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DLAT Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC11P111895

Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase


(Previous symbol: DLTA)
  See DLAT-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase1 2     PBC2 3
DLTA1 2 3     PDC-E22 3
PDCE22 3 5     M2 Antigen Complex 70 KDa Subunit2 3
E2 Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex1 2     EC 2.3.1.123 8
Dihydrolipoamide Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Complex2 3
     Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate
Dehydrogenase Complex Mitochondrial2
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Component E22 3     Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate
Dehydrogenase Complex, Mitochondrial2
70 KDa Mitochondrial Autoantigen Of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis2 3     EC 2.3.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 28961   Entrez Gene: 17372   Ensembl: ENSG000001507687   OMIM: 6087705   UniProtKB: P105153   

Export aliases for DLAT gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P114248 GC11P113407 GC11P111929 GC11P111433 GC11P111401 GC11P107819


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for DLAT Gene:
This gene encodes component E2 of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC resides in the inner
mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. The protein product of this
gene, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, accepts acetyl groups formed by the oxidative decarboxylation of
pyruvate and transfers them to coenzyme A. Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase is the antigen for
antimitochondrial antibodies. These autoantibodies are present in nearly 95% of patients with the autoimmune
liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In PBC, activated T lymphocytes attack and destroy epithelial
cells in the bile duct where this protein is abnormally distributed and overexpressed. PBC enventually leads to
cirrhosis and liver failure. Mutations in this gene are also a cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
which causes primary lactic acidosis in infancy and early childhood.(provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for DLAT Gene:
DLAT (dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with DLAT include pyruvate dehydrogenase e2 deficiency, and mycobacterium gordonae. GO annotations related to this gene include dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DLST.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ODP2_HUMAN, P10515
Function: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2),
and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle

Gene Wiki entry for DLAT (Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_033899.9  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the DLAT gene promoter:
         Max1   SREBP-1c   MyoD   CBF-C   Evi-1   SREBP-1b   SREBP-1a   CBF-B   CP1A   CBF(2)   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidDLAT promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for DLAT

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat DLAT


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q23.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q23.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q23.1

DLAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
DLAT gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P111895:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
111,895,538 bp from pter      End:
111,935,114 bp from pter
Size:
39,577 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ODP2_HUMAN, P10515 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex,
mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 647 amino acids; 68997 Da
Cofactor: Binds 2 lipoyl cofactors covalently
Subunit: Part of the multimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that contains multiple copies of pyruvate
dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT, E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3). These
subunits are bound to an inner core composed of about 48 DLAT and 12 PDHX molecules. Interacts with PDK2 and PDK3
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA62253.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=449, 451, 455; Sequence=AAA62253.1;
Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contaminating sequence. Sequence of unknown origin in the N-terminal part;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for DLAT (see all 10):
1FYC (3D)        1Y8N (3D)        1Y8O (3D)        1Y8P (3D)        2DNE (3D)        2PNR (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q16783 Q53EP3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for DLAT: NX_P10515

Explore proteomics data for DLAT at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for DLAT (P10515) (see all 10)
     KAREGKL  GTFTISN  AIINPPQ  SKQTIPH 


    See DLAT Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001922.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000280346   ENSP00000435374   ENSP00000376771   ENSP00000433432   ENSP00000442427  
    Reactome Protein details: P10515

    DLAT Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for DLAT
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for DLAT
    OriGene MassSpec for DLAT
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for DLAT
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for DLAT
    Novus Biologicals DLAT Protein
    Novus Biologicals DLAT Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for DLAT
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for DLAT

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for DLAT 

    DLAT Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DLAT 
    Browse OriGene Antibodies
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for DLAT
    Novus Biologicals DLAT Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for DLAT (P10515, O00330)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for DLAT
    ThermoFisher Antibody for DLAT
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for DLAT

    DLAT Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for DLAT
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for DLAT
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for DLAT
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for DLAT
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for DLAT 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR004167 E3-bd
     IPR006257 LAT1
     IPR000089 Biotin_lipoyl
     IPR003016 2-oxoA_DH_lipoyl-BS
     IPR001078 2-oxoacid_DH_actylTfrase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P10515

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P10515

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000089 Biotin/lipoyl attachment
    IPB001078 Catalytic domain of components of various dehydrogenase complexes
    IPB003016 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase
    IPB004167 E3 binding domain


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ODP2_HUMAN, P10515
    Similarity: Belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family
    Similarity: Contains 2 lipoyl-binding domains


    Find genes that share domains with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ODP2_HUMAN, P10515
    Function: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2),
    and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle
    Catalytic activity: Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine = CoA + enzyme
    N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.3.1.121 2 EC 2.3.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004742dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity NAS3191998
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15861126
    GO:0016746transferase activity, transferring acyl groups ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for DLAT:
     Synthetic lethal with imatinib  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for DLAT
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for DLAT

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for DLAT
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for DLAT

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target DLAT:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040451), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT032242), hsa-mir-10b-5p (MIRT047485)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat DLAT using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate DLAT (see all 18):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-378b hsa-miR-378 hsa-miR-96 hsa-miR-365 hsa-miR-222*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidDLAT 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for DLAT
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat DLAT

