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DLX5 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC07M096649

Distal-Less Homeobox 5

(Previous name: distal-less homeo box 5)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Distal-Less Homeobox 51 2
Distal-Less Homeo Box 51 2
SHFM1D2 5
Homeobox Protein DLX-52
Split Hand/Foot Malformation Type 1 With Sensorineural Hearing Loss2

External Ids:    HGNC: 29181   Entrez Gene: 17492   Ensembl: ENSG000001058807   OMIM: 6000285   UniProtKB: P561783   

Export aliases for DLX5 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC07M095184 GC07M096247 GC07M096261 GC07M096294 GC07M096487 GC07M091251


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for DLX5 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of a homeobox transcription factor gene family similiar to the Drosophila distal-less
gene. The encoded protein may play a role in bone development and fracture healing. Mutation in this gene, which
is located in a tail-to-tail configuration with another member of the family on the long arm of chromosome 7, may
be associated with split-hand/split-foot malformation. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for DLX5 Gene:
DLX5 (distal-less homeobox 5) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with DLX5 include split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss, and sensorineural hearing loss. GO annotations related to this gene include RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding and transcription regulatory region DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is DLX2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DLX5_HUMAN, P56178
Function: Transcriptional factor involved in bone development. Acts as an immediate early BMP-responsive
transcriptional activator essential for osteoblast differentiation. Stimulates ALPL promoter activity in a
RUNX2-independent manner during osteoblast differentiation. Stimulates SP7 promoter activity during osteoblast
differentiation. Promotes cell proliferation by up-regulating MYC promoter activity. Involved as a positive
regulator of both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in the endochondral skeleton. Binds to the
homeodomain-response element of the ALPL and SP7 promoter. Binds to the MYC promoter. Requires the 5'-TAATTA-3'
consensus sequence for DNA-binding

Gene Wiki entry for DLX5 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000007.14  NT_007933.16  NC_018918.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the DLX5 gene promoter:
         c-Fos   PPAR-gamma1   AP-1   ATF-2   MyoD   c-Jun   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): DLX5 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for DLX5

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat DLX5


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7q22   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7q21.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7q21.3

DLX5 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
DLX5 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07M096649:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
96,649,702 bp from pter      End:
96,654,409 bp from pter
Size:
4,708 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7-,CRA_TCAG 95,972,198-95,976,639     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DLX5_HUMAN, P56178 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Homeobox protein DLX-5  
Size: 289 amino acids; 31540 Da
Subunit: Interacts with XRCC6 (Ku70)
Developmental stage: First expressed in embryos at 8.5-9 days in facial and branchial arch mesenchyme, otic
vesicles and frontonasal ectoderm around olfactory placodes, a day later expression is seen in the developing
forebrain in primordia of the ganglionic eminence and ventral diencephalic regions. In day 12.5 embryos,
expressed in the brain and bones, and also in all skeletal structures of midgestation embryos after the first
cartilage formation. Expression remains unaltered in both brain and skeleton in day 15 embryos and slowly
decreases in day 17 embryos
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for DLX5:
2DJN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q9UPL1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for DLX5: NX_P56178

Explore proteomics data for DLX5 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of Ser-34 and Ser-217 by MAPK14 enhances its transcriptional activity.
    Phosphorylation by CaMK2 increases its protein stability (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See DLX5 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005212.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000222598   ENSP00000475008  

    DLX5 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for DLX5
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for DLX5
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for DLX5
    Novus Biologicals DLX5 Protein
    Novus Biologicals DLX5 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for DLX5

    DLX5 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of DLX5
    R&D Systems Antibodies for DLX5
    OriGene Antibodies for DLX5
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for DLX5
    Novus Biologicals DLX5 Antibodies
    Search for Antibodies for DLX5 at Abcam
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for DLX5
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for DLX5
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for DLX5

    DLX5 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for DLX5
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for DLX5
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for DLX5
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for DLX5


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NKL: Homeoboxes / ANTP class : NKL subclass

