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Aliases for DYRK2 Gene

Aliases for DYRK2 Gene

  • Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 2 2 3
  • Dual Specificity Tyrosine-(Y)-Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 2 2 5
  • EC 2.7.12.1 4 63
  • Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-(Y)-Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 2 2
  • EC 2.7.12 63

External Ids for DYRK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DYRK2 Gene

  • GC12P067846
  • GC12P067759
  • GC12P066329
  • GC12P066328
  • GC12P068042
  • GC12P065093

Summaries for DYRK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DYRK2 Gene

  • DYRK2 belongs to a family of protein kinases whose members are presumed to be involved in cellular growth and/or development. The family is defined by structural similarity of their kinase domains and their capability to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. DYRK2 has demonstrated tyrosine autophosphorylation and catalyzed phosphorylation of histones H3 and H2B in vitro. Two isoforms of DYRK2 have been isolated. The predominant isoform, isoform 1, lacks a 5' terminal insert. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DYRK2 Gene

DYRK2 (Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulated Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and p53 pathway (Pathway Interaction Database). GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HIPK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DYRK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the regulation of the mitotic cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, organization of the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth. Functions in part via its role in ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal protein degradation. Functions downstream of ATM and phosphorylates p53/TP53 at Ser-46, and thereby contributes to the induction of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylates NFATC1, and thereby inhibits its accumulation in the nucleus and its transcription factor activity. Phosphorylates EIF2B5 at Ser-544, enabling its subsequent phosphorylation and inhibition by GSK3B. Likewise, phosphorylation of NFATC1, CRMP2/DPYSL2 and CRMP4/DPYSL3 promotes their subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3B. May play a general role in the priming of GSK3 substrates. Inactivates GYS1 by phosphorylation at Ser-641, and potentially also a second phosphorylation site, thus regulating glycogen synthesis. Mediates EDVP E3 ligase complex formation and is required for the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of KATNA1. Phosphorylates TERT at Ser-457, promoting TERT ubiquitination by the EDVP complex. Phosphorylates SIAH2, and thereby increases its ubiquitin ligase activity. Promotes the proteasomal degradation of MYC and JUN, and thereby regulates progress through the mitotic cell cycle and cell proliferation. Promotes proteasomal degradation of GLI2 and GLI3, and thereby plays a role in smoothened and sonic hedgehog signaling. Plays a role in cytoskeleton organization and neurite outgrowth via its phosphorylation of DCX and DPYSL2. Phosphorylates CRMP2/DPYSL2, CRMP4/DPYSL3, DCX, EIF2B5, EIF4EBP1, GLI2, GLI3, GYS1, JUN, MDM2, MYC, NFATC1, p53/TP53, TAU/MAPT and KATNA1. Can phosphorylate histone H1, histone H3 and histone H2B (in vitro). Can phosphorylate CARHSP1 (in vitro).

Gene Wiki entry for DYRK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DYRK2 Gene

Genomics for DYRK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DYRK2 Gene

Promoters for DYRK2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around DYRK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for DYRK2 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
67,648,338 bp from pter
End:
67,665,406 bp from pter
Size:
17,069 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for DYRK2 Gene

Genes around DYRK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DYRK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DYRK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DYRK2 Gene

Proteins for DYRK2 Gene

  • Protein details for DYRK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q92630-DYRK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q92630
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9V9
    • Q9BRB5

    Protein attributes for DYRK2 Gene

    Size:
    601 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    66652 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of an E3 ligase complex containing DYRK2, EDD/UBR5, DDB1 and VPRBP (EDVP complex). Interacts directly with EDD/UBR5, DDB1 and VPRBP. Interacts with SIAH2 and MDM2. Interacts with MAP3K10 and NFATC1. May also interact with CCNL2.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAA73885.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DYRK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for DYRK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for DYRK2 Gene

Proteomics data for DYRK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DYRK2 Gene

  • Autophosphorylates cotranslationally on the second tyrosine residue in the Tyr-X-Tyr motif in the activation loop, but once mature, does not have any protein tyrosine kinase activity. Phosphorylated at Thr-106 and Ser-442 by ATM in response to genotoxic stress.
  • Under normal conditions, polyubiquitinated in the nucleus by MDM2, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylation on Thr-106 and Ser-442 by ATM in response to genotoxic stress disrupts MDM2 binding and prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Polyubiquitinated by SIAH2, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Polyubiquitinated by SIAH2 occurs under normal conditions, and is enhanced in response to hypoxia.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DYRK2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DYRK2 (DYRK2)

Domains & Families for DYRK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DYRK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q92630

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DYRK2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MNB/DYRK subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MNB/DYRK subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DYRK2: view

