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Aliases for DDT Gene

Aliases for DDT Gene

  • D-Dopachrome Tautomerase 2 3 4 5
  • Phenylpyruvate Tautomerase II 3 4
  • D-Dopachrome Decarboxylase 2 3
  • EC 4
  • DDCT 3

External Ids for DDT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DDT Gene

  • GC22M021009
  • GC22M022638
  • GC22M024313
  • GC22M007261

Summaries for DDT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DDT Gene

  • D-dopachrome tautomerase converts D-dopachrome into 5,6-dihydroxyindole. The DDT gene is related to the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in terms of sequence, enzyme activity, and gene structure. DDT and MIF are closely linked on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DDT Gene

DDT (D-Dopachrome Tautomerase) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include dopachrome isomerase activity and D-dopachrome decarboxylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DDTL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDT Gene

  • Tautomerization of D-dopachrome with decarboxylation to give 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI).

Gene Wiki entry for DDT Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DDT Gene

Genomics for DDT Gene

Regulatory Elements for DDT Gene

Enhancers for DDT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22F023904 0.6 ENCODE 6.1 +75.5 75469 1.0 ZFP64 ARID4B RAD21 ZNF48 ZNF335 ZNF143 THAP11 ZNF654 REST KAT8 ENSG00000273295 GSTT2 DDT GC22M025789 PIR49284 PIR36379
GH22F023518 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 5.3 +458.9 458904 6.4 PKNOX1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143 FOS ENSG00000225413 MMP11 GGTLC4P RGL4 GUSBP11 ENSG00000227755 DDT LINC01659 ENSG00000272787 RSPH14
GH22F024010 1 ENCODE 5 -31.2 -31174 2.5 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS SP3 ZNF70 SNRPD3 SUSD2 MIF-AS1 GGTLC4P ENSG00000232545 POM121L9P MMP11 DDT BCR
GH22F024200 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 5 -224.9 -224934 10.8 HDGF ZNF133 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 GTF3C2 ZNF121 FOS SUSD2 MIF-AS1 CABIN1 GGTLC4P POM121L9P BCRP1 RPS10P29 SPECC1L SNRPD3 ENSG00000232545
GH22F024138 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.8 -163.4 -163395 11.3 MLX ARID4B YY1 PAF1 SP5 MXD4 PPARG KAT8 MEF2D PBX2 SUSD2 CABIN1 MMP11 DDT ENSG00000272787 GUCD1 ENSG00000232545
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around DDT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for DDT Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001842343 469 1600 JUND ZNF133 SIN3A ZBTB17

Genomic Location for DDT Gene

23,971,365 bp from pter
23,980,469 bp from pter
9,105 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DDT Gene

Genes around DDT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DDT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DDT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DDT Gene

Proteins for DDT Gene

  • Protein details for DDT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    D-dopachrome decarboxylase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z522
    • O00774
    • O60787
    • Q13534

    Protein attributes for DDT Gene

    118 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12712 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DDT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for DDT Gene


neXtProt entry for DDT Gene

Post-translational modifications for DDT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DDT Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DDT Gene

Domains & Families for DDT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MIF family.
  • Belongs to the MIF family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DDT: view

No data available for Gene Families for DDT Gene

Function for DDT Gene

Molecular function for DDT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
D-dopachrome tautomerase,converting L-dopachrome into dihydroxyindole,highly homolog to and maybe same as MIF,tightly linked to GSTT2,in head to head disposition
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
D-dopachrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tautomerization of D-dopachrome with decarboxylation to give 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DDT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DDT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004167 dopachrome isomerase activity TAS 9480844
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0033981 D-dopachrome decarboxylase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDT: view

Animal Model Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DDT Gene

Localization for DDT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDT Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DDT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDT: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for DDT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DDT Gene

SuperPathways for DDT Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DDT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042438 melanin biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDT: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for DDT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DDT Gene

(6) Drugs for DDT Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carbon dioxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Androgen Antagonists Pharma 308
Androgens Pharma 1275
Hormone Antagonists Pharma 12778
Hormones Pharma 13979