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for DLAT

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for DLAT (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for DLAT
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: DLAT (NM_001931)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for DLAT
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for DLAT
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat DLAT

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for DLAT
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for DLAT 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for DLAT

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA6-12741) for DLAT 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ODP2_HUMAN, P10515: Mitochondrion matrix
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--
    GO:0005967mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex NAS3191998
    GO:0045254pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for DLAT About   (see all 7)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)0.55
    pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA0.00
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex0.00
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle0.43
    Pyruvate metabolism0.00
    2Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    5Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for DLAT
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    3 BioSystems Pathways for DLAT
        pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    2 Reactome Pathways for DLAT
        Pyruvate metabolism
    Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for DLAT):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
    Pyruvate metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including DLAT: 
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for DLAT

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for DLAT (P105151, 2, 3 ENSP000002803464) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 171)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PDHBP111771, 2, 3, ENSP000003072414EBI-2959723,EBI-1035872 MINT-6174630 MINT-6174675 MINT-6174645 MINT-6174707 MINT-6174602 MINT-6174660 MINT-6174689 I2D: score=8 STRING: ENSP00000307241
    HIST1H2BCP628073I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H2BEP628073I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H2BFP628073I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H2BGP628073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006085acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process ----
    GO:0006090pyruvate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006099tricarboxylic acid cycle IEA--
    GO:0008152metabolic process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for DLAT (ODP2)

    Selected HMDB Compounds for DLAT (see all 11)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid2-Ketoisovalerate (see all 45)759-05-76822537
    Acetyl-CoAS-Acetyl coenzyme A (see all 13)72-89-9--
    Carbon dioxideCarbon oxide (see all 5)124-38-9--
    Coenzyme AAcetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium salt (see all 21)85-61-0--
    Dihydrolipoamidedihydrolipoamide (see all 6)3884-47-7--
    Lipoic acid(+)-alpha-Lipoate (see all 92)1077-28-7--
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    Pyruvic acid2-Oxopropanoate (see all 14)127-17-3--
    S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide6-S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide (see all 5)----

    3 DrugBank Compounds for DLAT    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17139284 17016423 16368957
    Dihydrolipoic Acid-- 462-20-4target--10592235
    Radicicol-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DLAT gene (see all 12)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    2-oxo acid 95.1 37 9594621 (2), 9141421 (1), 10484012 (1), 10807519 (1) (see all 23)
    dihydrolipoamide 92.8 38 9620315 (3), 7890655 (2), 1370237 (2), 16049940 (2) (see all 24)
    pyruvate 91.8 200 7519986 (5), 14638692 (4), 7927255 (3), 7822313 (3) (see all 99)
    alpha lipoic acid 80.6 27 19003917 (5), 7519986 (2), 7821922 (1), 9089910 (1) (see all 15)
    alpha-ketoglutarate 75.6 20 9141421 (1), 10484012 (1), 12734383 (1), 2243228 (1) (see all 14)
    acetyl-coa 57.1 8 8557670 (3), 18184588 (1), 12411477 (1), 15491151 (1) (see all 5)
    amino acid 36.7 2 7521314 (1)
    nadh 21.6 5 8557670 (2), 15491151 (1), 18627174 (1)
    adp 19 2 10748134 (1), 12816949 (1)
    lysine 19 11 15558739 (3), 1701753 (2), 18563844 (1), 10209517 (1) (see all 5)



    Find genes that share compounds with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for DLAT gene: 
    NM_001931.4  

    Unigene Cluster for DLAT:

    Dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase
    Hs.335551  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001931
    6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000280346(uc001pmo.3 uc010rwr.2 uc021qqn.1) ENST00000533297
    ENST00000393051 ENST00000531306 ENST00000527231 ENST00000537636
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat DLAT using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate DLAT (see all 18):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-378b hsa-miR-378 hsa-miR-96 hsa-miR-365 hsa-miR-222*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidDLAT 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for DLAT
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat DLAT
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for DLAT (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for DLAT
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: DLAT (NM_001931)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for DLAT
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat DLAT
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for DLAT
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for DLAT
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat DLAT
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat DLAT
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat DLAT
    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA6-12741) for DLAT 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF317200.1 AK057299.1 AK223596.1 AK296274.1 AK297103.1 AK303930.1 AL832703.1 BC039084.1 
    X13822.1 Y00978.1 

    13 DOTS entries:

    DT.75168175  DT.95378651  DT.100721475  DT.95167732  DT.217357  DT.100793562  DT.120733901  DT.92438859 
    DT.453367  DT.100793560  DT.100793558  DT.100793563  DT.92058549 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 261):

    AL559500 BM541380 AA281656 AI472203 AA400968 BG261347 BM840376 BU679072 
    AA457372 BQ184815 AI969624 CR613534 BM991840 AA641655 CK823259 AI799356 
    BM966823 AI452538 BU508456 AL559499 BF939962 CK823258 AK057299 CA844366 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DLAT    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
    SP1:                                                                                                      
    SP2:                                      -     -                                                         
    SP3:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                     
    SP4:                                                                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for DLAT

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    DLAT expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    DLAT Expression
    About this image


