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Aliases for DLAT Gene

Aliases for DLAT Gene

  • Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase 2 3
  • PDCE2 3 4 6
  • Dihydrolipoamide Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex 3 4
  • 70 KDa Mitochondrial Autoantigen Of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 3 4
  • E2 Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex 2 3
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Component E2 3 4
  • M2 Antigen Complex 70 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • PDC-E2 3 4
  • DLTA 3 4
  • PBC 3 4
  • Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, Mitochondrial 3
  • Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Mitochondrial 3
  • EC 2.3.1 63

External Ids for DLAT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DLAT Gene

  • DLTA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DLAT Gene

  • GC11P114248
  • GC11P113407
  • GC11P111929
  • GC11P111433
  • GC11P111401
  • GC11P107819
  • GC11P111895

Summaries for DLAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DLAT Gene

  • This gene encodes component E2 of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. The protein product of this gene, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, accepts acetyl groups formed by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and transfers them to coenzyme A. Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase is the antigen for antimitochondrial antibodies. These autoantibodies are present in nearly 95% of patients with the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In PBC, activated T lymphocytes attack and destroy epithelial cells in the bile duct where this protein is abnormally distributed and overexpressed. PBC enventually leads to cirrhosis and liver failure. Mutations in this gene are also a cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency which causes primary lactic acidosis in infancy and early childhood.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for DLAT Gene

DLAT (Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DLAT include pyruvate dehydrogenase e2 deficiency and mycobacterium gordonae. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DBT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle

Gene Wiki entry for DLAT Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DLAT Gene

Genomics for DLAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for DLAT Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for DLAT Gene

112,024,814 bp from pter
112,064,390 bp from pter
39,577 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DLAT Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DLAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DLAT Gene

Proteins for DLAT Gene

  • Protein details for DLAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16783
    • Q53EP3

    Protein attributes for DLAT Gene

    647 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68997 Da
    Name=(R)-lipoate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:83088; Note=Binds 2 lipoyl cofactors covalently.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Part of the multimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that contains multiple copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT, E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3). These subunits are bound to an inner core composed of about 48 DLAT and 12 PDHX molecules. Interacts with PDK2 and PDK3.
    • Sequence=AAA62253.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=449, 451, 455; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAA62253.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contaminating sequence. Sequence of unknown origin in the N-terminal part.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DLAT Gene

neXtProt entry for DLAT Gene

Proteomics data for DLAT Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DLAT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DLAT Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DLAT (DLAT)

Domains for DLAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 2 lipoyl-binding domains.
  • Belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family.
  • Contains 2 lipoyl-binding domains.
  • Belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DLAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for DLAT Gene

Function for DLAT Gene

Molecular function for DLAT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine = CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DLAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004742 dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity NAS 3191998
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15861126
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DLAT: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DLAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DLAT

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DLAT Gene

Localization for DLAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DLAT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DLAT gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005967 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex NAS 3191998
GO:0045254 pyruvate dehydrogenase complex --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view

Pathways for DLAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DLAT: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0010510 regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view

Drugs for DLAT Gene

(3) Drugbank Compounds for DLAT Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
Dihydrolipoic Acid
462-20-4 9834298 Target experimental
46936786 Target experimental
  • 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
606-68-8 439153 Target nutraceutical

(11) HMDB Compounds for DLAT Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
(R)-lipoic acid
  • (+)-alpha-Lipoic acid
  • Ac-CoA
Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid
  • 2-Keto-3-Methylbutyrate
Carbon dioxide
  • Carbon oxide
Coenzyme A
  • Acetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium salt

(12) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DLAT Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
2-oxo acid 95.1 24
dihydrolipoamide 92.8 31
pyruvate 91.8 130
alpha lipoic acid 80.6 20
alpha-ketoglutarate 75.6 14
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DLAT: view

Transcripts for DLAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for DLAT Gene

Dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DLAT

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DLAT Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for DLAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DLAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DLAT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DLAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (5.6) and Muscle - Skeletal (4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DLAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (18.7) and Nasal epithelium (13.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for DLAT Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DLAT Gene Hs.335551