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR020479 Homeobox_metazoa
     IPR000047 HTH_motif
     IPR022135 Distal-less_N
     IPR017970 Homeobox_CS
     IPR001356 Homeobox_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P56178

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P56178

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000047 Lambda and other repressor helix-turn-helix signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DLX5_HUMAN, P56178
    Similarity: Belongs to the distal-less homeobox family
    Similarity: Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain


    DLX5 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: DLX5_HUMAN, P56178
    Function: Transcriptional factor involved in bone development. Acts as an immediate early BMP-responsive
    transcriptional activator essential for osteoblast differentiation. Stimulates ALPL promoter activity in a
    RUNX2-independent manner during osteoblast differentiation. Stimulates SP7 promoter activity during osteoblast
    differentiation. Promotes cell proliferation by up-regulating MYC promoter activity. Involved as a positive
    regulator of both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in the endochondral skeleton. Binds to the
    homeodomain-response element of the ALPL and SP7 promoter. Binds to the MYC promoter. Requires the 5'-TAATTA-3'
    consensus sequence for DNA-binding

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for DLX5:
    Drosophila distal less homolog Dlx5,homeo domain encoding gene,expressed in brain and skeleton

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000978RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding ISS--
    GO:0001077RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription ISS--
    GO:0003677DNA binding ----
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
         
    DLX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for DLX5:
     Decreased nuclei size in G2M 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 6 alleles(MGI details for Dlx5) (see all 18):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  digestive/alimentary 
     embryogenesis  growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  integument  limbs/digits/tail 
     mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  normal  respiratory system 

    DLX5 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Dlx5tm1Jlr for DLX5

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for DLX5
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for DLX5

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for DLX5
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for DLX5

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target DLX5:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018111), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038077), hsa-mir-200a-3p (MIRT000204), hsa-mir-141-3p (MIRT000320)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat DLX5 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate DLX5 (see all 13):
    hsa-miR-203 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-376b hsa-let-7i* hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-376a hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-582-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidDLX5 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for DLX5
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat DLX5

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for DLX5

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for DLX5 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for DLX5
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: DLX5 (NM_005221)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for DLX5
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for DLX5
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat DLX5

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for DLX5
    ESI BIO PureStem Progenitor for DLX5: 
    PureStem MEL2, NCr-fac Progenitor
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for DLX5


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    DLX5_HUMAN, P56178: Nucleus (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus3
    extracellular2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000790nuclear chromatin ISS--
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--

    DLX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for DLX5 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Transcription factors in neurogenesis
    Transcription factors in neurogenesis
    2Neural Crest Differentiation
    Neural Crest Differentiation


    1 BioSystems Pathway for DLX5
        Neural Crest Differentiation



        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including DLX5: 
              Osteogenesis in human mouse rat
              Homeobox (HOX) Genes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for DLX5

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 17)

    Selected Interacting proteins for DLX5 (P561783 ENSP000002225984) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 21)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MAGED1Q9Y5V33, ENSP000003648474I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000364847
    ALX4Q9H1613, ENSP000003327444I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000332744
    MSX1P283603, ENSP000003721704I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000372170
    NCOA2Q155963, ENSP000003999684I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000399968
    SPENQ96T583, ENSP000003649124I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364912
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 26):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001501skeletal system development TAS7907794
    GO:0001649osteoblast differentiation ISS--
    GO:0001958endochondral ossification ISS--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0007399nervous system development TAS7907794

    DLX5 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for DLX5

    3 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DLX5 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gaba 21.6 6 16225832 (1), 17363207 (1), 18302128 (1)
    cycloheximide 10.5 2 16949358 (1), 12815054 (1)
    dexamethasone 8.41 7 16949358 (4)



    DLX5 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for DLX5 gene: 
    NM_005221.5  

    Unigene Cluster for DLX5:

    Distal-less homeobox 5
    Hs.99348  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005221
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000222598(uc003uon.3) ENST00000493764 ENST00000486603(uc011kim.1)

