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Aliases for DRD4 Gene

Aliases for DRD4 Gene

  • Dopamine Receptor D4 2 3
  • D(2C) Dopamine Receptor 3 4
  • Dopamine D4 Receptor 3 4
  • Seven Transmembrane Helix Receptor 3
  • D(4) Dopamine Receptor 3
  • D4DR 3

External Ids for DRD4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DRD4 Gene

  • GC11P001092
  • GC11M000923
  • GC11M000559
  • GC11P000627
  • GC11P000452
  • GC11P000638
  • GC11P000646
  • GC11P000653
  • GC11P000656

Summaries for DRD4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DRD4 Gene

  • This gene encodes the D4 subtype of the dopamine receptor. The D4 subtype is a G-protein coupled receptor which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. It is a target for drugs which treat schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and the personality trait of novelty seeking. This gene contains a polymorphic number (2-10 copies) of tandem 48 nt repeats; the sequence shown contains four repeats. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DRD4 Gene

DRD4 (Dopamine Receptor D4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DRD4 include attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and drug binding. An important paralog of this gene is CHRM4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRD4 Gene

  • Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for DRD4 Gene

  • D4 receptors are members of the dopamine receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family that also includes D1, D2, D3 and D5. They are located primarily in the frontal cortex, midbrain, amygdala and the cardiovascular system. The function of the D4 receptor is unknown, although a role in cognition and emotion has been proposed. The human D4 receptor gene has been localized to chromosome 11 (11q15.5).

Gene Wiki entry for DRD4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DRD4 Gene

Genomics for DRD4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DRD4 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for DRD4 Gene

637,293 bp from pter
640,706 bp from pter
3,414 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DRD4 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DRD4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DRD4 Gene

Proteins for DRD4 Gene

  • Protein details for DRD4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    D(4) dopamine receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0J7
    • Q7Z7Q5
    • Q8NGM5

    Protein attributes for DRD4 Gene

    467 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    48361 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms homo- and heterooligomers with DRD2. D4.7 allele exhibits higher affinity for homodimers compared to DRD2 heterodimers, while alleles D42. and 4.4 have similar affinities for both. The interaction with DRD2 may modulate agonist-induced downstream signaling. Interacts with CLIC6 (By similarity) and GPRASP1. May interact with ADORA2A. Interacts with KLHL12.
    • Sequence=AAL58637.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for DRD4 Gene

Proteomics data for DRD4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DRD4 Gene

  • Polyubiquitinated by the BCR(KLHL12) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex: polyubiquitination does not lead to degradation of DRD4 protein.
  • Glycosylation at Asn3
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DRD4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DRD4 Gene

Domains for DRD4 Gene

Gene Families for DRD4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DRD4: view

Function for DRD4 Gene

Molecular function for DRD4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
dopamine receptor D4,with high affinity for antagonist clozapine,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,not imprinted in the human brain (putatively involved in the susceptibility to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome),and a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and normal behavioural variation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DRD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001591 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go ISS --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004952 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity IDA 8413587
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12297500
GO:0008144 drug binding IDA 1319557
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DRD4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DRD4: view

Animal Models for DRD4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DRD4:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DRD4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DRD4

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DRD4

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DRD4 Gene

Localization for DRD4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRD4 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DRD4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DRD4 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DRD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 15755724
GO:0005938 cell cortex IEA --
GO:0012506 vesicle membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DRD4: view

Pathways for DRD4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DRD4: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DRD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 15755724
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response NAS 12860355
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IEA --
GO:0001975 response to amphetamine ISS --
GO:0006874 cellular calcium ion homeostasis IC 7921596
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DRD4: view

Drugs for DRD4 Gene

(29) Drugbank Compounds for DRD4 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (-)-10,11-Dihydroxyaporphine
41372-20-7 6005 Target agonist approved, investigational
  • Abilify
129722-12-9 60795 Target antagonist, partial agonist approved, investigational
  • (5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-3',6',18-trioxoergotaman
25614-03-3 31101 Target antagonist approved, investigational
  • 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine
132539-06-1 Target antagonist approved, investigational
  • (-)-Pramipexole
104632-26-0 Target agonist approved, investigational

