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Aliases for DHFR2 Gene

Aliases for DHFR2 Gene

  • Dihydrofolate Reductase 2 2 3
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase Like 1 2 3 5
  • DHFRL1 3 4 5
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase-Like Protein 1 3 4
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase Pseudogene 4 2 3
  • EC 1.5.1.3 4 61
  • DHFRP4 3 4
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase-Like 1 2

External Ids for DHFR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DHFR2 Gene

  • DHFRP4
  • DHFRL1

Summaries for DHFR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for DHFR2 Gene

DHFR2 (Dihydrofolate Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are One carbon pool by folate and Folate biosynthesis. An important paralog of this gene is DHFR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

  • Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFR.

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DHFR2 Gene

Genomics for DHFR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DHFR2 Gene

Enhancers for DHFR2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around DHFR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for DHFR2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around DHFR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for DHFR2 Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
94,047,836 bp from pter
End:
94,063,389 bp from pter
Size:
15,554 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for DHFR2 Gene

Genes around DHFR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DHFR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DHFR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DHFR2 Gene

Proteins for DHFR2 Gene

  • Protein details for DHFR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86XF0-DYRL1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Dihydrofolate reductase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q86XF0
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DN30
    • Q6P4I9

    Protein attributes for DHFR2 Gene

    Size:
    187 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21620 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for DHFR2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DHFR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for DHFR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DHFR2 Gene

Domains & Families for DHFR2 Gene

Protein Domains for DHFR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DHFR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86XF0

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DYRL1_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) domain.
  • Belongs to the dihydrofolate reductase family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the dihydrofolate reductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DHFR2: view

No data available for Gene Families for DHFR2 Gene

Function for DHFR2 Gene

Molecular function for DHFR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=209 uM for dihydrofolate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21876184}; KM=20 uM for NADPH {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21876184};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate + NADP(+) = 7,8-dihydrofolate + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFR.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DHFR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003729 mRNA binding IDA 21876184
GO:0004146 dihydrofolate reductase activity IMP 21876188
GO:0050661 NADP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DHFR2: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DHFR2 Gene

Localization for DHFR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 21876184
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IMP 21876188
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IMP 21876188
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for DHFR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DHFR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DHFR2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q86XF0-DYRL1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate from 7,8-dihydrofolate: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006545 glycine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006730 one-carbon metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009165 nucleotide biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0046105 thymidine biosynthetic process IDA 21876188
GO:0046653 tetrahydrofolate metabolic process IDA 21876184
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DHFR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DHFR2 Gene

(15) Drugs for DHFR2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1496
Pralatrexate Approved Pharma Antifolate,a folate analog, RFC-1 targeted DHFR inhibitor 0
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4143
Tetrahydrofolic acid Approved Nutra 0
5-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,4-Quinazolinediamine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(3) Additional Compounds for DHFR2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
NADP
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-NADP
  • b-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-TPN
  • beta-NADP
53-59-8
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6

(2) ApexBio Compounds for DHFR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Methotrexate Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1959-05-2
Pralatrexate Antifolate,a folate analog 146464-95-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DHFR2: view

Transcripts for DHFR2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for DHFR2 Gene

Dihydrofolate reductase-like 1:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DHFR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DHFR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
DHFR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
DHFR2

Expression for DHFR2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DHFR2 Gene:

DHFR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DHFR2 Gene:

Hs.718516

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DHFR2 Gene:

Q86XF0-DYRL1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in numerous cell lines.

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for DHFR2 Gene

Orthologs for DHFR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DHFR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DHFRL1 34
  • 99.28 (n)
  • 97.85 (a)
DHFRL1 35
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DHFR 35
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 88 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 35
  • 84 (a)
ManyToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dhfr 35
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DHFR 35
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8788 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dhfr 35
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dhfr 35
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dhfr-1 35
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DFR1 35
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for DHFR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DHFR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for DHFR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for DHFR2 (if available)

Paralogs for DHFR2 Gene

Paralogs for DHFR2 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for DHFR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DHFR2: view

Variants for DHFR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DHFR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs13074975 -- 94,059,831(+) gccga(C/G)gcagg downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs55764558 -- 94,060,820(+) GAGGA(A/G)TAAAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs56159946 -- 94,058,803(+) AATAA(C/T)CTATT utr-variant-3-prime
rs10454213 -- 94,057,892(+) GCATT(A/G)TAAGG downstream-variant-500B
rs56207997 -- 94,059,557(+) AGTGG(A/G)CCCAA downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DHFR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3893746 CNV loss 25118596
nsv590987 CNV loss 21841781
nsv963340 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for DHFR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.35; 76.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for DHFR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
DHFR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

Disorders for DHFR2 Gene

Relevant External Links for DHFR2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
DHFR2

No disorders were found for DHFR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DHFR2 Gene

Publications for DHFR2 Gene

  1. The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional. (PMID: 21876184) McEntee G. … Parle-McDermott A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011) 2 3 4 65
  2. An active second dihydrofolate reductase enzyme is not a feature of rat and mouse, but they do have activity in their mitochondria. (PMID: 25980602) Hughes L. … Parle-McDermott A. (FEBS Lett. 2015) 2 3 65
  3. Identification of a de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway in mammalian mitochondria. (PMID: 21876188) Anderson D.D. … Stover P.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011) 3 4 65
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 65
  5. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PMID: 12477932) Strausberg R.L. … Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 2 3 65

Products for DHFR2 Gene

Sources for DHFR2 Gene

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