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat DLX5 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate DLX5 (see all 13):
    hsa-miR-203 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-376b hsa-let-7i* hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-376a hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-582-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidDLX5 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for DLX5
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat DLX5
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for DLX5 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for DLX5
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: DLX5 (NM_005221)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for DLX5
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat DLX5
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for DLX5
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for DLX5
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat DLX5
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat DLX5
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat DLX5

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK023493.1 AK297614.1 BC006226.2 BT006903.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.110740  DT.95257721  DT.92018316 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 53):

    BQ573773 BC006226 BI914024 BF059057 CF530066 NM_005221 BU198017 CR609058 
    AA369050 BT006903 CA412924 CR593435 BF438950 BQ771908 BM044832 BX396838 
    BX109366 BX431520 BE796939 AI278397 AU135630 AL535526 BX431519 AA453884 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    DLX5 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TAAATAAGTG
    DLX5 Expression
    About this image


    DLX5 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 20 entries
             Endochondral Preosteoblasts Caudal Endochondral Bones
             Mandibular Process
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 14 entries
             Prechondrocytes Synchondroses
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Head Mesenchyme (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             Diencephalic Neural Crest Cells Prechordal Mesenchyme
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Diencephalic Neural Crest Cells Prechordal Mesenchyme
             PureStem MEL2, NCr-fac Progenitor
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Telencephalon
             Floor plate-like cells
    DLX5 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    DLX5 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.99348
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including DLX5: 
              Osteogenesis in human mouse rat
              Homeobox (HOX) Genes in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for DLX5
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for DLX5
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat DLX5
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat DLX5
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat DLX5
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for DLX5

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for DLX5 gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Dlx51 , 5 distal-less homeobox 51, 5 92.96(n)1
    96.54(a)1
      6 (2.83 cM)5
    133951  NM_010056.31  NP_034186.21 
     68778055 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves DLX51 distal-less homeobox 5 83.92(n)
    86.71(a)
      373969  NM_204159.1  NP_989490.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia DLX56
    distal-less homeobox 5
    81(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(23265819-23277594)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.184012 Xenopus laevis putative transcription factor DLL3 mRNA, more 76.94(n)    L09729.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii dlx5a2 distal-less homeobox gene 5a 79.21(n)   30569  NM_131306.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Dll6
    Distal-less
    27(a)
    1 → many
    2R(20702353-20722686)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ceh-436
    Protein CEH-43 (ceh-43) mRNA, complete cds
    29(a)
    1 → many
    III(4446635-4449943) WBGene00000463


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for DLX5 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for DLX5 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for DLX5 gene
    DLX22  BARX12  GBX12  NKX1-12  VENTX2  GBX22  BARHL12  BARHL22  
    MNX12  BARX22  DLX12  DLX32  LBX22  NKX1-22  BSX2  DLX62  
    DLX42  LBX12  MSX22  MSX12  
    6 SIMAP similar genes for DLX5 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     DLX5_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DLX3    DLX6    DLX2    NKX2-5    DLX1    POU6F1

    DLX5 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for DLX5 (see all 168)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0674134
    Split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss, autosomal recessive (SHFM1D)4--see VAR_0674132 Q P mis40--------
    rs30283401,2
    C--96649502(+) TATAT-/AT/TA 
            
    GCACA
    1 -- ds50011NA 2
    rs32142181,2
    C--96649884(+) GGGGGG/-TCTTT 1 -- ut312Minor allele frequency- -:0.25NA CSA 4
    rs1833752611,2
    --99952872(+) TTTTTA/TAAAAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs12077311,2
    C,F,H--99953014(-) TAAGCT/GCAAAG 1 -- ds5001108Minor allele frequency- G:0.16NS EA NA PA EU CA WA 6918
    rs9823461,2
    C,F,H--99953029(+) TCAGAG/AGGGTT 1 -- ds500123Minor allele frequency- A:0.10NA NS EA WA 2728
    rs1872548081,2
    --99953111(+) CTTTCC/TACCTG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1916656021,2
    --99953166(+) TATTAC/TATATA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs125334691,2
    C,F,A,H--99953184(+) ACACAC/AACACA 1 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- A:0.25NS EA NA CSA WA 2340
    rs1838317451,2
    --99953296(+) TTCTTC/TAGTTG 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for DLX5 (96649702 - 96654409 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for DLX5:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv824221CNV Gain20364138

