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Aliases for DIO2 Gene

Aliases for DIO2 Gene

  • Iodothyronine Deiodinase 2 2 3 5
  • Deiodinase, Iodothyronine Type II 2 3
  • Thyroxine Deiodinase, Type II 2 3
  • Type-II 5-Deiodinase 3 4
  • Deiodonase-2 2 3
  • Deiodinase-2 2 3
  • Type 2 DI 3 4
  • DIOII 3 4
  • TXDI2 3 4
  • 5DII 3 4
  • Type II Iodothyronine Deiodinase 3
  • Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase 3
  • Type-II 5deiodinase 3
  • EC 58
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.97.1 58
  • ITDI2 4
  • SelY 3
  • D2 3

External Ids for DIO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DIO2 Gene

  • GC14M078169
  • GC14M074480
  • GC14M078653
  • GC14M079733
  • GC14M080663
  • GC14M060829

Summaries for DIO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DIO2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It catalyzes the conversion of prohormone thyroxine (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine, T4) to the bioactive thyroid hormone (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3) by outer ring 5'-deiodination. This gene is widely expressed, including in thyroid, placenta, pituitary and brain. It is thought to be responsible for the 'local' production of T3, and thus important in influencing thyroid hormone action in these tissues. It has also been reported to be highly expressed in thyroids of patients with Graves disease, and in follicular adenomas. The intrathyroidal T4 to T3 conversion by this enzyme may contribute significantly to the relative increase in thyroidal T3 production in these patients. This protein is a selenoprotein containing the rare selenocysteine (Sec) amino acid at its active site, and may contain additional Sec residues. Sec is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTRs of selenoprotein mRNAs contain a conserved stem-loop structure, designated the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon, rather than as a stop signal. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2016]

GeneCards Summary for DIO2 Gene

DIO2 (Iodothyronine Deiodinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DIO2 include Graves' Disease and Euthyroid Sick Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Selenium Micronutrient Network. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity. An important paralog of this gene is DIO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DIO2 Gene

  • Responsible for the deiodination of T4 (3,5,3,5-tetraiodothyronine) into T3 (3,5,3-triiodothyronine). Essential for providing the brain with appropriate levels of T3 during the critical period of development.

Gene Wiki entry for DIO2 Gene

Additional gene information for DIO2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DIO2 Gene

Genomics for DIO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DIO2 Gene

Enhancers for DIO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH14H080425 1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 -38.5 -38492 2.1 GTF2F1 PKNOX1 MXI1 JUN MAX RAD21 BRCA1 RFX5 HIC1 GATA3 DIO2 PIR48487
GH14H080490 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 9.9 -103.8 -103837 1.7 ELF1 DIO2 PIR42122 HMGN2P2
GH14H080419 0.4 ENCODE 11.7 -31.9 -31866 0 NR3C1 DIO2 PIR48487
GH14H080214 0.7 ENCODE 5.8 +171.7 171744 2.1 PKNOX1 MAFG SIN3A NR3C1 FOXA1 CTBP1 MAFF GATA3 POLR2A CREB1 DIO2 DIO2-AS1
GH14H080149 0.2 ENCODE 15 +236.6 236594 2.7 DIO2 LOC105370591 LOC105370593
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around DIO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for DIO2 Gene

Genomic Locations for DIO2 Gene
190,233 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DIO2 Gene

Genes around DIO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DIO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DIO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DIO2 Gene

Proteins for DIO2 Gene

  • Protein details for DIO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Type II iodothyronine deiodinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B9EGK0
    • G3V315
    • Q6B0A3
    • Q9HCP8
    • Q9P1W4
    • Q9UDZ1

    Protein attributes for DIO2 Gene

    273 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30552 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with USP20 and USP33. Interacts with MARCH6.
    • Sequence=AAC95470.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for DIO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for DIO2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DIO2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for DIO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitinated by MARCH6, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Deubiquitinated by USP20 and USP33.