Function for DYRK2 Gene

Molecular function for DYRK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2,phosphorylating histone H2B
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by autophosphorylation on the second tyrosine residue in the Tyr-X-Tyr motif in the activation loop. Inhibited by acridine analogs, purvalanol, and barely by harmine. Inhibited by leucettine and leucettine derivatives.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the regulation of the mitotic cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, organization of the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth. Functions in part via its role in ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal protein degradation. Functions downstream of ATM and phosphorylates p53/TP53 at Ser-46, and thereby contributes to the induction of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylates NFATC1, and thereby inhibits its accumulation in the nucleus and its transcription factor activity. Phosphorylates EIF2B5 at Ser-544, enabling its subsequent phosphorylation and inhibition by GSK3B. Likewise, phosphorylation of NFATC1, CRMP2/DPYSL2 and CRMP4/DPYSL3 promotes their subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3B. May play a general role in the priming of GSK3 substrates. Inactivates GYS1 by phosphorylation at Ser-641, and potentially also a second phosphorylation site, thus regulating glycogen synthesis. Mediates EDVP E3 ligase complex formation and is required for the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of KATNA1. Phosphorylates TERT at Ser-457, promoting TERT ubiquitination by the EDVP complex. Phosphorylates SIAH2, and thereby increases its ubiquitin ligase activity. Promotes the proteasomal degradation of MYC and JUN, and thereby regulates progress through the mitotic cell cycle and cell proliferation. Promotes proteasomal degradation of GLI2 and GLI3, and thereby plays a role in smoothened and sonic hedgehog signaling. Plays a role in cytoskeleton organization and neurite outgrowth via its phosphorylation of DCX and DPYSL2. Phosphorylates CRMP2/DPYSL2, CRMP4/DPYSL3, DCX, EIF2B5, EIF4EBP1, GLI2, GLI3, GYS1, JUN, MDM2, MYC, NFATC1, p53/TP53, TAU/MAPT and KATNA1. Can phosphorylate histone H1, histone H3 and histone H2B (in vitro). Can phosphorylate CARHSP1 (in vitro).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Accumulates in nucleus upon DNA damage. Induced in both esophageal and lung adenocarcinomas.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DYRK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DYRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 9748265
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004712 protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA,IDA 11311121
GO:0030145 manganese ion binding IDA 9748265
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DYRK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DYRK2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DYRK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DYRK2

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DYRK2 Gene

Localization for DYRK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DYRK2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocates into the nucleus following DNA damage.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for DYRK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DYRK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DYRK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DYRK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DYRK2: view

Pathways by source for DYRK2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for DYRK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DYRK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,IDA 11311121
GO:0045725 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process IDA 11311121
GO:0051534 negative regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus IMP 16511445
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DYRK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for DYRK2 Gene

(4) Drugs for DYRK2 Gene - From: HMDB and ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
ID-8 Pharma 0
Manganese Pharma 32
Magnesium Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for DYRK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DYRK2: view

Transcripts for DYRK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for DYRK2 Gene

Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DYRK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for DYRK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
DYRK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
DYRK2

Expression for DYRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DYRK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DYRK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (63.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DYRK2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DYRK2 Gene Hs.173135

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DYRK2 Gene

Q92630-DYRK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Testis, after the onset of spermatogenesis.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DYRK2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DYRK2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for DYRK2 Gene

Orthologs for DYRK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DYRK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DYRK2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
DYRK2 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DYRK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
DYRK2 35
  • 92.54 (n)
  • 98.5 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DYRK2 35
  • 93.34 (n)
  • 98.67 (a)
DYRK2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dyrk2 16
Dyrk2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
Dyrk2 35
  • 90.76 (n)
  • 97.5 (a)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DYRK2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dyrk2 35
  • 90.51 (n)
  • 98.29 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DYRK2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
DYRK2 35
  • 82.13 (n)
  • 92.97 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DYRK2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.4918 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dyrk2 35
  • 77.24 (n)
  • 89.37 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dyrk2 35
  • 74.73 (n)
  • 85.01 (a)
dyrk2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008241 35
  • 64.93 (n)
  • 65.1 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dyrk3 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Dyrk3 37
  • 72 (a)
smi35A 37
  • 53 (a)
Dyrk3 35
  • 64.15 (n)
  • 72.54 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mbk-2 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
C36B7.1 37
  • 30 (a)
C36B7.2 37
  • 31 (a)
mbk-2 37
  • 73 (a)
mbk-2 35
  • 66.07 (n)
  • 73.45 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06638 35
  • 51.39 (n)
  • 46.03 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for DYRK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DYRK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for DYRK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for DYRK2 (if available)

Paralogs for DYRK2 Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for DYRK2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DYRK2: view

Variants for DYRK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DYRK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs35139851 - 67,657,199(+) ATAAC(A/G)GTAAC reference, missense
VAR_040459 A glioblastoma multiforme sample
rs34166200 - 67,657,640(+) AAGTC(A/C)ACCAG reference, missense
rs56293072 - 67,657,791(+) CCGCA(A/G)CCACA reference, missense
rs35688869 - 67,658,259(+) CAAAC(A/G)AGCCA reference, missense

Variation tolerance for DYRK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 8.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.54; 29.92% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DYRK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
DYRK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DYRK2 Gene

Disorders for DYRK2 Gene

Relevant External Links for DYRK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
DYRK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
DYRK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
DYRK2

No disorders were found for DYRK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DYRK2 Gene

Publications for DYRK2 Gene

  1. Sequence characteristics, subcellular localization, and substrate specificity of DYRK-related kinases, a novel family of dual specificity protein kinases. (PMID: 9748265) Becker W. … Joost H.-G. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 2 3 4 67
  2. DYRK2 is targeted to the nucleus and controls p53 via Ser46 phosphorylation in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. (PMID: 17349958) Taira N. … Yoshida K. (Mol. Cell 2007) 3 23
  3. A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network. (PMID: 25416956) Rolland T. … Vidal M. (Cell 2014) 3
  4. Downregulation of DYRK2 can be a predictor of recurrence in early stage breast cancer. (PMID: 25095982) Enomoto Y. … Iwasaki A. (Tumour Biol. 2014) 3
  5. Stability of the human pregnane X receptor is regulated by E3 ligase UBR5 and serine/threonine kinase DYRK2. (PMID: 24438055) Ong S.S. … Chen T. (Biochem. J. 2014) 3

Products for DYRK2 Gene

Sources for DYRK2 Gene

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