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): DLX5
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing DLX5
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for DLX5

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600028   
    OMIM disorders: 220600  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DLX5_HUMAN, P56178
  • Split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss, autosomal recessive (SHFM1D)
    [MIM:220600]: A disease characterized by the association of split-hand/foot malformation with deafness.
    Split-hand/foot malformation is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with
    syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and
    metatarsals. Some patients have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, and
    orofacial clefting. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for DLX5 (see all 27):    
    About MalaCards
    split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss    sensorineural hearing loss    split hand    split foot
    rapp-hodgkin syndrome    split hand foot malformation    mental retardation epilepsy    aortic valve stenosis
    rett syndrome    tooth agenesis    autistic disorder    orofacial cleft
    syndactyly    craniosynostosis    labyrinthitis    mental retardation
    lymphoblastic leukemia    ovarian cancer    lung cancer    melanoma

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for DLX5:
    Rett syndrome     Autistic disorder

    DLX5 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for DLX5 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    rett syndrome 78.4 3 17701895 (2), 17363207 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): DLX5
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: DLX5 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for DLX5 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for DLX5 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 105) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with DLX5)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. (PubMed id 7907794)1, 2, 3, 9 Simeone A....Boncinelli E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994)
    2. DLX5 (distal-less homeobox 5) promotes tumor cell proliferation by transcriptionally regulating MYC. (PubMed id 19497851)1, 2, 9 Xu J. and Testa J.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    3. Identification of a novel DLX5 mutation in a family with autosomal recessive split hand and foot malformation. (PubMed id 22121204)1, 2 Shamseldin H.E.... Alkuraya F.S. (J. Med. Genet. 2012)
    4. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PubMed id 20634891)1, 4 Jugessur A....Murray J.C. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    5. High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men. (PubMed id 19453261)1, 4 Yerges L.M....Zmuda J.M. (J. Bone Miner. Res. 2009)
    6. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    8. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. (PubMed id 12853948)1, 2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2003)
    9. Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex. (PubMed id 12145306)1, 2 Willis D.M.... Towler D.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    10. Expression analysis and mutation detection of DLX5 and DLX6 in autism. (PubMed id 19195802)1, 9 Nakashima N....Momoi M.Y. (amp 2010)
    11. DLX5 and DLX6 expression is biallelic and not modulated by MeCP2 deficiency. (PubMed id 17701895)1, 9 SchA1le B....Francke U. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007)
    12. Activation of placenta-specific transcription factor distal-less homeobox 5 predicts clinical outcome in primary lung cancer patients. (PubMed id 18413826)1, 9 Kato T....Daigo Y. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2008)
    13. Imprinting status of paternally imprinted DLX5 gene in Japanese patients with Rett syndrome. (PubMed id 17363207)1, 9 Itaba-Matsumoto N....Nanba E. (amp 2007)
    14. A novel recurrent chromosomal inversion implicates the homeobox gene Dlx5 in T-cell lymphomas from Lck-Akt2 transgenic mice. (PubMed id 18316591)1, 9 Tan Y....Testa J.R. (Cancer Res. 2008)
    15. Association by guilt: identification of DLX5 as a target for MeCP2 provides a molecular link between genomic imprinting and Rett syndrome. (PubMed id 15954098)1, 9 Bapat S. and Galande S. (Bioessays 2005)
