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Aliases for DLAT Gene

Aliases for DLAT Gene

  • Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase 2 3 5
  • Dihydrolipoamide Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex 3 4
  • 70 KDa Mitochondrial Autoantigen Of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 3 4
  • E2 Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex 2 3
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Component E2 3 4
  • M2 Antigen Complex 70 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • PDC-E2 3 4
  • PDCE2 3 4
  • DLTA 3 4
  • PBC 3 4
  • Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase Component Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, Mitochondrial 3
  • EC 2.3.1 61

External Ids for DLAT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DLAT Gene

  • DLTA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DLAT Gene

  • GC11P114248
  • GC11P113407
  • GC11P111929
  • GC11P111433
  • GC11P111401
  • GC11P107819
  • GC11P111895

Summaries for DLAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DLAT Gene

  • This gene encodes component E2 of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. The protein product of this gene, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, accepts acetyl groups formed by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and transfers them to coenzyme A. Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase is the antigen for antimitochondrial antibodies. These autoantibodies are present in nearly 95% of patients with the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In PBC, activated T lymphocytes attack and destroy epithelial cells in the bile duct where this protein is abnormally distributed and overexpressed. PBC enventually leads to cirrhosis and liver failure. Mutations in this gene are also a cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency which causes primary lactic acidosis in infancy and early childhood.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for DLAT Gene

DLAT (Dihydrolipoamide S-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DLAT include Pyruvate Dehydrogenase E2 Deficiency and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Citrate cycle (TCA cycle). GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring acyl groups and dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDHX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.

Gene Wiki entry for DLAT Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DLAT Gene

Genomics for DLAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for DLAT Gene

Enhancers for DLAT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11F112041 0.5 ENCODE 10.3 +17.9 17871 1.4 HDGF ATF1 TBL1XR1 JUN NFXL1 ZNF48 ZNF316 GATA2 ZSCAN29 NFE2 C11orf57 PIH1D2 TIMM8B ENSG00000255292 SDHD DLAT TEX12 ENSG00000271025
GH11F112717 0.2 ENCODE 7.2 +694.4 694405 2.6 ZNF263 GLIS1 MLLT1 TRIM28 NCAM1 DLAT LOC105369496 ENSG00000212397 GC11M112603
GH11F111908 0.2 ENCODE 4.7 -113.0 -113012 6.3 HDAC1 CBX3 NFXL1 GATA2 SCRT2 CREM MIXL1 ZNF263 ZBTB2 ZEB2 PPP2R1B C11orf52 DLAT HSPB2 RPL37AP8
GH11F111997 0.6 Ensembl 4.5 -27.4 -27414 0.4 IRF1 DLAT ENSG00000255334 ENSG00000255286
GH11F112023 1.1 ENCODE 0.8 +0.3 313 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 PPP2R1B C11orf57 PIH1D2 DIXDC1 RPS6P16 CRYAB C11orf52 DLAT GC11M112030
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around DLAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for DLAT Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for DLAT Gene

112,024,814 bp from pter
112,064,390 bp from pter
39,577 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DLAT Gene

Genes around DLAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DLAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DLAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DLAT Gene

Proteins for DLAT Gene

  • Protein details for DLAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16783
    • Q53EP3

    Protein attributes for DLAT Gene

    647 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68997 Da
    Name=(R)-lipoate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:83088;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Part of the multimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that contains multiple copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT, E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3). These subunits are bound to an inner core composed of about 48 DLAT and 12 PDHX molecules. Interacts with PDK2 and PDK3. Interacts with SIRT4 (PubMed:25525879).
    • Sequence=AAA62253.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=449, 451, 455; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAA62253.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contaminating sequence. Sequence of unknown origin in the N-terminal part.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DLAT Gene

neXtProt entry for DLAT Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DLAT Gene


Post-translational modifications for DLAT Gene

  • Delipoylated at Lys-132 and Lys-259 by SIRT4, delipoylation decreases the PHD complex activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DLAT Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DLAT (DLAT)

Domains & Families for DLAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 2 lipoyl-binding domains.
  • Belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family.
  • Contains 2 lipoyl-binding domains.
  • Belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DLAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for DLAT Gene

Function for DLAT Gene

Molecular function for DLAT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine = CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DLAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004742 dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase activity NAS 3191998
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15861126
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
GO:0034604 contributes_to pyruvate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IDA 9242632
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DLAT: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for DLAT Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DLAT Gene

Localization for DLAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DLAT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DLAT gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20833797
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA,TAS --
GO:0005967 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex NAS 3191998
GO:0043209 myelin sheath IEA --
GO:0045254 pyruvate dehydrogenase complex IEA,IDA 9242632
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view

Pathways & Interactions for DLAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DLAT: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DLAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006086 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process IEA,TAS --
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DLAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DLAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DLAT Gene

