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Aliases for DLX2 Gene

Aliases for DLX2 Gene

  • Distal-Less Homeobox 2 2 3 5
  • Distal-Less Homeo Box 2 2 3
  • TES-1 3
  • TES1 3

External Ids for DLX2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DLX2 Gene

  • GC02M171016
  • GC02M171625
  • GC02M172929
  • GC02M173166
  • GC02M172789
  • GC02M172672
  • GC02M164844
  • GC02M172964

Summaries for DLX2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DLX2 Gene

  • Many vertebrate homeo box-containing genes have been identified on the basis of their sequence similarity with Drosophila developmental genes. Members of the Dlx gene family contain a homeobox that is related to that of Distal-less (Dll), a gene expressed in the head and limbs of the developing fruit fly. The Distal-less (Dlx) family of genes comprises at least 6 different members, DLX1-DLX6. The DLX proteins are postulated to play a role in forebrain and craniofacial development. This gene is located in a tail-to-tail configuration with another member of the gene family on the long arm of chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DLX2 Gene

DLX2 (Distal-Less Homeobox 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DLX2 include Dyslexia 2 and Tooth Agenesis. Among its related pathways are SIDS Susceptibility Pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is DLX5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLX2 Gene

  • Likely to play a regulatory role in the development of the ventral forebrain. May play a role in craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis.

Gene Wiki entry for DLX2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DLX2 Gene

Genomics for DLX2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DLX2 Gene

Enhancers for DLX2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around DLX2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for DLX2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around DLX2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for DLX2 Gene

172,099,438 bp from pter
172,102,900 bp from pter
3,463 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DLX2 Gene

Genes around DLX2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DLX2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DLX2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DLX2 Gene

Proteins for DLX2 Gene

  • Protein details for DLX2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Homeobox protein DLX-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DMK4
    • B7ZA14

    Protein attributes for DLX2 Gene

    328 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34243 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for DLX2 Gene


neXtProt entry for DLX2 Gene

Proteomics data for DLX2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DLX2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DLX2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DLX2 Gene

Domains & Families for DLX2 Gene

Gene Families for DLX2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the distal-less homeobox family.
  • Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the distal-less homeobox family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DLX2: view

Function for DLX2 Gene

Molecular function for DLX2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Drosophila distal less homolog Dlx2,homeo domain encoding gene,expressed in the forebrain,facial and limb primordia
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Likely to play a regulatory role in the development of the ventral forebrain. May play a role in craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DLX2: view

Animal Models for DLX2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DLX2:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DLX2 Gene

Localization for DLX2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLX2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DLX2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DLX2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DLX2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DLX2 Gene

SuperPathways for DLX2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DLX2: view

Pathways by source for DLX2 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for DLX2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DLX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006366 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0007420 brain development TAS 7590232
GO:0021544 subpallium development IEA --
GO:0021772 olfactory bulb development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLX2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DLX2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DLX2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for DLX2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DLX2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(18) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for DLX2 Gene

Distal-less homeobox 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DLX2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DLX2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DLX2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DLX2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DLX2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x7.6), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x4.7), and Brain - Cortex (x4.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DLX2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DLX2 Gene Hs.419

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DLX2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for DLX2 Gene

Orthologs for DLX2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for DLX2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DLX2 35
  • 89.47 (n)
  • 93.56 (a)
DLX2 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DLX2 35
  • 90.08 (n)
  • 93.25 (a)
DLX2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dlx2 35
  • 88.58 (n)
  • 92.35 (a)
Dlx2 16
Dlx2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DLX2 35
  • 98.17 (n)
  • 97.56 (a)
DLX2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dlx2 35
  • 88.38 (n)
  • 92.05 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DLX2 36
  • 82 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DLX2 36
  • 75 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DLX2 36
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dlx2 35
  • 70.18 (n)
  • 72.63 (a)
Str.9796 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.721 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dlx2a 35
  • 68.52 (n)
  • 69.26 (a)
dlx2a 36
  • 68 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3918 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dll 36
  • 27 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ceh-43 36
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 20 (a)
CSA.6494 36
  • 14 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DLX2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DLX2 Gene

Gene Tree for DLX2 (if available)
Gene Tree for DLX2 (if available)

Paralogs for DLX2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for DLX2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DLX2: view

Variants for DLX2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DLX2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3791344 -- 172,099,475(+) TCTTC(A/G)TATTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs62183857 -- 172,099,203(+) AGTCA(A/C)CCCGC downstream-variant-500B
rs62183858 -- 172,099,212(+) GCCGC(C/G)GGCCG downstream-variant-500B
rs10930504 -- 172,099,910(+) AATAA(A/C)AAATA utr-variant-3-prime
rs112416286 -- 172,100,715(+) AGGCC(C/G)CGCTG reference, missense

Variation tolerance for DLX2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 63.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.86; 58.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and Relevant External Links for DLX2 Gene

Disorders for DLX2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for DLX2 Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
dyslexia 2
  • dyslexia, susceptibility to, 2
tooth agenesis
  • familial tooth agenesis
bamforth-lazarus syndrome
  • hypothyroidism, athyroidal, with spiky hair and cleft palate
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DLX2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for DLX2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DLX2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DLX2 Gene

Publications for DLX2 Gene

  1. DLX2 (TES1), a homeobox gene of the Distal-less family, assigned to conserved regions on human and mouse chromosomes 2. (PMID: 1354641) OzAselik T. … Francke U. (Genomics 1992) 2 3 23 67
  2. The DLX1and DLX2 genes and susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders. (PMID: 18728693) Liu X. … Holden J.J. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2009) 3 23
  3. Protein kinase C phosphorylation modulates N- and C-terminal regulatory activities of the PITX2 homeodomain protein. (PMID: 15751970) Espinoza H.M. … Amendt B.A. (Biochemistry 2005) 3 23
  4. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. (PMID: 7907794) Simeone A. … Boncinelli E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 3 23
  5. The human brain homeogene, DLX-2: cDNA sequence and alignment with the murine homologue. (PMID: 7901126) Selski D.J. … Rogers K.E. (Gene 1993) 3 23

Products for DLX2 Gene

Sources for DLX2 Gene