    DLAT expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Thoracic Perivascular Adipose
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    DLAT Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    DLAT Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.335551
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including DLAT: 
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for DLAT
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for DLAT
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat DLAT
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat DLAT
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat DLAT
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for DLAT

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for DLAT gene from Selected species (see all 27)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Dlat1 , 5 dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2 component more1, 5 84.84(n)1
    86.14(a)1
      9 (27.75 cM)5
    2353391  NM_145614.41  NP_663589.31 
     506346335 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves DLAT1 dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase 72.91(n)
    79(a)
      419796  XM_417933.4  XP_417933.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia DLAT6
    dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase
    72(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343973.1(87904-106924)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia LOC3983142 dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase 75.45(n)    AF430140.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.28102 Danio rerio dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (dlat) more 77.53(n)    AY188775.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG52611 , 3 dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase3
    CG52611
    52(a)3
    56.42(n)1
    54.69(a)1
      27F63
    340211  NM_001273267.11  NP_001260196.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F23B12.53
    dlat-11
    dihyrolipoamide acetyltransferase
    component (pyruvate more3
    dlat-11
    53(a)
    (best of 2)3
    58.91(n)1
    61.05(a)1
      V(14448187-14449885)3
    1799451  NM_074178.61  NP_506579.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes LAT1(YNL071W)4
    LAT11
    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component (E2) of more4
    LAT11
    50.65(n)1
    45.98(a)1
      14(491523-492971)4
    8556531, 4  NP_014328.31  NP_014328.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT1G542201 AT1G54220 53.91(n)
    49.88(a)
      841863  NM_001036109.1  NP_001031186.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida AK070846.12   -- 71.7(n)    AK070846.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for DLAT gene
    DLST2  DBT2  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for DLAT using alignment to 6 protein entries:     ODP2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PDHX

    Find genes that share paralogs with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for DLAT (see all 840)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs605157361,2
    C--107826426(+) TTTTTTT/-AAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50NA 2
    rs358229041,2
    C--107832412(+) TTTTTT/-AAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.00NA 2
    rs1115259521,2
    C--107839908(+) TTTAGG/TTTGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1822201691,2
    --107853244(+) GGAAGA/GGGGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1470052781,2
    --111758810(+) CATAAC/TGAAGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1382203351,2
    --111758874(+) AACCTA/GTATCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1908875581,2
    --111759019(+) TGAAAA/CGAAAT 1 -- ut510--------
    rs1148635041,2
    C,F--111759029(+) TCTTTG/ACAACC 1 -- ut511Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs782985681,2
    C,F--111759068(+) TCCATC/TCCCCT 1 -- ut512Minor allele frequency- T:0.17WA 120
    rs1834569151,2
    C--111759094(+) CAGAGA/GTCACC 1 -- ut510--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for DLAT (111895538 - 111935114 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for DLAT:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2745077CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2662119CNV Deletion23128226

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): DLAT
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing DLAT
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for DLAT

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 608770   
    OMIM disorders: 245348  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ODP2_HUMAN, P10515
  • Note=Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the
    presence of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in patients' serum. It manifests with inflammatory obliteration of
    intra-hepatic bile duct, leading to liver cell damage and cirrhosis. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis show
    autoantibodies against the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency (PDHE2 deficiency) [MIM:245348]: Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
    deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction in infancy and early
    childhood. In this form of PDH deficiency episodic dystonia is the major neurological manifestation, with other
    more common features of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, such as hypotonia and ataxia, being less prominent.
    Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 9 diseases for DLAT:    
    About MalaCards
    pyruvate dehydrogenase e2 deficiency    mycobacterium gordonae    pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency    vaginitis
    blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual disability syndrome    ulnar neuropathy    lactic acidosis    liver disease
    primary biliary cirrhosis

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for DLAT:
    Primary biliary cirrhosis     Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency     Ulnar neuropathy

    Find genes that share disorders with DLAT           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DLAT gene (see all 12)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    biliary cirrhosis primary 95.1 92 8336525 (4), 7521314 (3), 1714873 (3), 1283300 (2) (see all 59)
    hepatitis autoimmune 61.3 1 17162370 (1)
    cholangitis 57 2 19094117 (1)
    mimicry 56.1 3 11804659 (1), 7519986 (1)
    autoimmune diseases 55.1 4 7543435 (1), 2243228 (1)
    cholangitis primary sclerosing 54.7 3 8514873 (1), 7821922 (1), 17162370 (1)
    liver diseases 52.2 2 11851838 (1), 17068145 (1)
    autoimmunity 49.5 2 14708897 (1), 16792678 (1)
    sjogrens syndrome 13.1 1 9556352 (1)
    hepatitis c chronic 0 2 8726856 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): DLAT
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: DLAT (5 documents)

