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Aliases for DFFA Gene

Aliases for DFFA Gene

  • DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, Alpha Polypeptide 2 3
  • DFF1 3 4 6
  • DNA Fragmentation Factor 45 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • Inhibitor Of CAD 3 4
  • DFF-45 3 4
  • DFF45 3 4
  • ICAD 3 4
  • DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45 KD, Alpha Polypeptide 2
  • DNA Fragmentation Factor Subunit Alpha 3
  • DNA Fragmentation Factor 2
  • Alpha Subunit 2
  • 45 KD 2

External Ids for DFFA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DFFA Gene

  • GC01M010481
  • GC01M010364
  • GC01M010130
  • GC01M010230
  • GC01M010454
  • GC01M009674

Summaries for DFFA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DFFA Gene

  • Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DFFA Gene

DFFA (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, Alpha Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts and Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include deoxyribonuclease activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DFFA Gene

  • Inhibitor of the caspase-activated DNase (DFF40)

Gene Wiki entry for DFFA Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DFFA Gene

Genomics for DFFA Gene

Regulatory Elements for DFFA Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for DFFA Gene

10,456,522 bp from pter
10,472,556 bp from pter
16,035 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DFFA Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DFFA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DFFA Gene

Proteins for DFFA Gene

  • Protein details for DFFA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T6G5
    • Q5T6G6
    • Q96I97
    • Q9Y6C6

    Protein attributes for DFFA Gene

    331 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36522 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of DFFA and DFFB

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DFFA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for DFFA Gene


neXtProt entry for DFFA Gene

Proteomics data for DFFA Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DFFA Gene

  • Caspase-3 cleaves DFF45 at 2 sites to generate an active factor
  • Ubiquitination at Lys189
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DFFA Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for DFFA (DFFA)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DFFA Gene

Domains for DFFA Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DFFA Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 CIDE-N domain.
  • Contains 1 CIDE-N domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DFFA: view

No data available for Gene Families for DFFA Gene

Function for DFFA Gene

Molecular function for DFFA Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DNA fragmentation factor,45kDa,alpha subunit heterodimerizing with a 40kDa subunit (DFFB) and inhibitor necessary for DFFB expression and stabilization in an inactive state in living cells,activated by caspase-3 during apoptosis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inhibitor of the caspase-activated DNase (DFF40)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DFFA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22727028
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DFFA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DFFA: view

Animal Models for DFFA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DFFA:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for DFFA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DFFA

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DFFA

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for DFFA Gene

Localization for DFFA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DFFA Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DFFA Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DFFA gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 3
plasma membrane 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DFFA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000790 nuclear chromatin IDA 19882353
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DFFA: view

Pathways for DFFA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DFFA: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DFFA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006309 apoptotic DNA fragmentation TAS --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
GO:0006921 cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction --
GO:0012501 programmed cell death TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DFFA: view

Compounds for DFFA Gene

(8) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DFFA Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
shikonin 61.1 3
adpribose 55.5 4
silymarin 55 3
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide 24.5 2
oxygen 17.3 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DFFA: view

Transcripts for DFFA Gene

Unigene Clusters for DFFA Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DFFA

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DFFA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f · 1g ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for DFFA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DFFA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DFFA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DFFA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (13.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for DFFA Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DFFA Gene Hs.484782

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DFFA: view

Expression partners for DFFA Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DFFA Gene

Orthologs for DFFA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DFFA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DFFA 35
  • 82.11 (n)
  • 79.27 (a)
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DFFA 35
  • 81.34 (n)
  • 78.93 (a)
  • 51 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dffa 35
  • 80.85 (n)
  • 76.6 (a)
Dffa 16
Dffa 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DFFA 35
  • 98.79 (n)
  • 96.68 (a)
  • 97 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dffa 35
  • 82.32 (n)
  • 79.39 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DFFA 36
  • 68 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DFFA 36
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DFFA 35
  • 64.49 (n)
  • 60.46 (a)
  • 59 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DFFA 36
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dffa 35
  • 56.37 (n)
  • 48.26 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dffa 35
  • 55.22 (n)
  • 45.92 (a)
dffa 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DFFA:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DFFA Gene

Gene Tree for DFFA (if available)
Gene Tree for DFFA (if available)

Paralogs for DFFA Gene Pseudogenes for DFFA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DFFA: view

No data available for Paralogs for DFFA Gene

Variants for DFFA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DFFA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs664947 -- 10,461,208(-) GTGAT(G/T)ggcca utr-variant-3-prime
rs672606 -- 10,466,087(-) cactg(C/T)atcct intron-variant
rs1057017 -- 10,469,292(-) ACCCT(G/T)GTCCT reference, synonymous-codon
rs1057026 -- 10,461,197(-) ggcgc(A/G)gtggc utr-variant-3-prime
rs1135131 -- 10,461,143(-) cgtga(A/G)gtcag utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DFFA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv17e1 CNV Complex 17122850
essv3548 CNV CNV 17122850

Relevant External Links for DFFA Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DFFA Gene

Disorders for DFFA Gene

(12) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DFFA Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
melanoma 25.8 1
colon cancer 24.6 4
necrosis 23.3 3
cancer 21.8 5
tumors 13 17

Relevant External Links for DFFA

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DFFA: view

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for DFFA Gene

Publications for DFFA Gene

  1. Functional interaction of DFF35 and DFF45 with caspase-activated DNA fragmentation nuclease DFF40. (PMID: 10409614) Gu J.J. … Schlossman S.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 4 23
  2. Solution structure of DFF40 and DFF45 N-terminal domain complex and mutual chaperone activity of DFF40 and DFF45. (PMID: 11371636) Zhou P. … Wagner G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001) 3 4 23
  3. DFF, a heterodimeric protein that functions downstream of caspase-3 to trigger DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. (PMID: 9108473) Liu X. … Wang X. (Cell 1997) 2 3 4
  4. Caspase-2 cleaves DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). (PMID: 17945178) Dahal G.R. … Park I.S. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2007) 3 23
  5. A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. (PMID: 16964243) Beausoleil S.A. … Gygi S.P. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2006) 3 4

Products for DFFA Gene

Sources for DFFA Gene

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