Domains & Families for DIO2 Gene

Gene Families for DIO2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DIO2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family.
  • Belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DIO2: view

Function for DIO2 Gene

Molecular function for DIO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
iodothyronine 5-deiodinase type II,selenocysteine containing,expressed in thyroid,involved in the regulation of local T4 to T3 conversion
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine + iodide + A + H(+) = L-thyroxine + AH(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Responsible for the deiodination of T4 (3,5,3,5-tetraiodothyronine) into T3 (3,5,3-triiodothyronine). Essential for providing the brain with appropriate levels of T3 during the critical period of development.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DIO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DIO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004800 thyroxine 5-deiodinase activity TAS,IEA 9837913
GO:0008430 selenium binding TAS,IC 9837913
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI 19651899
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DIO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DIO2: view

Animal Models for DIO2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DIO2:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DIO2 Gene

Localization for DIO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DIO2 Gene

Membrane; Single-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DIO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DIO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,IC 9837913
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DIO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for DIO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DIO2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DIO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001514 selenocysteine incorporation NAS 9837913
GO:0006590 thyroid hormone generation TAS 9837913
GO:0042403 thyroid hormone metabolic process IDA 19651899
GO:0042404 thyroid hormone catabolic process IEA --
GO:0042446 hormone biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DIO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DIO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DIO2 Gene

(23) Drugs for DIO2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Levothyroxine Approved Pharma 0
Selenium Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 185
Liothyronine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Selenocysteine Experimental Pharma 0
Iodide Investigational Pharma 0

(13) Additional Compounds for DIO2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Thyroxine sulfate
  • 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronine 4'-O-sulfate
  • 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronine 4'-O-sulphate
  • 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronine 4-O-sulfate
  • 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronine 4-O-sulphate
  • 3-[4-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy-4-O-sulfate)-3,5-diiodophenyl]-L-alanine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DIO2: view

Transcripts for DIO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for DIO2 Gene

Deiodinase, iodothyronine, type II:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DIO2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DIO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DIO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for DIO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DIO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x7.4) and Thyroid (x7.0).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DIO2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DIO2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DIO2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Heart, skeletal muscle, placenta, fetal brain and several regions of the adult brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DIO2 Gene

  • Lung(4.1)
  • Thyroid gland(4)
  • Nervous system(3)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DIO2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DIO2 Gene

Orthologs for DIO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DIO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DIO2 33
  • 99.68 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DIO2 33 34
  • 93.58 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DIO2 33 34
  • 92.13 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dio2 33 16 34
  • 88.68 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dio2 33
  • 88.04 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DIO2 34
  • 80 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DIO2 34
  • 67 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DIO2 33 34
  • 77.27 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DIO2 34
  • 91 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dio2 33
  • 73.57 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia dio2-A 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dio2 33 34
  • 70.82 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.163 33
Species where no ortholog for DIO2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DIO2 Gene

Gene Tree for DIO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for DIO2 (if available)

Paralogs for DIO2 Gene

Paralogs for DIO2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DIO2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DIO2: view

Variants for DIO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DIO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000006287 -- 80,231,295(+) ATGTT(C/G)CTTCT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000071624 -- 80,218,153(+) TCAAT(A/G)GATGC intron-variant
rs1000093203 -- 80,204,520(+) AAGAG(C/G)CAATT intron-variant
rs1000119649 -- 80,221,820(+) AATAG(A/G)TCTGT intron-variant
rs1000316799 -- 80,210,795(+) AGTTC(C/T)GAGTA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DIO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1045241 CNV gain 25217958
esv25191 CNV gain 19812545

Variation tolerance for DIO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.80; 47.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DIO2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DIO2 Gene

Disorders for DIO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for DIO2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
graves' disease
  • toxic diffuse goiter
euthyroid sick syndrome
  • sick-euthyroid syndrome
toxic diffuse goiter
thyroid gland disease
  • abnormality of the thyroid gland
thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 2
  • thyroid carcinoma, follicular, somatic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DIO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for DIO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DIO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DIO2 Gene

Publications for DIO2 Gene

  1. Common variation in the DIO2 gene predicts baseline psychological well-being and response to combination thyroxine plus triiodothyronine therapy in hypothyroid patients. (PMID: 19190113) Panicker V … Dayan CM (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2009) 3 22 45 60
  2. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the type II deiodinase gene with bipolar disorder in a subset of Chinese population. (PMID: 19427350) He B … Zhong N (Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2009) 3 22 45 60
  3. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TEB4 mediates degradation of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase. (PMID: 19651899) Zavacki AM … Bianco AC (Molecular and cellular biology 2009) 3 4 22 60
  4. Type 2 deiodinase Thr92Ala polymorphism impact on clinical course and myocardial remodeling in patients with Graves' disease. (PMID: 19684474) Grineva E … Larionova V (Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2009) 3 22 45 60
  5. Studies of the common DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism and metabolic phenotypes in 7342 Danish white subjects. (PMID: 17077128) Grarup N … Pedersen O (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 22 45 60

Products for DIO2 Gene

Sources for DIO2 Gene

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