    Export disorders for DLAT gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for DLAT gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 192) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with DLAT)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components. (PubMed id 14638692)1, 2, 9 Hiromasa Y.... Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    2. Clinical and genetic spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) deficiency. (PubMed id 16049940)1, 2, 9 Head R.A.... Brown G.K. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    4. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PubMed id 20800603)1, 4 Flachsbart F....Nebel A. (Mutat. Res. 2010)
    5. Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. (PubMed id 20452482)1, 4 Romero R....Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010)
    6. A genetic association study of maternal and fetal candidate genes that predispose to preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). (PubMed id 20673868)1, 4 Romero R....Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010)
    7. Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling. (PubMed id 19240061)1, 4 Trynka G....Wijmenga C. (Gut 2009)
    8. Crystal structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 bound to lipoyl domain 2 of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 15861126)1, 2 Kato M.... Chuang D.T. (EMBO J. 2005)
    9. Three-dimensional structure of the major autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9649469)1, 2 Howard M.J.... Yeaman S.J. (Gastroenterology 1998)
    10. Chromosome localization and RFLP analysis of PDC-E2: the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 8102256)1, 3 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (Autoimmunity 1993)
    11. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. (PubMed id 3174635)1, 2 Coppel R.L.... Gershwin M.E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988)
    12. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 3191998)1, 2 Thekkumkara T.J.... Patel M.S. (FEBS Lett. 1988)
    13. Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 20180236)1, 9 Braun S....Klein R. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2010)
    14. Apotopes and the biliary specificity of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 19185000)1, 9 Lleo A....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2009)
    15. Comprehensive mapping of HLA-A0201-restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes on PDC-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 12395322)1, 9 Matsumura S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2002)
    16. Differential epitope mapping of antibodies to PDC-E2 in patients with hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 17068145)1, 9 Bellucci R....Ritz J. (Blood 2007)
    17. Facilitated interaction between the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 and the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase. (PubMed id 12816949)1, 9 Hiromasa Y. and Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    18. Disease-specific cross-reactivity between mimicking peptides of heat shock protein of Mycobacterium gordonae and dominant epitope of E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is common in Spanish but not British patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 15120760)1, 9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (J. Autoimmun. 2004)
    19. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the lipoate acetyl transferase (E2) of human heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex differs from that of human placenta. (PubMed id 2317220)1, 9 Moehario L.H.... Marzuki S. (Biochem. Int. 1990)
    20. Novel, gel-free proteomics approach identifies RNF5 and JAMP as modulators of GPCR stability. (PubMed id 23798571)1 Roy S.J....Parent J.L. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2013)
    21. Differential binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 epitopes by DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*11:01 Is predicted by their structural motifs and correlates with disease risk. (PubMed id 23543758)1 Chow I.T....Kwok W.W. (J. Immunol. 2013)
    22. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    23. Functional proteomics establishes the interaction of SIRT7 with chromatin remodeling complexes and expands its role in regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription. (PubMed id 22586326)1 Tsai Y.C.... Cristea I.M. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2012)
    24. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    25. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    26. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated KIAA0101/PAF15 protein is a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome substrate. (PubMed id 21628590)1 Emanuele M.J.... Elledge S.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011)
    27. Proteomic analysis of the 20S proteasome (PSMA3)-interacting proteins reveals a functional link between the proteasome and mRNA metabolism. (PubMed id 22079093)1 Fedorova O.A....Barlev N.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011)
    28. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
    29. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    30. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)
    31. Solution structure and characterisation of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex core assembly. (PubMed id 20361979)1 Vijayakrishnan S....Byron O. (J. Mol. Biol. 2010)
    32. Proline-rich sequence recognition: II. Proteomics analysis of Tsg101 ubiquitin-E2-like variant (UEV) interactions. (PubMed id 19542561)1 Schlundt A....Freund C. (amp 2009)
    33. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. (PubMed id 19608861)2 Choudhary C.... Mann M. (Science 2009)
    34. Binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 18206651)1 Korotchkina L.G. and Patel M.S. (FEBS Lett. 2008)
    35. Structural and functional insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2. (PubMed id 18387944)2 Green T.... Popov K.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    36. Distinct structural mechanisms for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms by AZD7545, dichloroacetate, and radicicol. (PubMed id 17683942)2 Kato M.... Chuang D.T. (Structure 2007)
    37. Crystal structure of an asymmetric complex of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 with lipoyl domain 2 and its biological implications. (PubMed id 17532006)2 Devedjiev Y.... Vassylyev D.G. (J. Mol. Biol. 2007)
    38. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    39. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    40. Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. (PubMed id 16554811)2 Taylor T.D....Sakaki Y. (Nature 2006)
    41. Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. (PubMed id 16368957)7 Shi S. and Ehrt S. (Infect. Immun. 2006)