    16. Methylation alterations at imprinted genes detected among long-term shiftworkers. (PubMed id 23193016)1 Jacobs D.I....Zhu Y. (Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2013)
    17. A 0.7a88Mb de novo duplication at 7q21.3 including the genes DLX5 and DLX6 in a patient with split-hand/split-foot malformation. (PubMed id 23169702)1 Velinov M....Iqbal M.A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2012)
    18. Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome and SHFM1 patients: delineating the p63-Dlx5/Dlx6 pathway. (PubMed id 22342398)1 Vera-Carbonell A....LA^pez-ExpA^sito I. (Gene 2012)
    19. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    20. Tumor necrosis factor-I+ accelerates the calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells obtained from patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway. (PubMed id 21205918)1 Yu Z....Furukawa K. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2011)
    21. [Changes in the expression of Dlx5, Msx2, and Dlx5/Msx2 in hPDLSCs loaded with cyclic tensile stress]. (PubMed id 22332551)1 Sun C.X....Zhao Z.H. (Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2011)
    22. Genome-wide profiling of p63 DNA-binding sites identifies an element that regulates gene expression during limb development in the 7q21 SHFM1 locus. (PubMed id 20808887)1 Kouwenhoven E.N....Zhou H. (PLoS Genet. 2010)
    23. Upregulation of DLX5 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation by enhancing IRS-2-AKT signaling. (PubMed id 21045156)1 Tan Y....Testa J.R. (Cancer Res. 2010)
    24. Mutually exclusive expression of DLX2 and DLX5/6 is associated with the metastatic potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. (PubMed id 21108812)1 Morini M....Barbieri O. (BMC Cancer 2010)
    25. Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome. (PubMed id 18029348)1 Barbe L....Andersson-Svahn H. (amp 2008)
    26. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    27. Gene expression of runx2, Osterix, c-fos, DLX-3, DLX-5, and MSX-2 in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. (PubMed id 16467978)1 Morsczeck C. (Calcif. Tissue Int. 2006)
    28. The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors. (PubMed id 16582099)1 WissmA1ller S....Wegner M. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2006)
    29. Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology. (PubMed id 12690205)1 Scherer S.W.... Tsui L.-C. (Science 2003)
    30. A new imprinted cluster on the human chromosome 7q21-q31, identified by human-mouse monochromosomal hybrids. (PubMed id 12782124)1 Okita C....Oshimura M. (Genomics 2003)
    31. A RING finger protein Praja1 regulates Dlx5-dependent transcription through its ubiquitin ligase activity for the Dlx/Msx-interacting MAGE/Necdin family protein, Dlxin-1. (PubMed id 11959851)1 Sasaki A....Watanabe K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    32. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    33. Evidence that GRIP, a PDZ-domain protein which is expressed in the embryonic forebrain, co-activates transcription with DLX homeodomain proteins. (PubMed id 11675124)1 Yu G....Rubenstein J.L. (Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 2001)
    34. Split hand/split foot malformation with hearing loss: first report of families linked to the SHFM1 locus in 7q21. (PubMed id 11168022)1 Tackels-Horne D....Schwartz C.E. (Clin. Genet. 2001)
    35. Dlxin-1, a novel protein that binds Dlx5 and regulates its transcriptional function. (PubMed id 11084035)1 Masuda Y....Watanabe K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    36. DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation. (PubMed id 10516593)1 Eisenstat D.D....Rubenstein J.L. (J. Comp. Neurol. 1999)
    37. The RRM domain of MINT, a novel Msx2 binding protein, recognizes and regulates the rat osteocalcin promoter. (PubMed id 10451362)1 Newberry E.P....Towler D.A. (Biochemistry 1999)
    38. Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism. (PubMed id 9111364)1 Zhang H....Abate-Shen C. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1997)
    39. Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags. (PubMed id 8889549)1 Hillier L.D....Marra M. (Genome Res. 1996)