(4) Additional Compounds for DDT Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Aminochrome
  • DHI
  • Dopaminochrome
  • (2R)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-5,6-dioxo-1H-Indole-2-carboxylic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DDT: view

Transcripts for DDT Gene

Unigene Clusters for DDT Gene

D-dopachrome tautomerase:
Representative Sequences:

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DDT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DDT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DDT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for DDT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DDT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DDT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (15.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for DDT Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DDT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DDT Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DDT: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DDT Gene

Orthologs for DDT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DDT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DDT 35
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC100856501 34
  • 86.44 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DDT 34 35
  • 84.75 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ddt 34
  • 78.25 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ddt 34 16 35
  • 77.4 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DDT 34 35
  • 74.01 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 60 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ddt 34
  • 64.97 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.23562 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ddt 34 35
  • 56.78 (n)
Species where no ortholog for DDT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DDT Gene

Gene Tree for DDT (if available)
Gene Tree for DDT (if available)

Paralogs for DDT Gene

Paralogs for DDT Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DDT Gene using alignment to 6 proteins: Pseudogenes for DDT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DDT: view

Variants for DDT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DDT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1006771 -- 23,971,817(+) TGGGA(G/T)GTAGC intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs112390687 -- 23,971,392(+) TCTTC(A/G)TTTAT reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs113258960 -- 23,972,527(+) ATAAT(A/G)ACAAG intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs115319739 -- 23,971,880(+) TGTGC(C/T)GTACA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs116602764 -- 23,971,272(+) CTAAA(C/T)CATCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DDT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv35n47 CNV loss 21111241
dgv4528n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4532n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4534n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv4535n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4536n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv751n67 CNV loss 20364138
dgv8039n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv826e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2421686 OTHER complex 20811451
esv2593346 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2656467 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2656800 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2667916 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724041 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724066 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2966013 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3034901 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3557984 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3575443 CNV gain 25503493
esv3575444 CNV gain 25503493
esv3584777 CNV loss 24956385
esv3893452 CNV gain+loss 25118596
esv3893453 CNV loss 25118596
esv3893457 CNV gain 25118596
esv3893461 CNV gain 25118596
esv6716 CNV loss 19470904
esv999560 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1057737 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1059397 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1063251 CNV gain+loss 25217958
nsv1066891 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1072628 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1072629 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1110863 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1145372 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1153441 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1160735 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv1160736 OTHER complex 26073780
nsv197 CNV deletion 15895083
nsv436348 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv442792 CNV loss 18776908
nsv469844 CNV loss 16826518
nsv471423 CNV gain 19718026
nsv482073 CNV gain 20164927
nsv511075 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv511643 CNV loss 21212237
nsv512650 CNV loss 21212237
nsv526567 CNV gain 19592680
nsv588651 CNV gain 21841781
nsv588669 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7350 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv829105 CNV loss 20364138
nsv829109 CNV loss 20364138
nsv834155 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv953055 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv964607 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv979656 CNV duplication 23825009

Relevant External Links for DDT Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Variation tolerance for DDT Gene

Disorders for DDT Gene

Relevant External Links for DDT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for DDT Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DDT Gene

Publications for DDT Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human D-dopachrome tautomerase cDNA: N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation. (PMID: 9480844) Nishihira J. … Sakai M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Crystal structure of human D-dopachrome tautomerase, a homologue of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, at 1.54-A resolution. (PMID: 10079069) Sugimoto H. … Nishihira J. (Biochemistry 1999) 3 4 22 64
  3. Structure and organization of the human theta-class glutathione S-transferase and D-dopachrome tautomerase gene complex. (PMID: 9729470) Coggan M. … Board P. (Biochem. J. 1998) 2 3 22 64
  4. Conserved gene structure and genomic linkage for D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) and MIF. (PMID: 9716662) Esumi N. … Wistow G. (Mamm. Genome 1998) 3 4 22 64
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64

Products for DDT Gene

Sources for DDT Gene

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