    42. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    43. Recent advances in mechanisms regulating glucose oxidation at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by PDKs. (PubMed id 12676647)1 Sugden M.C. and Holness M.J. (Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003)
    44. Interaction between the individual isoenzymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and the inner lipoyl-bearing domain of transacetylase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 11978179)1 Tuganova A.... Popov K.M. (Biochem. J. 2002)
    45. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    46. The Protein Data Bank. (PubMed id 10592235)7 Berman H.M....Bourne P.E. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2000)
    47. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. (PubMed id 8125298)1 Maruyama K. and Sugano S. (Gene 1994)
    48. Isolation of a cDNA clone for the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the human liver pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 3036145)1 Thekkumkara T.J....Patel M.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1987)
    49. Inactivation of the 2-ketoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of beef heart by branched chain keto acids. (PubMed id 6822537)6 Jackson R.H. and Singer T.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1983)
    50. The glucose-lactic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis. (PubMed id 7273846)1 Cori C.F. (Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 1981)
    51. (PubMed id )2 
    52. Partial activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by the lipoyl domain region of E2 and interchange of the kinase between lipoyl domain regions. (PubMed id 8253731)9 Ono K....Rahmatullah M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993)
    53. Transgenic mice aberrantly expressing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 component on biliary epithelial cells do not show primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 16792678)9 Inamura K....Kaneko S. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2006)
    54. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2). (PubMed id 8855289)9 Cha S....Coppel R.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996)
    55. Characterization and epitope mapping of human monoclonal antibodies to PDC-E2, the immunodominant autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 1283300)9 Leung P.S....Maddrey W. (J. Autoimmun. 1992)
    56. Sidechain biology and the immunogenicity of PDC-E2, the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 15558739)9 Mao T.K....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2004)
    57. In situ nucleic acid hybridization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 messenger RNA is expressed in hepatocytes but not in biliary epithelium. (PubMed id 8985260)9 Harada K....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1997)
    58. Heterogeneous response of antimitochondrial autoantibodies and bile duct apical staining monoclonal antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2: the molecule versus the mimic. (PubMed id 11283841)9 Migliaccio C....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2001)
    59. Heterogeneity of combinatorial human autoantibodies against PDC-E2 and biliary epithelial cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 7521314)9 Cha S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1994)
    60. Immunization with a xenobiotic 6-bromohexanoate bovine serum albumin conjugate induces antimitochondrial antibodies. (PubMed id 12734383)9 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (J. Immunol. 2003)
    61. Bcl-2-dependent oxidation of pyruvate dehydrogenase-E2, a primary biliary cirrhosis autoantigen, during apoptosis. (PubMed id 11457875)9 Odin J.A....Rosen A. (J. Clin. Invest. 2001)
    62. Natural and disease associated autoantibodies to the autoantigen, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, recognise different epitopes. (PubMed id 9650094)9 Chen Q.Y....Rowley M.J. (J. Autoimmun. 1998)
    63. Assembly and full functionality of recombinantly expressed dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 9045657)9 Yang D....Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    64. Binding of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase to recombinant constructs containing the inner lipoyl domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component. (PubMed id 7822313)9 Liu S....Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    65. Abnormal expression of PDC-E2 on the apical surface of biliary epithelial cells in patients with antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 7590661)9 Tsuneyama K....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1995)
    66. Identification of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunit of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as an autoantigen in halothane hepatitis. Molecular mimicry of trifluoroacetyl-lysine by lipoic acid. (PubMed id 7519986)9 Christen U....Gut J. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1994)
    67. Antibody to two forms of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (PDC-E2) in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 8336525)9 Chen Q.Y....Mackay I.R. (Liver 1993)
    68. Differing epitope selection of experimentally-induced and natural antibodies to a disease-specific autoantigen, the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). (PubMed id 1282029)9 Rowley M.J....Bernard C.C. (Int. Immunol. 1992)
    69. Membrane dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) on human biliary epithelial cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 1370237)9 Joplin R....Neuberger J. (Lancet 1992)
    70. Marked differences between two isoforms of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. (PubMed id 10748134)9 Baker J.C.... Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    71. Evidence for a locally driven mucosal response and the presence of mitochondrial antigens in saliva in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10613723)9 Reynoso-Paz S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2000)
    72. Immunoreactivity of porcine heart dihydrolipoamide acetyl- and succinyl-transferases (PDC-E2, OGDC-E2) with primary biliary cirrhosis sera: characterization of the autoantigenic region and effects of enzymatic delipoylation and relipoylation. (PubMed id 9620315)9 Koike K....Koike M. (Hepatology 1998)
    73. Activated function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase through Ca2+-facilitated binding to the inner lipoyl domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase. (PubMed id 8910418)9 Chen G....Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    74. Inhibition of PDC-E2 human combinatorial autoantibodies by peptide mimotopes. (PubMed id 9115581)9 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 1996)