(5) Tocris Compounds for DRD4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
A 412997 dihydrochloride Selective D4 agonist [1347744-96-0]
L-741,742 hydrochloride Highly selective D4 antagonist [874882-93-6]
L-745,870 trihydrochloride Highly selective D4 antagonist [866021-03-6]
PD 168077 maleate High affinity, selective D4 agonist [630117-19-0]
Ro 10-5824 dihydrochloride Selective D4 receptor partial agonist [189744-94-3]

(28) ApexBio Compounds for DRD4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Alizapride HCl [59338-87-3]
Amantadine HCl [665-66-7]
Ambrisentan ETA-receptor antagonist [177036-94-1]
Amisulpride Dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist [71675-85-9]
Aripiprazole Antipsychotic [129722-12-9]
Bupropion hydrochloride Dopamine/norepinephrine inhibitor [31677-93-7]
Chlorpromazine HCl [69-09-0]
Chlorprothixene [113-59-7]
Clozapine Antipsychotic medication [5786-21-0]
Domperidone Drug for gastroparesis [57808-66-9]
Dopamine HCl [62-31-7]
Haloperidol Antipsychotic drug [52-86-8]
Levodapa [59-92-7]
Levosulpiride Antipsychotic drug [23672-07-3]
Loxapine Succinate [27833-64-3]
LY404039 MGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors agonist [635318-11-5]
Metoclopramide Dopamine receptor antagonist [364-62-5]
Paliperidone [144598-75-4]
PD128907 HCl [112960-16-4]
Penfluridol [26864-56-2]
Pergolide mesylate [66104-23-2]
Pramipexole Dopamine agonist [104632-26-0]
Pramipexole 2HCl Monohydrate [191217-81-9]
Pramipexole dihydrochloride Dopamine receptor agonist [104632-25-9]
Quetiapine [111974-69-7]
Quetiapine Fumarate [111974-72-2]
Rotundine Dopamine D1 receptor antagonist,potent and selective [483-14-7]
Sitaxentan sodium [210421-74-2]

(19) HMDB Compounds for DRD4 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Apomorfin
  • Abilify
  • Bromergocryptine
  • Cabergolina [Spanish]
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine

(26) IUPHAR Ligand for DRD4 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
[125I]L750667 Antagonist Antagonist 9.8
[3H]spiperone Antagonist Antagonist 9.5
L745870 Antagonist Antagonist 9.4
nemonapride Antagonist Antagonist 9.3
eticlopride Antagonist Antagonist 9.2
terguride Antagonist Antagonist 8.9
U101958 Antagonist Antagonist 8.9
roxindole Antagonist Antagonist 8.6
(+)-butaclamol Antagonist Antagonist 8.5
L741742 Antagonist Antagonist 8.5
[3H]NGD941 Antagonist Antagonist 8.3
(+)-sulpiride Antagonist Antagonist 8.22
(-)-sulpiride Antagonist Antagonist 8
SKF-82526 Agonist Full agonist 7.9
quinpirole Agonist Full agonist 7.7
lisuride Agonist Partial agonist 7.2
piribedil Agonist Partial agonist 6.9
clozapine Antagonist Antagonist 6.7
spiperone Antagonist Antagonist 6.7
cabergoline Agonist Full agonist 6.7
pergolide Agonist Full agonist 6.5
bromocriptine Agonist Partial agonist 6.2
haloperidol Antagonist Antagonist 6.1
dopamine Agonist Full agonist 5.6
apomorphine Activator Activation 5.1
chlorpromazine Channel blocker None

(56) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DRD4 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dopamine 87.9 140
maoa 78.3 20
clozapine 75.9 46
fananserin 67.5 3
raclopride 62.9 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DRD4: view