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DLAT: view

Expression partners for DLAT Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DLAT Gene

Orthologs for DLAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DLAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DLAT 35
  • 90.42 (n)
  • 89.64 (a)
-- 36
  • 78 (a)
-- 36
  • 90 (a)
-- 36
  • 74 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DLAT 35
  • 90.37 (n)
  • 89.49 (a)
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dlat 35
  • 84.84 (n)
  • 86.14 (a)
Dlat 16
Dlat 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DLAT 35
  • 99.28 (n)
  • 99.23 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dlat 35
  • 83.65 (n)
  • 84.97 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DLAT 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DLAT 36
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DLAT 35
  • 72.91 (n)
  • 79 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DLAT 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dlat 35
  • 69.41 (n)
  • 76.97 (a)
Str.13849 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC398314 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dlat 35
  • 71.42 (n)
  • 79.78 (a)
Dr.2810 35
dlat 36
  • 71 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10771 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5261 37
  • 52 (a)
CG5261 35
  • 56.42 (n)
  • 54.69 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007975 35
  • 56.51 (n)
  • 58.14 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C30H6.7 37
  • 39 (a)
F23B12.5 37
  • 53 (a)
dlat-1 35
  • 58.91 (n)
  • 61.05 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER364W 35
  • 51.38 (n)
  • 49.27 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F04741g 35
  • 52.69 (n)
  • 46.14 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes LAT1 35
  • 50.65 (n)
  • 45.98 (a)
KGD2 36
  • 26 (a)
LAT1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G54220 35
  • 53.91 (n)
  • 49.88 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0410100 35
  • 52.84 (n)
  • 48.68 (a)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.455 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07659 35
  • 51.74 (n)
  • 50.61 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes lat1 35
  • 53.4 (n)
  • 47.54 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8267 36
  • 53 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DLAT:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DLAT Gene

Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)
Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)

Paralogs for DLAT Gene

Paralogs for DLAT Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for DLAT Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DLAT: view

Variants for DLAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DLAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs9371 -- 112,062,954(-) ATTTT(C/T)CTGAT utr-variant-3-prime
rs478941 -- 112,033,271(+) AGGTG(C/T)GAAGC intron-variant
rs491144 -- 112,046,818(+) tacta(A/T)gcagc intron-variant
rs503451 -- 112,042,358(-) AGGCT(A/G)ATCTA intron-variant
rs506535 -- 112,038,666(-) ggttt(C/T)accat intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DLAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2745077 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2662119 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for DLAT Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

Disorders for DLAT Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for DLAT Gene (608770)


  • Note=Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in patients serum. It manifests with inflammatory obliteration of intra-hepatic bile duct, leading to liver cell damage and cirrhosis. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis show autoantibodies against the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency (PDHE2 deficiency) [MIM:245348]: Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction in infancy and early childhood. In this form of PDH deficiency episodic dystonia is the major neurological manifestation, with other more common features of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, such as hypotonia and ataxia, being less prominent. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16049940}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for DLAT Gene

(12) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DLAT Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
biliary cirrhosis primary 95.1 77
hepatitis autoimmune 61.3 1
cholangitis 57 1
mimicry 56.1 2
autoimmune diseases 55.1 2

Relevant External Links for DLAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DLAT: view

No data available for Genatlas for DLAT Gene

Publications for DLAT Gene

  1. Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components. (PMID: 14638692) Hiromasa Y. … Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  2. Clinical and genetic spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) deficiency. (PMID: 16049940) Head R.A. … Brown G.K. (Ann. Neurol. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Disease-specific cross-reactivity between mimicking peptides of heat shock protein of Mycobacterium gordonae and dominant epitope of E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is common in Spanish but not British patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (PMID: 15120760) Bogdanos D.P. … Vergani D. (J. Autoimmun. 2004) 3 23
  4. Apotopes and the biliary specificity of primary biliary cirrhosis. (PMID: 19185000) Lleo A. … Gershwin M.E. (Hepatology 2009) 3 23
  5. Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. (PMID: 20180236) Braun S. … Klein R. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2010) 3 23

Products for DLAT Gene

Sources for DLAT Gene

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