    75. Cloning and characterization of a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Arabidopsis thaliana. (PubMed id 7890655)9 Guan Y....Doonan J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    76. Distribution of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) in the liver and portal lymph nodes of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: an immunohistochemical study. (PubMed id 1714873)9 Joplin R....Neuberger J.M. (Hepatology 1991)
    77. Serum reactivity against bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase: increasing the specificity of anti-mitochondrial antibodies for the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 17162370)9 Miyakawa H....Gershwin M.E. (amp 2006)
    78. [Cloning and expressing the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex]. (PubMed id 14572337)9 Zhao J....Cheng Y. (Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2003)
    79. Prediction of the immunodominant epitope of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis using phage display. (PubMed id 10706737)9 Rowley M.J....Mackay I.R. (J. Immunol. 2000)
    80. T cell responses to the putative dominant autoepitope in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). (PubMed id 10209517)9 Palmer J.M....Jones D.E. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1999)
    81. Characterization of antimitochondrial antibodies in health adults. (PubMed id 9500690)9 Mattalia A....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1998)
    82. Lipoyl domain-based mechanism for the integrated feedback control of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by enhancement of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity. (PubMed id 8557670)9 Ravindran S....Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    83. Abnormal expression of the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex on the luminal surface of biliary epithelium occurs before major histocompatibility complex class II and BB1/B7 expression. (PubMed id 7535733)9 Tsuneyama K....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1995)
    84. Immunohistochemical analysis of adhesion molecules in the micro-environment of portal tracts in relation to aberrant expression of PDC-E2 and HLA-DR on the bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 7538164)9 Yasoshima M....Gershwin M.E. (J. Pathol. 1995)
    85. Molecular mimicry in primary biliary cirrhosis. Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2. (PubMed id 8514873)9 Van de Water J....Gershwin M.E. (J. Clin. Invest. 1993)
    86. Xenobiotic incorporation into pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can occur via the exogenous lipoylation pathway. (PubMed id 19003917)9 Walden H.R....Palmer J.M. (Hepatology 2008)
    87. PDC-E3BP is not a dominant T-cell autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 16629643)9 McHugh A....Jones D.E. (Liver Int. 2006)
    88. Mycobacterium tuberculosis appears to lack alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and encodes pyruvate dehydrogenase in widely separated genes. (PubMed id 16045627)9 Tian J....Nathan C. (Mol. Microbiol. 2005)
    89. Microbial mimics are major targets of crossreactivity with human pyruvate dehydrogenase in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 14672611)9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (J. Hepatol. 2004)
    90. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 activity stimulated by speeding up the rate of dissociation of ADP. (PubMed id 15491151)9 Bao H....Roche T.E. (Biochemistry 2004)
    91. Contribution to antimitochondrial antibody production: cleavage of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 by apoptosis-related proteases. (PubMed id 11786955)9 Matsumura S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2002)
    92. Identification of HLA-A2-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell responses in primary biliary cirrhosis: T cell activation is augmented by immune complexes cross-presented by dendritic cells. (PubMed id 11781370)9 Kita H....Gershwin M.E. (J. Exp. Med. 2002)
    93. Immunoglobulin gene usage and immunohistochemical characteristics of human monoclonal antibodies to the mitochondrial autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis induced in the XenoMouse. (PubMed id 11584357)9 Sasaki M....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2001)
    94. In situ nucleic acid detection of PDC-E2, BCOADC-E2, OGDC-E2, PDC-E1alpha, BCOADC-E1alpha, OGDC-E1, and the E3 binding protein (protein X) in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10385636)9 Harada K....Nakanuma Y. (Hepatology 1999)
    95. Monoclonal antibodies to mitochondrial E2 components define autoepitopes in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9820485)9 Migliaccio C....Gershwin M.E. (J. Immunol. 1998)
    96. Penetration and co-localization in MDCK cell mitochondria of IgA derived from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9802945)9 Malmborg A.C....Van de Water J. (J. Autoimmun. 1998)
    97. Comparative studies of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in sera and bile in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9141421)9 Nishio A....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1997)
    98. Use of a designer triple expression hybrid clone for three different lipoyl domain for the detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies. (PubMed id 8707289)9 Moteki S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1996)
    99. Biliary epithelial expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: an immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic study. (PubMed id 7821922)9 Nakanuma Y....Gershwin M.E. (Hum. Pathol. 1995)
    100. Primary biliary cirrhosis following Lactobacillus vaccination for recurrent vaginitis. (PubMed id 18644655)9 Bogdanos D....Beuers U. (J. Hepatol. 2008)
    101. [Prediction and identification of autoepitopes of PDC-E2 specific CD8+ CTL in primary biliary cirrhosis patients]. (PubMed id 15562760)9 Liu H.Y....Zhong R.Q. (Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2004)
    102. Molecular architecture and mechanism of an icosahedral pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: a multifunctional catalytic machine. (PubMed id 12411477)9 Milne J.L....Subramaniam S. (EMBO J. 2002)
    103. Towards the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease. (PubMed id 10441182)9 Mackay I.R....Rowley M.J. (J. Autoimmun. 1999)
    104. Is there a serological difference between men and women with primary biliary cirrhosis? (PubMed id 10484012)9 Nalbandian G....Gershwin M.E. (Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999)
    105. Immunogenetic analysis of a panel of monoclonal IgG and IgM anti-PDC-E2/X antibodies derived from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9566826)9 Thomson R.K....Stevenson F.K. (J. Hepatol. 1998)
    106. Persistence of autoantibodies against recombinant mitochondrial and nuclear pore proteins after orthotopic liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9376077)9 Mattalia A....Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 1997)