Compound Products

Transcripts for DRD4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DRD4 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(22) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for DRD4 Gene

Dopamine receptor D4:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DRD4

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DRD4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DRD4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DRD4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DRD4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DRD4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DRD4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DRD4 Gene Hs.99922

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DRD4: view

Expression partners for DRD4 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DRD4 Gene

Orthologs for DRD4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for DRD4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Drd4 35
  • 82.34 (n)
  • 79.32 (a)
Drd4 16
Drd4 36
  • 78 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Drd4 35
  • 81.77 (n)
  • 78.35 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DRD4 36
  • 61 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DRD4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DRD4 35
  • 66.38 (n)
  • 60.98 (a)
DRD4 36
  • 57 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DRD4 36
  • 58 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia drd4 35
  • 66.67 (n)
  • 69.4 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6249 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii drd4a 35
  • 61.93 (n)
  • 59.71 (a)
drd4-rs 36
  • 50 (a)
drd4a 36
  • 51 (a)
drd4b 36
  • 54 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRDOP3 35
  • 51.62 (n)
  • 48.64 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta D2R 36
  • 23 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dop-2 36
  • 15 (a)
dop-3 36
  • 20 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DRD4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DRD4 Gene

Gene Tree for DRD4 (if available)
Gene Tree for DRD4 (if available)

Paralogs for DRD4 Gene

Paralogs for DRD4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DRD4: view

Variants for DRD4 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRD4 Gene

The number of repeats of 16 amino acids in the third cytoplasmic loop is highly polymorphic and varies among different alleles. Alleles corresponding in size to a 2 (D4.2), 3 (D4.3), 4 (D4.4), 5 (D4.5), 6 (D4.6), 7 (D4.7) and 9 (D4.9) repeats have been described. The sequence shown is that of allele D4.7. The polymorphic repeat sequence has little influence on DRD4-binding profiles and might not be essential for G protein interaction

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DRD4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs747302 -- 636,689(+) CTGAG(A/C/G)GCCAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs747303 -- 636,702(+) GCTGC(G/T)GGGGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs752306 -- 637,622(-) AGCAG(A/G)TGAGG intron-variant
rs762502 -- 640,119(+) CCCTG(C/T)GGCCC reference, synonymous-codon
rs916455 -- 636,929(+) GCACG(C/T)ACGGG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DRD4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv182e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv920n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv921n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv922n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv469923 CNV Loss 18288195
essv23843 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv896545 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv935n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv936n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv467635 CNV Loss 19166990
dgv940n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv941n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896570 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv942n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv832043 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2743857 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for DRD4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for DRD4 Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for DRD4 Gene (126452)

(36) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DRD4 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
novelty seeking personality trait 88.4 6
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 88.3 76
schizophrenia 68 102
psychotic 52.5 29
bipolar disorder 51.2 14

Relevant External Links for DRD4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DRD4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DRD4 Gene

Publications for DRD4 Gene

  1. Schizophrenia is not associated with DRD4 48-base-pair-repeat length or individual alleles: results of a meta-analysis. (PMID: 13129658) Glatt S.J. … Tsuang M.T. (Biol. Psychiatry 2003) 3 23 25 48
  2. Long forms of the dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR are more prevalent in substance abusers: no interaction with functional alleles of the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. (PMID: 11054777) Vandenbergh D.J. … Uhl G.R. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000) 3 23 48
  3. Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism in the first psychotic episode. (PMID: 11282178) Rinetti G. … Nicolini H. (Arch. Med. Res. 2001) 3 23 48
  4. The association of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with temperament in 12-month-old infants. (PMID: 11583250) Auerbach J.G. … Levine J. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001) 3 23 48
  5. Marker gene polymorphisms in hyperkinetic disorder--predictors of clinical response to treatment with methylphenidate? (PMID: 11684336) Seeger G. … Schmidt M.H. (Neurosci. Lett. 2001) 3 23 48

Products for DRD4 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for DRD4

Sources for DRD4 Gene

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