    40. Physical mapping of the split hand/split foot locus on chromosome 7 and implication in syndromic ectrodactyly. (PubMed id 7987313)1 Scherer S.W....Little S. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1994)
    41. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulates Dlx5 during osteoblast differentiation. (PubMed id 19393622)9 Seo J.H....Lee K.Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009)
    42. Dlx5 drives Runx2 expression and osteogenic differentiation in developing cranial suture mesenchyme. (PubMed id 17335796)9 Holleville N....Monsoro-Burq A.H. (Dev. Biol. 2007)
    43. An early phase of embryonic Dlx5 expression defines the rostral boundary of the neural plate. (PubMed id 9763476)9 Yang L....Shen M.M. (J. Neurosci. 1998)
    44. Dlx5 specifically regulates Runx2 type II expression by binding to homeodomain-response elements in the Runx2 distal promoter. (PubMed id 16115867)9 Lee M.H....Ryoo H.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    45. Dlx5, the mouse homologue of the human-imprinted DLX5 gene, is biallelically expressed in the mouse brain. (PubMed id 15362572)9 Kimura M.I....Oshimura M. (J. Hum. Genet. 2004)
    46. Expression of DLX5 during human embryonic craniofacial development. (PubMed id 10330497)9 Davideau J.L....Berdal A. (Mech. Dev. 1999)
    47. BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression is mediated by Dlx5, and TGF-beta 1 opposes the BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation by suppression of Dlx5 expression. (PubMed id 12815054)9 Lee M.H....Ryoo H.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    48. Dlx-5 in limb initiation in the chick embryo. (PubMed id 10474161)9 Ferrari D....Kosher R.A. (Dev. Dyn. 1999)
    49. BMP-2-induced Osterix expression is mediated by Dlx5 but is independent of Runx2. (PubMed id 12963046)9 Lee M.H....Ryoo H.M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    50. Regulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 gene expression by p63 is involved in EEC and SHFM congenital limb defects. (PubMed id 18326838)9 Lo Iacono N....Merlo G.R. (Development 2008)
    51. Positive regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene expression through the interaction between Dlx and GATA-4 for testicular steroidogenesis. (PubMed id 18276760)9 Nishida H....Yamada G. (Endocrinology 2008)
    52. Comparative study of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 gene expression during early human tooth development. (PubMed id 10590019)9 Davideau J.L....Berdal A. (Pediatr. Res. 1999)
    53. DLX5 overexpression impairs osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. (PubMed id 18620781)9 Muraglia A....Corte G. (Eur. J. Cell Biol. 2008)
    54. Dlx5- and Dlx6-mediated chondrogenesis: Differential domain requirements for a conserved function. (PubMed id 17027239)9 Hsu S.H....Bendall A.J. (Mech. Dev. 2006)
    55. Segregation of lens and olfactory precursors from a common territory: cell sorting and reciprocity of Dlx5 and Pax6 expression. (PubMed id 15223343)9 Bhattacharyya S....Streit A. (Dev. Biol. 2004)
    56. The Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are essential for craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeletal development. (PubMed id 12000792)9 Robledo R.F....Lufkin T. (amp 2002)
    57. An L1 element disrupts human bone sialoprotein promoter: lack of tissue-specific regulation by distalless5 (Dlx5) and runt homeodomain protein2 (Runx2)/core binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) elements. (PubMed id 12459268)9 Kiyoshima T....Sodek J. (Gene 2002)
    58. Regulation of the activity of the transcription factor Runx2 by two homeobox proteins, Msx2 and Dlx5. (PubMed id 11683913)9 Shirakabe K....Nishida E. (amp 2001)
    59. Polymethylmethacrylate particles impair osteoprogenitor viability and expression of osteogenic transcription factors Runx2, osterix, and Dlx5. (PubMed id 20014320)9 Chiu R....Goodman S.B. (J. Orthop. Res. 2010)
    60. Ochratoxin A induces craniofacial malformation in mice acting on Dlx5 gene expression. (PubMed id 20036863)9 Napoletano M....Morelli F. (Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2010)
    61. Glucocorticoids induce the differentiation of a mesenchymal progenitor cell line, ROB-C26 into adipocytes and osteoblasts, but fail to induce terminal osteoblast differentiation. (PubMed id 16949358)9 Ito S....Takagi M. (Bone 2007)