    107. Immunoreactivity of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in Japanese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 8808430)9 Omagari K....Mackay I.R. (J. Gastroenterol. 1996)
    108. Molecular aspects and the pathological basis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 8738955)9 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 1996)
    109. Recombinant expression and evaluation of the lipoyl domains of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 7864652)9 Liu S....Roche T.E. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    110. [Abnormal expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase on bile ducts opens new fields in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis]. (PubMed id 7602793)9 Nakanuma Y....Gershwin M.E. (Nippon Rinsho 1995)
    111. Two lipoyl domains in the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Streptococcus faecalis. (PubMed id 1908789)9 Allen A.G. and Perham R.N. (FEBS Lett. 1991)
    112. Defects in the E2 lipoyl transacetylase and the X-lipoyl containing component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in patients with lactic acidemia. (PubMed id 2112155)9 Robinson B.H....Stacpoole P.W. (J. Clin. Invest. 1990)
    113. Site-directed mutagenesis of lysine within the immunodominant autoepitope of PDC-E2. (PubMed id 1701753)9 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1990)
    114. Specific ion influences on self-association of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 (PDHK2), binding of PDHK2 to the L2 lipoyl domain, and effects of the lipoyl group-binding site inhibitor, Nov3r. (PubMed id 18220415)9 Hiromasa Y....Roche T.E. (Biochemistry 2008)
    115. Etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 18528930)9 Lleo A....Gershwin M.E. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2008)
    116. Loss of tolerance in C57BL/6 mice to the autoantigen E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase by a xenobiotic with ensuing biliary ductular disease. (PubMed id 18563844)9 Wakabayashi K....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2008)
    117. The causes of primary biliary cirrhosis: Convenient and inconvenient truths. (PubMed id 18098322)9 Gershwin M.E. and Mackay I.R. (Hepatology 2008)
    118. Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by IgG3 antibodies cross-reactive with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and its Lactobacillus mimic. (PubMed id 16025495)9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (Hepatology 2005)
    119. Chemical xenobiotics and mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis: identification of antibodies against a common environmental, cosmetic, and food additive, 2-octynoic acid. (PubMed id 15845458)9 Amano K....Gershwin M.E. (J. Immunol. 2005)
    120. Distinct regulatory properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and phosphatase isoforms. (PubMed id 11642366)9 Roche T.E....Kasten S.A. (Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 2001)
    121. The peculiar autoimmunity of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10807519)9 Mackay I.R....Rowley M.J. (Immunol. Rev. 2000)
    122. Comparative immunoreactivity of anti-trifluoroacetyl (TFA) antibody and anti-lipoic acid antibody in primary biliary cirrhosis: searching for a mimic. (PubMed id 10936028)9 Sasaki M....Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 2000)
    123. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-PDC-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis and normal subjects. (PubMed id 10051459)9 Chen Q.Y....Mackay I.R. (Hepatology 1999)
    124. Immunopathology of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10418928)9 Joplin R.E. and Neuberger J.M. (amp 1999)
    125. Ductular expression of autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 9170196)9 Joplin R. and Gershwin M.E. (Semin. Liver Dis. 1997)
    126. T-cell autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 8942393)9 Jones D.E. (Clin. Sci. 1996)
    127. Autoantibodies to M2 mitochondrial autoantigens in normal human sera by immunofluorescence and novel assays. (PubMed id 8840233)9 Omagari K....Mackay I.R. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1996)
    128. Granulomatous cholangitis in chronic hepatitis C: a new diagnostic problem in liver pathology. (PubMed id 8726856)9 Hoso M....Gershwin M.E. (Pathol. Int. 1996)
    129. Subcellular localization of pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells. (PubMed id 7562253)9 Joplin R....Neuberger J.M. (J. Pathol. 1995)
    130. HLA DRB4 0101-restricted immunodominant T cell autoepitope of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: evidence of molecular mimicry in human autoimmune diseases. (PubMed id 7536796)9 Shimoda S....Niho Y. (J. Exp. Med. 1995)
    131. Autoantibodies to BCOADC-E2 in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis recognize a conformational epitope. (PubMed id 7543435)9 Leung P.S....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 1995)
    132. Pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. Characterization of assembly intermediates by sedimentation velocity analysis. (PubMed id 7989301)9 Behal R.H....Olson M.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994)
    133. Enzyme inhibitory autoantibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: applications of a semiautomated assay. (PubMed id 7927255)9 Teoh K.L....MacKay I.R. (Hepatology 1994)
    134. Human monoclonal antibodies from a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis that recognize two distinct autoepitopes in the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 7693571)9 Matsui M....Niho Y. (Hepatology 1993)
    135. Sequences directing dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) binding are located on the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1) component of the mammalian 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. (PubMed id 1505515)9 Rice J.E....Lindsay J.G. (EMBO J. 1992)
    136. Antimitochondrial autoantibodies of primary biliary cirrhosis as a novel probe in the study of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. (PubMed id 2243228)9 Sudoyo H....Byrne E. (J. Neurol. Sci. 1990)
    137. Placental gene expression is related to glucose metabolism and fetal cord blood levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors in intrauterine growth restriction. (PubMed id 20106611)9 Lee M.H....Kim Y.J. (Early Hum. Dev. 2010)
    138. Glucose-regulated protein precursor (GRP78) and tumor rejection antigen (GP96) are unique to hamster caput epididymal spermatozoa. (PubMed id 20400973)9 Kameshwari D.B....Shivaji S. (Asian J. Androl. 2010)
    139. Proteomic investigation of the impact of oxygen on the protein profiles of hyaluronic acid-producing Streptococcus zooepidemicus. (PubMed id 19688725)9 Wu T.F....Chang C.S. (Proteomics 2009)
    140. Induction of autoimmune cholangitis in non-obese diabetic (NOD).1101 mice following a chemical xenobiotic immunization. (PubMed id 19094117)9 Wakabayashi K....Gershwin M.E. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2009)
