48.32 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4573 35
  • 53.88 (n)
  • 50.1 (a)
CG4573 36
  • 45 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ears-2 35
  • 45.89 (n)
  • 40.26 (a)
ears-2 36
  • 38 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL338C 35
  • 45.66 (n)
  • 40.6 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F07975g 35
  • 43.28 (n)
  • 38.17 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MSE1 35
  • 42.7 (n)
  • 38.72 (a)
MSE1 36
  • 34 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ERS 35
  • 44.84 (n)
  • 40.12 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0121000 35
  • 45.94 (n)
  • 40.76 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes mse1 35
  • 43.54 (n)
  • 38.16 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 43 (a)
Species with no ortholog for EARS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for EARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for EARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for EARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for EARS2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for EARS2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with EARS2: view

No data available for Paralogs for EARS2 Gene

Variants for EARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for EARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs9707 -- 23,522,777(-) TGCTC(C/T)GGAAC utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs10239 -- 23,523,233(+) TGTAC(C/T)CTGCC utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs10491 -- 23,522,137(+) TGTCC(C/G)CTTCT utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs717998 -- 23,549,450(+) GAGGC(A/C)CCGAC intron-variant
rs1060169 -- 23,521,674(-) CAAAT(A/G)CGTCC downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv990394 CNV Deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for EARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.66% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.96; 59.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for EARS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EARS2 Gene

Disorders for EARS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for EARS2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association
Search EARS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12) [MIM:614924]: An autosomal recessive, mitochondrial, neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of hypotonia and delayed psychomotor development, or early developmental regression, associated with T2-weighted hyperintensities in the deep cerebral white matter, brainstem, and cerebellar white matter. Serum lactate is increased due to a defect in mitochondrial respiration. There are 2 main phenotypic groups: those with a milder disease course and some recovery of skills after age 2 years, and those with a severe disease course resulting in marked disability. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22492562, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23008233}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for EARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EARS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for EARS2 Gene

Publications for EARS2 Gene

  1. Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate 'LTBL' caused by EARS2 mutations. (PMID: 22492562) Steenweg M.E. … Zeviani M. (Brain 2012) 2 67
  2. Biogenesis of glutaminyl-mt tRNAGln in human mitochondria. (PMID: 19805282) Nagao A. … Suzuki T. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009) 2 67
  3. Structural bases of transfer RNA-dependent amino acid recognition and activation by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 17161369) Sekine S. … Yokoyama S. (Structure 2006) 25 26
  4. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 67
  5. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 67

Products for EARS2 Gene

Sources for EARS2 Gene

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