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Aliases for DRAM2 Gene

Aliases for DRAM2 Gene

  • DNA-Damage Regulated Autophagy Modulator 2 2 3
  • Transmembrane Protein 77 2 3 4
  • TMEM77 3 4
  • Damage Regulated Autophagy Modulator 2 3
  • RP5-1180E21.1 3
  • WWFQ154 3
  • PRO180 3

External Ids for DRAM2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DRAM2 Gene

  • TMEM77

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DRAM2 Gene

  • GC01M111461
  • GC01M111659
  • GC01M109531

Summaries for DRAM2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for DRAM2 Gene

DRAM2 (DNA-Damage Regulated Autophagy Modulator 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DRAM2 include cone-rod dystrophy 21 and cone-rod dystrophy. An important paralog of this gene is DRAM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRAM2 Gene

  • Induces apoptotic cell death when coexpressed with DRAM1.

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DRAM2 Gene

Genomics for DRAM2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for DRAM2 Gene

111,117,332 bp from pter
111,140,216 bp from pter
22,885 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DRAM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DRAM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DRAM2 Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for DRAM2 Gene

Proteins for DRAM2 Gene

  • Protein details for DRAM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA damage-regulated autophagy modulator protein 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3SUG9
    • Q4VWF6
    • Q86VD3
    • Q8NBQ4

    Protein attributes for DRAM2 Gene

    266 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    29766 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAC11562.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for DRAM2 Gene

Proteomics data for DRAM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DRAM2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DRAM2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DRAM2 Gene

Domains & Families for DRAM2 Gene

Protein Domains for DRAM2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DRAM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the DRAM/TMEM150 family.
  • Belongs to the DRAM/TMEM150 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DRAM2: view

No data available for Gene Families for DRAM2 Gene

Function for DRAM2 Gene

Molecular function for DRAM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Induces apoptotic cell death when coexpressed with DRAM1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Not induced by p53/TP53 or TP73/p73.

Phenotypes for DRAM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DRAM2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DRAM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DRAM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DRAM2 Gene

Localization for DRAM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRAM2 Gene

Lysosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DRAM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DRAM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
lysosome 5
vacuole 5
golgi apparatus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DRAM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 19895784
GO:0005764 lysosome IDA 19556885
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DRAM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for DRAM2 Gene

SuperPathways for DRAM2 Gene

No Data Available

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for DRAM2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: Q6UX65-DRAM2_HUMAN ENSP00000286692 for DRAM2 Gene via I2D STRING

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DRAM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
GO:0010506 regulation of autophagy IDA 19895784
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DRAM2: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for DRAM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DRAM2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for DRAM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for DRAM2 Gene

DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DRAM2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - -
SP11: -
SP12: - -

Relevant External Links for DRAM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DRAM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DRAM2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DRAM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (26.5), Islet of Langerhans (17.6), and Blymphocyte (12.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for DRAM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DRAM2 Gene Hs.485606

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DRAM2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expression is down-regulated in ovarian tumors (at protein level). Widely expressed with highest levels in placenta and heart. Not detected in brain or thymus.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DRAM2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DRAM2 Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for DRAM2 Gene

Orthologs for DRAM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for DRAM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DRAM2 35
  • 92.61 (n)
  • 90.23 (a)
DRAM2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DRAM2 35
  • 91.85 (n)
  • 91.73 (a)
DRAM2 36
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dram2 35
  • 88.43 (n)
  • 86.42 (a)
Dram2 16
Dram2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DRAM2 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
DRAM2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dram2 35
  • 87.92 (n)
  • 86.04 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DRAM2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DRAM2 36
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DRAM2 35
  • 66.17 (n)
  • 62.03 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DRAM2 36
  • 62 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dram2b 35
  • 57.3 (n)
  • 55.42 (a)
dram2a 36
  • 48 (a)
dram2b 36
  • 52 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4025 36
  • 31 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C33A11.2 35
  • 42.81 (n)
  • 32 (a)
C33A11.2 36
  • 25 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2907 36
  • 44 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DRAM2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DRAM2 Gene

Gene Tree for DRAM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for DRAM2 (if available)

Paralogs for DRAM2 Gene

Paralogs for DRAM2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DRAM2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DRAM2: view

Variants for DRAM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DRAM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs11002 -- 111,117,918(-) AAGTC(A/G)AAAGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs182732 -- 111,133,975(-) GAGGA(A/T)GAGAA intron-variant
rs325913 -- 111,116,879(+) TTATT(C/T)CTTGA downstream-variant-500B
rs325914 -- 111,117,375(+) CCCAA(A/C)CTTCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs325916 -- 111,118,791(-) GCACA(A/G)TATTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DRAM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv872149 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv10639 CNV Gain 18304495

Variation tolerance for DRAM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 51.96% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.28; 25.57% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DRAM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DRAM2 Gene

Disorders for DRAM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for DRAM2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, and Orphanet

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cone-rod dystrophy 21
  • retinal dystrophy with early macular involvement
cone-rod dystrophy
  • cone-rod dystrophy 5
- elite association
Search DRAM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for DRAM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DRAM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DRAM2 Gene

Publications for DRAM2 Gene

  1. The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. (PMID: 12975309) Clark H.F. … Gray A.M. (Genome Res. 2003) 2 67
  2. Biallelic mutations in the autophagy regulator DRAM2 cause retinal dystrophy with early macular involvement. (PMID: 25983245) El-Asrag M.E. … Ali M. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2015) 67
  3. The expression of damage-regulated autophagy modulator 2 (DRAM2) contributes to autophagy induction. (PMID: 21584698) Yoon J.H. … Park J. (Mol. Biol. Rep. 2012) 67
  4. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma. (PMID: 22001757) Chambers J.C. … Kooner J.S. (Nat. Genet. 2011) 67
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 67

Products for DRAM2 Gene

Sources for DRAM2 Gene

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