    141. The pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 19630465)9 SolA-s Herruzo J.A....MuA+oz YagA1e T. (Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2009)
    142. Autoimmune liver serology: current diagnostic and clinical challenges. (PubMed id 18528935)9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2008)
    143. Allosteric coupling in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2. (PubMed id 18627174)9 Klyuyeva A....Popov K.M. (Biochemistry 2008)
    144. Structures of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cores: a highly conserved catalytic center with flexible N-terminal domains. (PubMed id 18184588)9 Yu X....Zhou Z.H. (Structure 2008)
    145. The X and why of xenobiotics in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 17360156)9 Rieger R. and Gershwin M.E. (J. Autoimmun. 2007)
    146. How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 16263718)9 Ciszak E.M.... Patel M.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    147. A new level of architectural complexity in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (PubMed id 16679318)9 Smolle M....Lindsay J.G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    148. The immune response to mitochondrial autoantigens. (PubMed id 16143949)9 Ishibashi H....Gershwin M.E. (Semin. Liver Dis. 2005)
    149. The molecular origins of specificity in the assembly of a multienzyme complex. (PubMed id 16084384)9 Frank R.A....Luisi B.F. (Structure 2005)
    150. Mitochondria and autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 16120429)9 Ichiki Y....Gershwin M.E. (Mitochondrion 2004)
    151. Extensive homology between the major immunodominant mitochondrial antigen in primary biliary cirrhosis and Helicobacter pylori does not lead to immunological cross-reactivity. (PubMed id 15513338)9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2004)
    152. A zebrafish model for pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: rescue of neurological dysfunction and embryonic lethality using a ketogenic diet. (PubMed id 15070761)9 Taylor M.R....Brockerhoff S.E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004)
    153. Characterization of a lipoyl domain-independent B-cell autoepitope on the human branched-chain acyltransferase in primary biliary cirrhosis and overlap syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis. (PubMed id 14768949)9 Csepregi A....Strassburg C.P. (amp 2003)
    154. Development of an enzyme immune assay for detecting M2 autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 14599987)9 Jiang X.H....Kong X.T. (amp 2003)
    155. Construction and expression of a humanized M2 autoantigen trimer and its application in the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 12800255)9 Jiang X.H....Kong X.T. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2003)
    156. Distinct costimulation dependent and independent autoreactive T-cell clones in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 14598254)9 Kamihira T....Harada M. (Gastroenterology 2003)
    157. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-metabolizing bacterium. (PubMed id 14578864)9 Selmi C....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2003)
    158. Epitope mapping on E1alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex with autoantibodies of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 14708897)9 Mori T....Kochi H. (Liver Int. 2003)
    159. Nonlinear dynamics of eucaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: decarboxylation rate, oscillations, and multiplicity. (PubMed id 12467461)9 Zeng A.P....Deckwer W.D. (Biotechnol. Prog. 2002)
    160. Antibodies against homologous microbial caseinolytic proteases P characterise primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 11804659)9 Bogdanos D.P....Vergani D. (J. Hepatol. 2002)
    161. Automated enzymatic mitochondrial antibody assay for the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis: applications of a routine diagnostic tool for the detection of antimitochondrial antibodies. (PubMed id 11982703)9 Hazama H....Kohno S. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2002)
    162. Immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 12360422)9 Nishio A....Gershwin M.E. (Semin. Liver Dis. 2002)
    163. Detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in immunofluorescent AMA-negative patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using recombinant autoantigens. (PubMed id 11481607)9 Miyakawa H....Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2001)
    164. A comparative study of antibody expressions in primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune cholangitis using phage display. (PubMed id 11526532)9 Ikuno N....Rowley M.J. (Hepatology 2001)
    165. Antimitochondrial autoantibodies in saliva and sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 11851838)9 Ikuno N....Rowley M.J. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2001)
    166. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a target autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10976013)9 Nishio A....Gershwin M.E. (amp 2000)
    167. Autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 11127262)9 Jones D.E. (J. Clin. Pathol. 2000)
    168. Nucleotide variations amongst V(H)Genes of AMA-producing B cell clones in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10756087)9 Fukushima N....Ishibashi H. (J. Autoimmun. 2000)
    169. Autoimmunity and primary biliary cirrhosis. (PubMed id 10976012)9 Mackay I.R. (amp 2000)
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     Novus Tissue Slides
     DLAT antibodies
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     DLAT lysates
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     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for DLAT
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
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     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Recombinant Protein for DLAT
     Proteins for DLAT
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     Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for DLAT
     Gene Synthesis
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     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for DLAT
     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for DLAT
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for DLAT
     ThermoFisher Antibody for DLAT
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat DLAT
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for DLAT
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for DLAT
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for DLAT
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
     Browse compounds at ApexBio
     Search Addgene for plasmids for DLAT
      Search eBioscience for proteins for DLAT
      Search eBioscience for elisas for DLAT
      eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014

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