    62. The role of Dlx homeogenes in early development of the olfactory pathway. (PubMed id 17588208)9 Merlo G.R....Gozzo M. (J. Mol. Histol. 2007)
    63. Expression of Dlx5 and Dlx6 during specification of the elbow joint. (PubMed id 17051482)9 Ferrari D. and Kosher R.A. (Int. J. Dev. Biol. 2006)
    64. Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are required for specification of the mammalian vestibular apparatus. (PubMed id 16900517)9 Robledo R.F. and Lufkin T. (Genesis 2006)
    65. Distinct roles for Distal-less genes Dlx3 and Dlx5 in regulating ectodermal development in Xenopus. (PubMed id 11599044)9 Luo T....Sargent T.D. (Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2001)
    66. MicroRNA-141 and -200a are involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mouse pre-osteoblast differentiation by targeting distal-less homeobox 5. (PubMed id 19454767)9 Itoh T....Akao Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    67. Diabetes interferes with the bone formation by affecting the expression of transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation. (PubMed id 12488363)9 Lu H....Graves D.T. (Endocrinology 2003)
    68. Transcriptional regulation restricting bone sialoprotein gene expression to both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts. (PubMed id 12397605)9 Barnes G.L....Gerstenfeld L.C. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2002)
    69. Multiple functions of Dlx genes. (PubMed id 11061425)9 Merlo G.R....Levi G. (Int. J. Dev. Biol. 2000)
    70. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces the differentiation of a mesenchymal progenitor cell line, ROB-C26, into mature osteoblasts and adipocytes. (PubMed id 19146860)9 Kato S....Takagi M. (Life Sci. 2009)
    71. RNA interference of the BMPR-IB gene blocks BMP-2-induced osteogenic gene expression in human bone cells. (PubMed id 18773965)9 Singhatanadgit W....Olsen I. (Cell Biol. Int. 2008)
    72. Compressive force stimulates the expression of osteogenesis-related transcription factors in ROS 17/2.8 cells. (PubMed id 18054892)9 Yanagisawa M....Shimizu N. (Arch. Oral Biol. 2008)
    73. Effects of compressive force on the differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells. (PubMed id 17644142)9 Yanagisawa M....Shimizu N. (Life Sci. 2007)
    74. Osterix induces osteogenic gene expression but not differentiation in primary human fetal mesenchymal stem cells. (PubMed id 17518720)9 Kurata H....Fisk N.M. (Tissue Eng. 2007)
    75. Up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB by growth factors enhances BMP-2-induced human bone cell functions. (PubMed id 17001689)9 Singhatanadgit W....Olsen I. (J. Cell. Physiol. 2006)
    76. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on the differentiation of C2C12 cells. (PubMed id 16846618)9 Ikeda K....Ito K. (Life Sci. 2006)
    77. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor beta1 on gene expression of transcription factors, AJ18 and Runx2 in cultured osteoblastic cells. (PubMed id 15323353)9 Takagi M....Nakanishi K. (J. Mol. Histol. 2004)
    78. Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: in vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals. (PubMed id 11390985)9 Blin-Wakkach C....Berdal A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001)
    79. Inhibition of methylation decreases osteoblast differentiation via a non-DNA-dependent methylation mechanism. (PubMed id 19815105)9 Vaes B.L....Steegenga W.T. (Bone 2010)
    80. Enhancement of bone regeneration by gene delivery of BMP2/Runx2 bicistronic vector into adipose-derived stromal cells. (PubMed id 20413153)9 Lee S.J....Lee S.H. (Biomaterials 2010)
    81. Msx1 expression regulation by its own antisense RNA: consequence on tooth development and bone regeneration. (PubMed id 18728357)9 Babajko S....Berdal A. (Cells Tissues Organs (Print) 2009)
    82. Hydrostatic pressures promote initial osteodifferentiation with ERK1/2 not p38 MAPK signaling involved. (PubMed id 19259952)9 Liu J....Wang J. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2009)
    83. Transcriptional regulators of chondrocyte hypertrophy. (PubMed id 18546336)9 Solomon L.A....Beier F. (Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today 2008)