(12) Drugs for DLAT Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carbon dioxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Pyruvic acid Approved Nutra 0
Dihydrolipoate Experimental Pharma Target 0
Radicicol Experimental Pharma Target ATPase/kinase inhibitor, Hsp90 inhibitor. Antifungal antibiotic 0
alpha-ketoisovalerate Experimental Pharma 0

(10) Additional Compounds for DLAT Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • 6,8-Bis-sulfanyloctanamide
  • 6,8-Dimercapto-Octanamide
  • 6,8-Dimercaptooctanamide
  • 6,8-Disulfanyloctanamide
  • Dihydrolipoamide
(R)-lipoic acid
  • (+)-alpha-Lipoic acid
  • (R)-(+)-lipoic acid
  • (R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid
  • (R)-1,2-dithiolane-3-valeric acid
  • (R)-6,8-thioctic acid
  • 6-Acetylsulfanyl-8-sulfanyl-octanamide
  • 6-S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide
  • S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide
  • S-[6-Amino-6-oxo-1-(2-sulfanylethyl)hexyl] ethanethioate
  • S-[6-Amino-6-oxo-1-(2-sulfanylethyl)hexyl] ethanethioic acid
  • Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase]S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DLAT: view

Transcripts for DLAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for DLAT Gene

Dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DLAT Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for DLAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DLAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for DLAT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DLAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x5.6) and Muscle - Skeletal (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DLAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (18.7) and Nasal epithelium (13.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for DLAT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DLAT Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DLAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DLAT Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DLAT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DLAT Gene

Orthologs for DLAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DLAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DLAT 34 35
  • 99.28 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DLAT 34
  • 90.42 (n)
-- 35
  • 90 (a)
-- 35
  • 78 (a)
-- 35
  • 74 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DLAT 34 35
  • 90.37 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dlat 34 16 35
  • 84.84 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DLAT 35
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DLAT 35
  • 84 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dlat 34
  • 83.65 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DLAT 34 35
  • 72.91 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DLAT 35
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dlat 34
  • 69.41 (n)
Str.13849 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC398314 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dlat 34 35
  • 71.42 (n)
Dr.2810 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10771 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007975 34
  • 56.51 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5261 36 34
  • 56.42 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dlat-1 34
  • 58.91 (n)
F23B12.5 36
  • 53 (a)
C30H6.7 36
  • 39 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F04741g 34
  • 52.69 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER364W 34
  • 51.38 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes LAT1 34 37
  • 50.65 (n)
KGD2 35
  • 26 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G54220 34
  • 53.91 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0410100 34
  • 52.84 (n)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.455 34
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes lat1 34
  • 53.4 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8267 35
  • 53 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07659 34
  • 51.74 (n)
Species where no ortholog for DLAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DLAT Gene

Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)
Gene Tree for DLAT (if available)

Paralogs for DLAT Gene

Paralogs for DLAT Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for DLAT Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DLAT: view

Variants for DLAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DLAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs119103240 Pathogenic 112,061,088(+) AATTT(A/C)TCTGC intron-variant, reference, missense
rs797044957 Likely pathogenic 112,028,603(+) GGATG(G/T)TCCCA reference, missense
rs10891314 Likely benign 112,045,923(+) CTATC(A/G)ATGTA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs149440666 Likely benign 112,028,868(+) CAGCA(C/T)CAACC reference, missense
rs200500508 Likely benign 112,028,857(+) ACAAG(C/T)GGCCC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DLAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2662119 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2745077 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3627749 CNV loss 21293372

Variation tolerance for DLAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 17.30; 98.14% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DLAT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DLAT Gene

Disorders for DLAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for DLAT Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pyruvate dehydrogenase e2 deficiency
  • dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase deficiency
primary biliary cirrhosis
  • biliary liver cirrhosis
liver disease
  • disorder of liver
autoimmune disease of urogenital tract
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DLAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in patients serum. It manifests with inflammatory obliteration of intra-hepatic bile duct, leading to liver cell damage and cirrhosis. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis show autoantibodies against the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency (PDHE2 deficiency) [MIM:245348]: Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and neurological dysfunction in infancy and early childhood. In this form of PDH deficiency episodic dystonia is the major neurological manifestation, with other more common features of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, such as hypotonia and ataxia, being less prominent. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16049940}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for DLAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DLAT: view

No data available for Genatlas for DLAT Gene

Publications for DLAT Gene

  1. Clinical and genetic spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) deficiency. (PMID: 16049940) Head R.A. … Brown G.K. (Ann. Neurol. 2005) 3 4 22 64
  2. Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components. (PMID: 14638692) Hiromasa Y. … Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 22 64
  3. Sirtuin 4 is a lipoamidase regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity. (PMID: 25525879) Mathias R.A. … Cristea I.M. (Cell 2014) 3 4 64
  4. Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. (PMID: 20452482) Romero R. … Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. A genetic association study of maternal and fetal candidate genes that predispose to preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). (PMID: 20673868) Romero R. … Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for DLAT Gene

Sources for DLAT Gene

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