    84. Ubc9 promotes the stability of Smad4 and the nuclear accumulation of Smad1 in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. (PubMed id 18321803)9 Shimada K....Ito K. (Bone 2008)
    85. [Autism, epilepsy and genetics]. (PubMed id 18302128)9 MuA+oz-Yunta J.A....Manchado F. (Rev Neurol 2008)
    86. Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (a mutation of which causes Rett syndrome) directly regulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in mouse and human brains. (PubMed id 17278996)9 Itoh M....Goto Y. (J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 2007)
    87. The Odyssey of MeCP2 and parental imprinting. (PubMed id 17965611)9 LaSalle J.M. (Epigenetics 2007)
    88. BMP-2 promotes differentiation of osteoblasts and chondroblasts in Runx2-deficient cell lines. (PubMed id 17226753)9 Liu T....Yamaguchi A. (J. Cell. Physiol. 2007)
    89. Enamel matrix derivative stimulates osteogenesis- and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors in C3H10T1/2 cells. (PubMed id 17213952)9 Narukawa M....Ito K. (Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) 2007)
    90. The odyssey of MeCP2 and parental imprinting. (PubMed id 17486180)9 LaSalle J.M. (Epigenetics 2007)
    91. MeCP2 in Rett syndrome: transcriptional repressor or chromatin architectural protein? (PubMed id 17317146)9 Chadwick L.H. and Wade P.A. (amp 2007)
    92. A novel regulatory role for stromal-derived factor-1 signaling in bone morphogenic protein-2 osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal C2C12 cells. (PubMed id 17439946)9 Zhu W....Blobel C.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    93. Regulation of osteoblast differentiation by transcription factors. (PubMed id 16795049)9 Komori T. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2006)
    94. Extracellular matrix-mediated signaling by dentin phosphophoryn involves activation of the Smad pathway independent of bone morphogenetic protein. (PubMed id 16326713)9 Jadlowiec J.A....Sfeir C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    95. Critical molecular switches involved in BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells. (PubMed id 16314053)9 Ryoo H.M....Kim Y.J. (Gene 2006)
    96. Rett syndrome and neuronal development. (PubMed id 16225832)9 Johnston M.V....Naidu S. (J. Child Neurol. 2005)
    97. Mouse orthologue of ARX, a gene mutated in several X-linked forms of mental retardation and epilepsy, is a marker of adult neural stem cells and forebrain GABAergic neurons. (PubMed id 15376319)9 Colombo E....Broccoli V. (Dev. Dyn. 2004)
    98. Aging activates adipogenic and suppresses osteogenic programs in mesenchymal marrow stroma/stem cells: the role of PPAR-gamma2 transcription factor and TGF-beta/BMP signaling pathways. (PubMed id 15569355)9 Moerman E.J....Lecka-Czernik B. (Aging Cell 2004)
    99. The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 associates with the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family protein Dlxin-1 and regulates its intracellular distribution. (PubMed id 12754255)9 Matsuda T....Minami Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    100. DLX genes as targets of ALL-1: DLX 2,3,4 down-regulation in t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. (PubMed id 12885948)9 Ferrari N....Brigati C. (J. Leukoc. Biol. 2003)
    101. Enhancement of osteogenesis in vitro by a novel osteoblast differentiation-promoting compound, TAK-778, partly through the expression of Msx2. (PubMed id 12223224)9 Gotoh M....Makino H. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002)
    102. Development of the facial midline. (PubMed id 11887012)9 Carstens M.H. (J Craniofac Surg 2002)

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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 1749 HGNC: 2918 AceView: DLX5 Ensembl:ENSG00000105880 euGenes: HUgn1749
    ECgene: DLX5 H-InvDB: DLX5

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for DLX5 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for DLX5 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for DLX5 gene:
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    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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     PureStem Progenitor for DLX5: PureStem MEL2, NCr-fac Progenitor
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